[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Memory consolidation is a process by which acquired information is transformed from a labile into a more stable state that can be retrieved at a later time. In the present study, we investigated the role of oroxylin A on the memory consolidation process in mice. Oroxylin A improved the memory retention administered at 0h, 1h and 3h after training in a passive avoidance task, suggesting that oroxylin A facilitates memory consolidation. Oroxylin A increased mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) levels in the hippocampus from 6h to 24h after administration. Moreover, 3h post-training administration of oroxylin A enhanced the mBDNF level at 9h after the acquisition trial compared to the level at 6h after the acquisition trial. However, 6h post-training administration of oroxylin A did not increase the mBDNF level at 9h after the acquisition trial. Blocking mBDNF signaling with recombinant tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-Fc or k252a at 9h after the acquisition trial obstructed the effect of oroxylin A on memory consolidation. Taken together, our data suggest that oroxylin A facilitates memory consolidation through BDNF-TrkB signaling and confirms that the increase of BDNF in a specific time window plays a crucial role in memory consolidation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Brain Research Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is a polyphenolic compound found in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge that has several anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated whether SalB has neuroprotective effects in an amyloid β (Aβ) peptide-induced Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Mice were injected with Aβ25-35 peptide intracerebroventricularly and were subsequently administered SalB once daily for 7 days. Subchronic SalB administration (10mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the Aβ25-35 peptide-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance task (P<0.05). SalB treatment also reduced the number of activated microglia and astrocytes that were observed during the inflammatory reaction after the administration of the Aβ25-35 peptide. Moreover, SalB markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, which were increased by the administration of the Aβ25-35 peptide. Furthermore, SalB administration significantly rescued the Aβ25-35 peptide-induced decrease of choline acetyltransferase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels. These results suggest that SalB exerts neuroprotective activity via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects and that SalB may be a potential candidate for Alzheimer's disease therapy.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · European journal of pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biopsy specimens are taken during transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy with 1.8 mm forceps. The aims of this study were to compare the concordance of the Campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test and histological diagnoses between biopsies taken with 1.8 mm and 2.2 mm forceps and to determine whether the concordance of the CLO test could be improved by increasing the number of specimens using 1.8 mm forceps.
A total of 200 patients were enrolled. We first performed the CLO test twice using each sample taken with both forceps in 100 patients. The CLO test was conducted three times again after confirming the difference in the CLO test between two forceps: (i) one sample with 1.8 mm forceps; (ii) two with 1.8 mm; and (iii) one with 2.2 mm in the other 100 patients. Additionally, each specimen was taken from the same gastric lesions in 200 patients for the histological diagnosis using both forceps types.
The concordance rate of the CLO test between each sample with 1.8 mm and 2.2 mm forceps was 83% (κ-value, 0.64), and that between two samples with 1.8 mm and one with 2.2 mm was 92% (κ-value, 0.83). The concordance rate of the histological diagnosis with 1.8 and 2.2 mm was 97% (κ-value, 0.84).
At least two samples using 1.8 mm forceps might be needed to obtain similar results on the CLO test using 2.2 mm. But, the size difference between two forceps did not influence the histological diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with progressive cognitive and memory loss and neuronal cell death. Current therapeutic strategies for AD are very limited; thus, traditional herbal medicines or their active constituents receive much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive enhancing effects of salvianolic acid B (SalB) isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its ameliorating effects on various drug-induced amnesic models using the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Drug-induced amnesia was induced by administering scopolamine, diazepam, muscimol, or amyloid-β (Aβ)25–35 peptide. SalB (10 mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly reverse the cognitive impairments induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or Aβ25–35 (10 nmol/5 μl, i.c.v.) injection. This ameliorating effect of SalB was antagonized by the GABAA receptor agonists, muscimol or diazepam, respectively. In addition, SalB alone was capable of improving cognitive performances. Furthermore, SalB (100 μM) was found to inhibit GABA-induced outward Cl− currents in single hippocampal CA1 neuron. These results suggest that the observed ameliorations of cholinergic dysfunction- or Aβ25–35-induced memory impairment by SalB were mediated, in part, via the GABAergic neurotransmitter system after a single administration.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Neuropharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The usefulness of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) for monitoring changes in fibrosis and inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving antiviral therapy is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in liver stiffness and correlate them with changes in serological markers and histology in CHB patients receiving entecavir.
The study included 38 patients with CHB and 24 cirrhotic patients with CHB. All patients received entecavir for over 12 months. Liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography at baseline and after 48wks of therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on 15 patients at baseline and during therapy.
