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Publications (85)

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    Timo Vesikari · Aino Forsten · Ilkka Seppä · [...] · Lode Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: This trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00839254), nested within a cluster-randomized double-blind invasive pneumococcal disease effectiveness study in Finland (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00861380), assessed the effectiveness of the 10-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugated vaccine (PHiD-CV or PCV10) against bacterial nasopharyngeal carriage and acute otitis media (AOM). Methods: Infants (aged 6 weeks to 6 months) received the PHiD-CV or a control vaccine (hepatitis B) (schedule 3+1 or 2+1). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at 4 time points post-vaccination from all of the infants and at pre-vaccination from a subset. Parent-reported physician-diagnosed AOM was assessed from first vaccination until last contact (mean follow-up, 18 months). Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was derived as (1 - relative risk)*100, accounting for cluster design in AOM analysis. Significant VE was assessed descriptively (positive lower limit of the non-adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI]). Results: The vaccinated cohort included 5093 infants for carriage assessment and 4117 infants for AOM assessment. Both schedules decreased vaccine-serotype carriage, with a trend toward a lesser effect from the 2+1 schedule ( VE across timpoints 19%-56% [3+1] and 1%-38% [2+1]). Trends toward reduced pneumococcal carriage (predominantly vaccine serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F), decreased carriage of vaccine-related serotype 19A, and small increases at later time points (ages 14-15 months) in non-vaccine-serotype carriage were observed. No effects on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis carriage were observed. There were non-significant trends toward a reduction in the number of infants reporting AOM episodes (VE 3+1: 6.1% [95% CI, -2.7% to 14.1%] and 2+1: 7.4% [-2.8% to 16.6%]) and all AOM episodes (VE 3+1: 2.8% [-9.5% to 13.9%] and 2+1: 10.2% [-4.1% to 22.9%]). PHiD-CV was immunogenic and had an acceptable safety profile. Conclusions: We observed reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage, a limited increase in non-vaccine-type carriage, and a trend toward AOM reduction.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2016 · Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Immune responses and safety profiles may be affected when vaccines are co-administered. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate (PHiD-CV; Synflorix™, GSK Vaccines) and DTPa-IPV-Hib (Pediacel™, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) when co-administered. Methods: We performed booster assessment in a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands. Of 780 enrolled healthy infants, 774 toddlers participated in the booster phase and received (1:1:1) either (1) PHiD-CV + DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa™, GSK Vaccines), (2) PHiD-CV + DTPa-IPV-Hib or (3) 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM, Prevenar™/Prevnar™, Pfizer, Inc.) + DTPa-IPV-Hib at 2, 3, 4 and 11-13 months of age. Blood samples were taken post-primary, pre-booster, one and 12 months post-booster. Results: Anti-pneumococcal antibody responses were comparable between both PHiD-CV groups, except for serotype 18C (conjugated to tetanus toxoid). Anti-18C antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher when co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib. For each vaccine serotype, the percentages of children with antibody concentration ≥ 0.20µg/mL were within the same ranges between PHiD-CV groups (93.8-100%). The same was observed for the percentages of participants with OPA titer ≥ 8 (90.9-100%). When comparing both DTPa-IPV-Hib groups, post-booster anti-diphtheria antibody GMCs were higher when co-administered with 7vCRM, while anti-tetanus and anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate antibody GMCs were higher with PHiD-CV co-administration. Regardless, antibody titers to these antigens were well above thresholds. Safety and reactogenicity profiles were comparable between groups. Conclusion: Co-administration of a booster dose of PHiD-CV and DTPa-IPV-Hib was immunogenic and well tolerated.
    Article · Apr 2016 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the impact of the new pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10, GSK Vaccines) on tympanostomy tube placements (TTP). Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal (FinIP) disease vaccine trial was a nationwide phase III/IV cluster-randomized, double-blind trial. Children <19 months received PHiD-CV10 in two thirds of clusters (N=52) or hepatitis B or A vaccine as control in 26 clusters according to 3+1 or 2+1 schedules (infants <7 months) or catch-up schedules. A secondary objective of the trial was to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) against TTPs in children who received at least one vaccine dose before or after 7 months of age. Blinded follow-up lasted from the date of first vaccination (from February 2009 through October 2010) to December 31, 2011. Outcome data were collected through the National Care register and Social Insurance Institution reimbursement register. Over 47000 children were enrolled. In 30527 infants <7 months of age at enrolment, 4369 TTPs were reported in 3594 subjects. The incidence was 7.9 per 100 person-years in the infant control cohort. The VE estimate was 13% (95%CI -2 to 26%) for combined PHiD-CV10 3+1 and 2+1 infant schedules. The VE estimates for the 3+1 and 2+1 infant schedules when estimated separately were similar. For the catch-up schedules, the VE was 11% (95%CI -7 to 26%) for children enrolled at 7 to 11 months of age and -1% (95%CI -21 to 16%) for children enrolled at 12 to 18 months of age. Our study results suggest that PHiD-CV10 immunization according to a 3+1 or 2+1 schedule initiated before 12 months of age may reduce the frequency of tympanostomy tube placements, although the primary analysis did not reach statistical significance.
    Article · Aug 2015 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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    Alassane Dicko · Yahia Dicko · Amadou Barry · [...] · Lode Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is still the leading cause of death among African children with pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 being dominant in the below 5 years of age group. The present study assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children. This phase III, open-label study (NCT00985465) was conducted in Ouelessebougou, Mali, between November 2009 and July 2010. The study population consisted of PHiD-CV unprimed Malian children previously enrolled in the control group of study NCT00678301 receiving a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with PHiD-CV in the second year of life. Adverse events were recorded following each PHiD-CV dose. Antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured pre-vaccination and after the second PHiD-CV catch-up dose. Swelling and fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) were the most frequently reported solicited symptoms following either PHiD-CV dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms were reported. Large swelling reactions and serious adverse events were not reported. Post-catch-up vaccination, for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, at least 94.7% of subjects had antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.5%) and 23F (87.7%). At least 94.0% of subjects had OPA titres ≥ 8, except for serotype 19F (89.4%). The geometric mean concentration for antibodies against protein D was 839.3 (95% CI: 643.5-1094.6) EL.U/ml. Two-dose PHiD-CV catch-up regimen in the second year of life was well-tolerated and immunogenic for all vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and NTHi protein D when administered to Malian children.
    Full-text Article · May 2015 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Vaccine effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines against culture-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease has been well documented. In the Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease (FinIP) trial, we reported vaccine effectiveness and absolute rate reduction against laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease (confirmation by culture or antigen or DNA detection irrespective of serotype). Here, we assessed vaccine effectiveness of PHiD-CV10 against clinically suspected invasive pneumococcal disease in children by use of diagnoses coded in hospital discharge registers. Methods For this phase 3/4 duster-randomised, double-blind trial, undertaken between Feb 18, 2009, and Dec 31, 2011, in municipal health-care centres and the Tampere University Vaccine Research Centre (Finland), we randomly assigned (2:2:1:1) 78 clusters into PHiD-CV10 three plus one, PHiD-CV10 two plus one, control three plus one, control two plus one groups (26:26:13:13 dusters) to give PHiD-CV10 in either three plus one or two plus one schedule (if enrolled before 7 months of age; infant schedules), two plus one (if enrolled between 7 and 11 months; catch-up schedules), and two doses at least 6 months apart (if enrolled between 12 and 18 