Among 62 treated patients, 51 (82.2%) achieved HBV DNA <50 copies/mL and 43 (69%) achieved alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization at 48wks. The median liver stiffness value at baseline was 15.1 kPa (5.6-75.0) and decreased significantly to 8.8kPa (3.0-33.8) after 48wks. A decrease in liver stiffness value during therapy correlated significantly with decreases in albumin (r=-0.357, p=0.004), bilirubin (r=0.342, p=0.007), ALT (r=0.319, p=0.012), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (r=0.353, p=0.005) concentrations. Decreases in liver stiffness values correlated significantly with improvement in necroinflammatory scores.
We suggest that LSM can reflect the changes of necroinflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving antiviral therapy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Hepato-gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported the cognitive enhancing effects of oroxylin A in unimpaired mice and its memory ameliorating activity in various memory impaired mice. To elucidate the mechanism mediating the cognitive effects of oroxylin A, this study examined the consequences of oroxylin A administration on neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus using immunostaining for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. In addition, we determined whether the new cells adopted a neuronal or glial fate by examining the co-localization of BrdU staining with neuronal or glial markers. Administration of oroxylin A in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner increased the number of BrdU-incorporating cells. Moreover, the percentage of BrdU-incorporating cells co-localized with neuronal markers, neuronal nuclei, was significantly increased by the oroxylin A administration. These results suggest that the increased neurogenesis induced by the administration of oroxylin A could be, at least in part, associated with its positive effects on cognitive processing.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Neurochemical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM, family Labiatae), which contains tanshinones as main constituents, has been used as a cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory agent in Chinese medicine.
This study aimed to elucidate anti-allergic effects of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM, family Labiatae) and its main constituents, tanshinones, against passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction.
PCA reaction was induced by IgE-antigen complex (IAC) in ICR mice. Protein expression of IL-4 and TNF-α in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and NF-κB and c-jun (AP-1) activation assayed by immunoblot.
Tanshinones inhibited the PCA reaction and reduced IL-4 and TNF-α production in mice as well as in IAC-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Tanshinones also inhibited NF-κB and AP-1 activation in RBL-2H3 cells stimulated with IAC. Among tested tanshinones, tanshinone I exhibited the most potent inhibition, followed by 15,16-dihydrotanshinone I, tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone.
SM and tanshinones may ameliorate the PCA reaction by inhibiting the allergic cytokines IL-4 and TNF-α via NF-κB and AP-1 pathways.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The individual course of Crohn's disease is diverse, and some patients may require bowel resection. The aims of this study were to determine the early surgery rate of Crohn's disease and to identify risk factors associated with early surgery in Korea.
Ninety six patients with Crohn's disease (68 men; median age at the time of diagnosis: 25 years), who had been followed up more than a year, were retrospectively analyzed. Early surgery was defined as a bowel operation for Crohn's disease or its complications occurring within 3 years from diagnosis. Early surgery rate and risk factors for early surgery were identified.
Fifteen patients (15.6%) underwent early surgery. The cumulative surgery rate was 8.6% after 6 months, 11.9% after 12 months, 14.1% after 18 months, and 16.7% after 24 to 36 months. Multivariate analysis revealed penetrating or stricturing behavior to be an independent risk factor for early surgery (p<0.001, Exp (B)=2.97 CI 1.39-6.37).
The cumulative early surgery rate in Korean patients seems to be lower than Western patients. Penetrating or stricturing behavior is significantly associated with early surgery, requiring early aggressive medical treatments.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Add on adefovir (ADV) to ongoing lamivudine (LAM) has been recommended as a standard therapy for the treatment of LAM resistance. In the past, switch to ADV monotherapy was suggested as an option for the treatment of LAM resistance, leading to frequent development of ADV resistance. However, ADV monotherapy has been still used in LAM-resistant patients because of low cost in Korea. The aims of this study were to evaluate the virologic response and virologic breakthrough during adding on LAM in LAM-resistant patients receiving ADV monotherapy.
The study population comprised 99 patients with LAM-resistance. We divided them into 3 groups (Group 1: switch to ADV monotherapy, N=58, Group 2: add on ADV to ongoing LAM, N=25, Group 3: add on LAM to ADV monotherapy, N=16). HBV DNA levels were assessed at baseline and every 3 months during therapy. Serum HBV DNA levels were measured by bDNA assay or the COBAS TaqMan(TM) HBV test.