months; catch-up schedules). Children were eligible if they had not received and were not anticipated to receive any of the study vaccines and had no general contraindications to vaccinations. We collected all inpatient and outpatient discharge notifications from the national hospital discharge register with International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 diagnoses compatible with invasive pneumococcal disease or unspecified sepsis, and verified data with patient files. We excluded invasive pneumococcal disease cases confirmed by positive culture or DNA/RNA detection from normally sterile body fluid. The primary objective was to estimate vaccine effectiveness against all register-based non-laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease or unspecified sepsis and patient-file verified non-laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease in infants younger than 7 months at enrolment. Masked follow-up lasted from the date of the first vaccination to Dec 31, 2011. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated against all episodes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00861380 and NCT00839254. Findings We enrolled 47 366 children. On the basis of ICD-10 diagnoses, we recorded 264 episodes of register-based non-laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease or unspecified sepsis, of which 102 were patient-file verified non-laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease. The vaccine effectiveness was 50% (95% CI 32-63) in the 30 527 infants with three plus one and two plus one schedules combined and the absolute incidence rate reduction was 207 episodes per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 127-286). The vaccine effectiveness against the patient-file verified non-laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease was 71% (95% CI 52-83) in infant three plus one and two plus one schedules combined. The absolute rate reduction was 142 episodes per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 91-191) in infant cohorts. Interpretation This vaccine-probe analysis is the first report showing the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on clinically suspected invasive pneumococcal disease. The absolute rate reduction was markedly higher compared with laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease, which implies low sensitivity of the laboratory-based case definitions and subsequently higher public health effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines against invasive pneumococcal disease than previously estimated.
    Article · Sep 2014 · The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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    Miguel W Tregnaghi · Xavier Sáez-Llorens · Pio López · [...] · Lode Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ≥ 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and findings: This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ≥2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n = 10,295; control, n = 10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p = 0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization-defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28-30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n = 10,211; control, n = 10,140) and AOM (n = 3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: -1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p = 0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n = 11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n = 11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions: Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS Medicine
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    Olumuyiwa O Odusanya · Yetunde A Kuyinu · Omolara A Kehinde · [...] · Lode Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study, 3-dose primary vaccination of Nigerian infants with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes, with comparable tolerability between PHiD-CV and control groups. In an open-label study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01153893), 68 primed children received a PHiD-CV booster dose co-administered with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) booster dose at 15-21 months and 36 children unprimed for pneumococcal vaccination received two PHiD-CV catch-up doses (first dose co-administered with DTPa booster dose) at 15-21 and 17-23 months. Adverse events were recorded and immune responses were measured before and one month after vaccination. In both groups, pain was the most frequent solicited local symptom and fever was the most frequent solicited general symptom after the booster dose and each catch-up dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After booster vaccination, for each vaccine serotype, at least 98.5% of children had an antibody concentration ≥0.2 µg/ml and at least 94.0% had an opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titer ≥8. After 2-dose catch-up, for each vaccine serotype, at least 97.1% had an antibody concentration ≥0.2 µg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.9%) and 23F (88.6%), and at least 91.4% had an OPA titer ≥8, except for serotypes 6B (77.4%) and 19F (85.3%). PHiD-CV induced antibody responses against protein D in both groups. In conclusion, PHiD-CV administered to Nigerian toddlers as a booster dose or 2-dose catch-up was well tolerated and immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2013 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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    O O Odusanya · Y A Kuyinu · O A Kehinde · [...] · L Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the 10- valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were evaluated in a cohort of Nigerian infants included in a study conducted in Mali and Nigeria (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00678301). In this open, randomised, controlled study, 119 healthy infants received combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B/ Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPw-HBV/Hib) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) co-administered with PHiD-CV (PHiD-CV group) or without PHiD-CV (control group) at 6-10-14 weeks of age. Pneumococcal antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity were measured and adverse events were recorded. One month post-dose 3, for each of the vaccine pneumococcal serotypes, e"90.1% of PHiD-CV recipients had an antibody concentration e"0.2 ug/mL compared to < 9 % (except for serotypes 14 [32.4%] and 19F [27.8%]) in the control group. For each of the vaccine pneumococcal serotypes, e"90.6% of infants in the PHiD-CV group had an OPA titre e"8, compared to % 18% (except for serotype 7F [60.0%]) in the control group. Anti-protein D antibody geometric mean antibody concentrations were 2949.7 EL.U/mL in the PHiD-CV group and 68.9 EL.U/mL in the control group. For each DTPw-HBV/Hib antigen antibody seroprotection/seropositivity rates were e"94.4%. Tolerability was generally comparable between the PHiD-CV and control vaccination groups. Conclusions: PHiD-CV co-administered with routine vaccines was immunogenic for all vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D in Nigerian infants. Vaccine tolerability was generally comparable between the PHiD-CV and control groups. These results suggest PHiD-CV can be co-administered with other vaccines included in the National Programme on Immunisation.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2013 · The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial drugs are frequently prescribed to children for respiratory tract infections such as otitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, and pneumonia. We assessed the effect of the ten-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10; GlaxoSmithKline) on antimicrobial purchases. In this nationwide phase 3-4 cluster-randomised, double-blind trial, children younger than 19 months were randomly assigned to receive PHiD-CV10 in 52 of 78 clusters or hepatitis B or A vaccine as control in 26 clusters according to three plus one or two plus one schedules (infants younger than 7 months) or catch-up schedules (children aged 7-18 months). The main objective for the antimicrobial treatment outcome was to assess vaccine effectiveness against outpatient prescriptions of antimicrobial drugs recommended by national treatment guidelines for acute otitis media in Finland in children who received at least one dose of study vaccine before 7 months of age. Masked follow-up lasted from the date of first vaccination (from Feb 18, 2009, through Oct 5, 2010) to Dec 31, 2011. We obtained data on all purchased antimicrobial prescriptions through the benefits register of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. This and the nested acute otitis media trial are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00861380 and NCT00839254. More than 47 000 children were enrolled. In 30 527 infants younger than 7 months at enrolment, 98 436 outpatient antimicrobial purchases were reported with incidence of 1·69 per person-year in the control clusters. Analysis of the main objective included 91% of all antimicrobial purchases: 31 982 in the control and 57 964 in the PHiD-CV10 clusters. Vaccine effectiveness was 8% (95% CI 1-14) and the incidence rate difference 0·12 per person-year corresponding to the number needed to vaccinate of five (95% CI 3-67) to prevent one purchase during the 2 year follow-up for combined PHiD-CV10 three plus one and two plus one infant schedules. The vaccine effectiveness was identical for the two infant schedules. In the catch-up schedules, the vaccine effectiveness was 3% (95% CI -4 to 10). Despite low relative rate reductions the absolute rate reductions were substantial because of the high incidence of the outcome. This reduction would lead to over 12 000 fewer antimicrobial purchases per year in children younger than 24 months in Finland (birth cohort of 60 000 children). GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA and National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland.