The median treatment duration for group 1, group 2, and group 3 was 42.0, 20.6, and 31.8 (18.7 mon. of ADV13.1 mon. of LAM) months, respectively. Cumulative rate of virologic breakthrough in group 1 was 5.2%, 19.0%, and 25.9% at 12, 24, and 36 months of treatment, respectively. Virologic breakthrough was not detected in group 2 and group 3 (p=0.016, group 1 vs. group 2 or 3). In group 3, median serum HBV DNA levels were 4.22 log10 copies/mL prior to LAM administration. Median serum HBV DNA changes from baseline (log10 copies/mL) were -0.91, -1.93, -1.87 and -1.74 at week 12, 24, 36 and 48, respectively.
Later add on LAM to ADV monotherapy prevented the development of ADV resistance in patients with LAM resistance effectively, comparable to ADV add on to continuing LAM therapy.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Entecavir is a potent and selective guanosine analogue that has demonstrated a significant antiviral efficacy against hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of this study was to characterize the response to entecavir and to examine the factors affecting that response.
We administered 0.5 mg of entecavir once daily for more than 12 months to 114 naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We measured the levels of liver enzymes, serological markers, and serum HBV DNA at 3-month interval.
Normalization of serum alanine aminotransferase levels was observed in 68.5% (76/114), 74.6% (85/114), and 81.6% (62/76) of patients after 6, 12, and 24 months of therapy, respectively. HBV DNA levels of <50 copies/mL (as evaluated by polymerase chain reaction) were observed in 43.9% (50/114), 71.1% (81/114), and 85.5% (65/76) of patients after 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Viral breakthrough was not observed. The rates of HBeAg loss and seroconversion were 43.5% (27/62) and 14.5% (9/62), respectively, after 12 months of therapy, and 56.4% (22/39) and 15.4% (6/39) after 24 months. The independent factor associated with PCR negativity was early virologic response (EVR; HBV DNA <2,000 copies/mL after 3 months of therapy, P<0.001). The independent factors predicting HBeAg loss were found to be serum albumin levels (P=0.041) and EVR (P=0.005).
Entecavir induced excellent biochemical and virologic responses in naive CHB patients. EVR was an independent factor for predicting HBV PCR negativity and HBeAg loss.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · The Korean Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cimiside E was isolated from the Cimicifuga heracleifolia Komarov extract, which has been previously demonstrated to possess apoptotic action on gastric cancer cells. The IC(50) value of cimiside E on gastric cancer cells for 24 h was 14.58 microM. The mechanism of apoptosis was further elucidated through western blot, RT-PCR, morphology, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and cell cycle analysis. Cell cycle arrest was induced by cimiside E in S phase at a lower concentration (30 microM) and G2/M phase at higher concentrations (60 and 90 microM). Cimiside E mediated apoptosis through the induction of the caspase cascade for both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. These findings suggest that cimiside E may be an effective chemopreventive agent against cancer.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Archives of Pharmacal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intracellular signalling kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is required for new memory formation, suggesting that control of ERK signalling might be a target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we reported that tanshinone congeners have ameliorating effects on drug-induced memory impairment in mice. Here, we have investigated possible modes of action of tanshinone I on learning and memory, associated with ERK phosphorylation.
Using immunohistochemical, Western blot techniques, and behavioural testing, we studied the effect of tanshinone I on memory impairment induced by diazepam or dizocilpine (MK-801) in mice.
Tanshinone I (2 or 4 mg.kg(-1), p.o.) increased latency times versus vehicle-treated control group in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical data showed that tanshinone I (4 mg.kg(-1)) increased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) in the hippocampus. These increases in pCREB and pERK were blocked by U0126 (inhibitor of ERK1/2), which also prevented the increase in passive avoidance task latency time after tanshinone I. In models of learning and memory impairment induced by diazepam and MK-801, tanshinone I (4 mg.kg(-1)) reversed learning and memory impairments detected by the passive avoidance test. Western blot analysis showed that tanshinone I reversed the diazepam- and MK-801-induced inhibitions of ERK and CREB activation in hippocampal tissues. These effects were also blocked by U0126.