    Article · Nov 2013 · The Lancet Infectious Diseases
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    Roman Prymula · Ahsan Habib · Nancy François · [...] · Lode Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Prophylactic paracetamol (PP) was previously shown to reduce primary and booster antibody responses against the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). This study further evaluated the effect of PP on antibody persistence, immunological memory and nasopharyngeal carriage (NPC). Methods: Two hundred and twenty children previously primed (3 doses, NCT00370318) and boosted (NCT00496015) with PHiD-CV with (PP group) or without (NPP group) prophylactic paracetamol administration received one PHiD-CV dose in their fourth year of life to assess the induction of immunological memory following previous immunisations. A control group of age-matched unprimed children enrolled in study NCT00496015 received an investigational tetravalent Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, Y tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine, and thus remained unprimed for pneumococcal vaccination. Of these, 223 unprimed children received in the present study at least one PHiD-CV dose of a 2-dose catch-up regimen, which was relevant as control for assessment of immunological memory in PHiD-CV primed children. Results: Induction of immunological memory was shown irrespective of PP administration at primary and booster vaccination. Antibody geometric mean concentrations were lower in the PP group for serotypes 1, 4, 7F and 9V. Opsonophagocytic titres did not differ significantly between PP and NPP groups. Previous use of PP seemed to have only a minor impact on kinetics of antibody persistence. Reduced NPC of vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and trends towards increased NPC of non-vaccine and non-cross-reactive serotypes were seen in primed groups versus the control group, with no obvious differences between PP and NPP groups. Conclusion: Regardless of whether previous PHiD-CV vaccination was given with or without PP, induction of immunological memory and persistence of PHiD-CV's impact on carriage was seen until at least 28 months post-booster vaccination. Our study results therefore suggest that the lower immune responses after primary and booster vaccination with PP are of transient nature.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2013 · Vaccine
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    Alassane Dicko · Gaoussou Santara · Almahamoudou Mahamar · [...] · Lode Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Primary vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was previously shown to be immunogenic and well tolerated in Malian children. Data on booster vaccination with a fourth consecutive dose of PHiD-CV are available for Europe, Asia and Latin America but are lacking for Africa. The present study evaluated further the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a fourth consecutive (booster) dose of PHiD-CV. Results: Low incidences of AEs with grade 3 intensity (2.1% of subjects) were observed. There were no reports of large swelling reactions and serious adverse events. One month post-booster vaccination, for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, at least 97.8% of subjects had antibody concentrations ≥ 0.2 μg/ml, and at least 97.1% of subjects had opsonophagocytic activity ≥ 8. From pre- to post-booster, a 12.3-fold increase in anti-protein D geometric mean concentration was observed. Methods: This phase III, open-label study was conducted in Ouelessebougou, Mali, between November 2009 and June 2010. The study population consisted of Malian children previously primed (3 doses) with PHiD-CV in study NCT00678301 receiving a fourth consecutive (booster) dose of PHiD-CV in the second year of life. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) with grade 3 intensity (primary objective) or of any intensity (secondary objective), and the immunogenicity (secondary objective) of the PHiD-CV booster dose were assessed. Conclusion: A booster dose of PHiD-CV was well tolerated when administered to Malian children in the second year of life and was highly immunogenic for all 10 vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and NTHi protein D. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00985465)
    Full-text Article · Jan 2013 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccine effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines against culture-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease has been well documented. In the Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease (FinIP) trial, we reported vaccine effectiveness and absolute rate reduction against laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease (confirmation by culture or antigen or DNA detection irrespective of serotype). Here, we assessed vaccine effectiveness of PHiD-CV10 against clinically suspected invasive pneumococcal disease in children by use of diagnoses coded in hospital discharge registers.
    Article · Nov 2012 · The Lancet
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods: A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11-13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results: In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], -21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, -31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%-57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%--69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%-30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions: PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2012 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (H. Influenzae) protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), co-administered with routine childhood vaccines, were assessed in Taiwanese infants. In this open study, 230 healthy infants were primed with three doses of PHiD-CV (Synflorix) and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (HBV), inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine) at 1.5, 3 and 6 months of age and two doses of oral human rotavirus vaccine at 1.5 and 3 months. Pneumococcal immune responses were assessed 1 month post-dose three, by 22F-inhibition ELISA and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assay. Local and general solicited/unsolicited symptoms and serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded. At least 95.4% of participants had an antibody concentration ≥0.2 μg/mL against each vaccine serotype. At least 96.1% of participants had an OPA titer ≥8 against each vaccine serotype except 6B (87.3%). All infants, but one, were seropositive for antibodies against nontypeable H. influenzae protein D. Immune responses to the co-administered vaccines were good and in line with previous reports. PHiD-CV was well tolerated, with low (≤6.3%) incidences of grade 3 solicited local symptoms. The frequencies of general symptoms were in line with other pneumococcal conjugate vaccine studies. There were no systematic increases in incidences of solicited general or local symptoms with successive doses. There were no reports of grade 3 fever (rectal temperature > 40 °C) or SAEs considered to be causally related to vaccination. PHiD-CV co-administered with routine childhood vaccines within the first 6 months of life, was highly immunogenic, and well tolerated in Taiwanese infants.
    Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
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    Sanjay Lalwani · Sukanta Chatterjee · Jugesh Chhatwal · [...] · Lode Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In India, pneumococcal diseases are major causes of child mortality, and effective vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae are needed. This single-blind, randomized study assessed the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPw-HBV/Hib in Indian infants as 3-dose primary vaccination course. A total of 360 infants were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV co-administered with DTPw-HBV/Hib (PHiD-CV group) or a Hib vaccine co-administered with DTPw-HBV (control group) at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. For each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, the percentage of infants in the PHiD-CV group with antibody concentrations ≥ 0.2 µg/mL one month after the third vaccine dose was at least 98.3%, except for serotypes 6B (77.7%) and 23F (89.5%), and opsonophagocytic activity titers ≥ 8 were measured in at least 95.7% of infants, except for serotypes 1 (90.5%) and 6B (84.5%). In addition, all the infants in the PHiD-CV group were seroprotected against diphtheria, tetanus, Hib, and hepatitis B or seropositive for antibodies against pertussis and NTHi protein D (except one infant). Incidences of solicited local and general symptoms were comparable between groups, except for fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C), which seemed to occur more frequently in the PHiD-CV group. In conclusion, PHiD-CV was shown to be immunogenic and well-tolerated when co-administered with DTPw-HBV/Hib in Indian infants.
    Full-text Article · May 2012 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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    L Schuerman · J Wysocki · J C Tejedor · [...] · J Poolman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the abilities of two serological readouts, antipolysaccharide IgG antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers, to predict the clinical effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We also assessed the accuracy of the previously established thresholds for GlaxoSmithKline's enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 22F adsorption (22F-ELISA) (≥0.2 μg/ml) and OPA assay (titer, ≥8) in predicting effectiveness. We showed that following a 3-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination, the serological response rates as determined using thresholds of ≥0.2 μg/ml IgG and an OPA titer of ≥8 corresponded well with overall effectiveness against IPD. In addition, the OPA assay seemed to better predict serotype-specific effectiveness than enzyme-linked immunoassay. Finally, when applied to post-dose-2 immune responses, both thresholds also corresponded well with the overall IPD effectiveness following a 2-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination. These results support the importance of the OPA assay in evaluating immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2011 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
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    Alassane Dicko · Olumuyiwa O Odusanya · Abdoulbaki I Diallo · [...] · Lode Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is still the leading cause of death among children in Africa, and pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 are frequently isolated from African children with invasive pneumococcal disease below the age of 5 years. The immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of 3-dose primary vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were evaluated in infants in Mali and Nigeria. In an open, randomized, controlled study, 357 infants received DTPw-HBV/Hib and OPV primary vaccination with (PHiD-CV group) or without (control group) PHiD-CV co-administration at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Pneumococcal antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured and adverse events (AEs) recorded. One month post-dose 3, ≥ 97.2% of PHiD-CV-vaccinated infants had an antibody concentration ≥ 0.2 μg/mL for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype except for 6B (82.0%) and 23F (87.6%) versus < 10% in the control group except for serotypes 14 (35.7%) and 19F (22.5%). For each vaccine serotype, ≥ 93.3% of PHiD-CV recipients had an OPA titre ≥ 8, except for serotypes 1 (87.6%) and 6B (85.4%), compared to < 10% in the control group, except for serotypes 7F (42.9%), 9V (24.1%) and 14 (24.5%). Anti-protein D geometric mean antibody concentrations were 3791.8 and 85.4 EL.U/mL in the PHiD-CV and control groups, respectively. Overall incidences of solicited and unsolicited AEs were similar between groups. In sub-Saharan African infants, PHiD-CV was immunogenic for all vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D. Vaccine tolerability was generally comparable between the PHiD-CV and control groups. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00678301.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2011 · BMC Public Health