Tanshinone I ameliorates the learning and memory impairments induced by diazepam and MK-801 through activation of ERK signalling.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of cryptotanshinone (CTS), one of active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza root, on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat due to inhibition of some inflammatory events that occur by NF-kappaB-activation during ischemia and reperfusion. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury was induced by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by either 2 h (biochemical analysis) or 24 h (myocardial function and infarct size measurement) reperfusion. CTS injected (i.v.) 10 min before ischemia and reperfusion insult. CTS significantly reduced the infarct size and improved ischemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction. Furthermore, CTS inhibited NF-kappaB translocation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6), neutrophil infiltration and MPO activity in ischemic myocardial tissues. CTS also significantly reduced plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta due to ischemia and reperfusion. Interestingly, H(2)O(2)-stimulated NF-kappaB-luciferase activity and TNF-alpha-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were significantly inhibited by CTS. Taken together, it is concluded that CTS may attenuate ischemia and reperfusion-induced microcirculatory disturbances by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production, reduction of neutrophil infiltration and possibly inhibition of adhesion molecules through inhibition of NF-kappaB-activation during ischemia and reperfusion.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · European journal of pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the effects of the extract and four tanshinone compounds from the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae) on the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) beta-subunit and the downstream signaling were examined in Chinese-hamster ovary cells expressing human insulin receptors (CHO/IR cells) as well as in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition the translocation of the glucose transporter 4 was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Total extract of Danshen (1-10 microg/ml) and the four tanshinones (10 microM) did not show any activity, but the total extract and the tanshinone I, IIA and 15, 16-dihydrotanshinone I except cryptotanshinone enhanced the activity of insulin (1 nM) on the tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR as well as the activation of the downstream kinases Akt, ERK1/2, and GSK3beta. In the adipocytes the same IR-downstream signaling and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 were demonstrated by the three tanshinones in the presence of insulin. These insulin-sensitizing activities of tanshinones may be useful for developing a new class of specific IR activators as anti-diabetic agents.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge) is a herb that has been widely and successfully used for treating inflammatory diseases in clinics in Asia. The relatively abundant tanshinones, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, cryptotanshinone, and dihydrotanshinone, have been isolated from Danshen. These tanshinones are the major diterpenes isolated from Danshen, and show cytotoxic effects on cell lines derived from human carcinomas of the colon, ovary, lung, mouth, and breast. Recently, anti-cancer activities of tanshinone IIA have been reported, which suggest that the structurally similar tanshinone I may possess similar cytotoxic effects on tumor cells. We investigated the effect of tanshinone I on the induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Tanshinone I inhibited cell proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as assayed by MTT. In addition, TUNEL assay and flow cytometry showed that tanshinone I significantly induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The induction of apoptotic cell death was mediated by the activation of caspase 3, the downregulation of the level of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and the upregulation of the level of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. Taken together, these results reveal a potential mechanism for the anti-cancer effect of tanshinone I on human breast cancer cells, and suggest that tanshinone I may serve as an effective adjunctive reagent in the treatment of human breast cancer.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we and others have demonstrated that wogonin, an active component from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemic insult. The neuroprotective effect of wogonin may at least in part be due to its anti-inflammatory properties. Microglial cells, well-known residential macrophages in the central nervous system, migrate to the ischemic lesion and play a pivotal role in the development of chronic inflammation. In the present study, we observed that wogonin potently inhibited microglial migration toward a chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). The anti-migratory effect of wogonin was provoked at nanomolar concentrations, at which wogonin did not significantly inhibit the production of cytokines and chemokines. NF-kappaB has previously shown to regulate microglial cell migration, and activation of cAMP-signaling pathway has also been associated with inhibition of microglial cell motility. In the present study, wogonin at low micromolar concentrations completely suppressed the activity of NF-kappaB in MCP-1-stimulated microglia, and NF-kappaB inhibitors such as N-acetyl cysteine and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate inhibited the MCP-1-induced migration of microglial cells. However, wogonin did not stimulate the production of cAMP in microglial cells. Our results indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity of wogonin is exerted at least in part by suppressing microglial cell motility via inhibition of NF-kappaB activity.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · International Immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of cell adhesion molecules has been studied extensively in the process of inflammation, and these molecules are critical components of carcinogenesis and cancer metastasis. This study investigated the effect of tanshinone I derived from the traditional herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-stimulated endothelial cells. Furthermore, this study investigated the effect of tanshinone I on cancer growth, invasion and angiogenesis on human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231, both in vitro and in vivo. Tanshinone I dose dependently inhibited ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were stimulated with TNF-alpha for 6 h. Pretreatment with tanshinone I significantly reduced adhesion of either monocyte U937 or MDA-MB-231 cells to HUVECs. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of tanshinone I on monocyte and cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs was mimicked by transfection with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 small interfering RNA. In addition, tanshinone I effectively inhibited TNF-alpha-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-mediated tube formation in HUVECs. Tanshinone I also inhibited TNF-alpha-induced VEGF production in MDA-MB-231 cells and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells through extracellular matrix. Additionally, reduction of tumor mass volume and decrease of metastasis incidents by tanshinone I were observed in vivo. In conclusion, this study provides a potential mechanism for the anticancer effect of tanshinone I on breast cancer cells, suggesting that tanshinone I may serve as an effective drug for the treatment of breast cancer.