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PHiD-CV, have been documented in European and Asian studies. In this open study conducted in Mexico (NCT00489554), 230 healthy infants received three doses of PHiD-CV and DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months of age and two doses of oral human rotavirus vaccine at 2 and 4 months. Serotype-specific pneumococcal responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured one month post-dose 3. PHiD-CV's primary vaccination course was highly immunogenic against each of the 10 pneumococcal vaccine serotypes and carrier protein D. Antibody responses against pneumococcal serotypes and protein D were generally higher in Mexican infants compared with European antibody responses, and functional OPA responses were also higher or in the same range. The most frequent solicited local symptom was pain, with high but similar incidences of grade 3 pain reported at both injection sites (up to 15% of all doses). PHiD-CV was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events considered as causally related to vaccination. Most solicited symptoms were mild and there was no increase in incidence of solicited symptoms with successive vaccine doses.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2011 · Human vaccines
  • Markus Knuf · Heidemarie Pankow-Culot · Detlef Grunert · [...] · Lode Schuerman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of immunologic memory was assessed following primary vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Infants were randomized (1:1) to receive 3 doses of PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (7-valent CRM197-conjugated pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV]) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS) booster dose at 11 to 14 months of age. Pneumococcal geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) geometric mean titers were measured. Postprimary immune responses were consistent with those in previous PHiD-CV and 7vCRM studies. Following 23vPS boosting, vaccine serotype-specific antibody GMCs increased 6.5- to 33.3-fold and 4.8- to 32.2-fold versus prebooster in the PHiD-CV and 7vCRM groups, respectively. Postbooster OPA titers increased 2.8- to 38.8-fold and 2.6- to 58.9-fold, respectively. Postbooster antibody GMCs exceeded postprimary levels but, for some serotypes, postbooster OPA geometric mean titers were lower than postprimary in both groups. An additional dose of the same PCV received for priming was administered to 52 children aged 46 to 50 months, resulting in higher responses versus postprimary vaccination for all serotypes, but not always higher than post-23vPS booster. Induction of immunologic memory following PHiD-CV priming was confirmed. Additional PCV boosting in 4-year-olds did not provide strong evidence of hyporesponsiveness induced by previous 23vPS boosting. However, our results did not rule out depletion of the memory B cell pool following 23vPS vaccination, resulting in subsequent attenuated immune responses, and therefore support the use of PCV rather than 23vPS for booster vaccination in the second year of life.
    Article · Sep 2011 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This randomized single-blind study in Korea evaluated noninferiority of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) versus the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) when both were coadministered with H. influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, as opposed to coadministration with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-based combination vaccines in previous studies. Infants received 3 primary doses at 2, 4, and 6 months and a booster dose at 12 to 18 months of PHiD-CV (N = 374) or 7vCRM (N = 129), both coadministered with Hib vaccine. Immune responses were measured 1 month postdose 3 and postbooster using 22F-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional opsonophagocytic activity assay. PHiD-CV-induced antibody responses against each of the vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D. Noninferiority to 7vCRM was demonstrated for all 10 PHiD-CV serotypes in terms of percentages of subjects reaching an antibody concentration ≥0.2 μg/mL after primary vaccination. Postprimary and postbooster, percentages of subjects with antibody concentration ≥0.2 μg/mL or opsonophagocytic activity titer ≥8 were generally consistent between groups for each pneumococcal serotype common to both vaccines. The safety and reactogenicity profiles of PHiD-CV and 7vCRM were generally comparable after both primary and booster vaccination. In this Korean study, 3-dose PHiD-CV priming followed by a booster dose was immunogenic for all 10 vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D. Noninferiority to 7vCRM in terms of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay threshold responses postpriming was demonstrated. The safety and reactogenicity profiles of both vaccines when coadministered with Hib vaccine were generally comparable.
    Article · Aug 2011 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal