Young-Ho Khang

Seoul National University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (125)1090.81 Total impact

  • Jinwook Bahk · Young-Ho Khang
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    ABSTRACT: Background: During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2-19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods: Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], World Health Organization [WHO], United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) and a Korean national reference standard (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [KCDC]) to calculate age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results: Despite differences in absolute prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity according to the four different criteria, the time trends of prevalence were generally similar across criteria. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001-2012 in both boys and girls. WC decreased from 2001-2012 in both boys and girls aged 2-19. Conclusions: Further studies exploring the factors causing plateaued trends of childhood obesity measures are needed to implement effective policies for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: This appendix provides further methodological detail, supplemental figures and more detailed results for the comparative risk assessment.
    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Methods Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk–outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990–2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. Findings All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8–58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1–43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5–89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Interpretation Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The Lancet
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    Jinwook Bahk · Young-Ho Khang
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study examined trends in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and childhood overweight and obesity prevalence between 1998-2001 and 2010-2012 according to household income and urbanity among nationally representative Korean children and adolescents aged 10-19. Methods: The repeated cross-sectional data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1998-2001 and 2010-2012 were used. Gender specific trends in age-adjusted means of WC and BMI by household equivalized income and urbanity were compared between years. The age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was calculated using three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force, World Health Organization, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and a Korean national reference standard. Results: Among boys, overall BMI and overweight prevalence increased between 1998-2001 and 2010-2012, while overall WC decreased. Clear gender differences were found in the relationship of childhood obesity metrics with household income and urbanity and the time trends of those relationships. Positive relationships between these parameters were found for boys while negative relationships appeared for girls. In addition, compared with the childhood obesity prevalence among boys in rural areas, the prevalence among boys in urban areas were slightly lower in 1998-2001 but became greater in 2010-2012. Conclusions: This study revealed gender difference in the association of childhood obesity with household income and urbanity and its time trends. The long-term gender-specific monitoring of socioeconomic and urban-rural differences in childhood obesity measures is warranted in South Korea.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    Jinwook Bahk · Sung-Cheol Yun · Yu-Mi Kim · Young-Ho Khang
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy intention is important for maternal and child health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the causal relation between pregnancy intention and maternal depression and parenting stress in Korean women who gave birth during 2008. This study is a retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data from the Panel Study on Korean Children from 2008 to 2010. Causal analyses were conducted using propensity score matching and inverse probability of treatment weighted methods. In addition, mediation analyses were performed to test mitigating effects of marital conflict, fathers' participation in childcare, and mothers' knowledge of infant development on the relation between unintended pregnancy and adverse maternal mental health. Results showed that the overall effect of an unintended pregnancy on maternal depression and parenting stress was statistically significant. An unintended pregnancy was associated with 20-22% greater odds of maternal depression, 0.28-0.39 greater depression score, and 0.85-1.16 greater parenting stress score. Relations between pregnancy intention and maternal depression, maternal depression score and parenting stress score were moderately explained by marital conflict and fathers' participation in childcare. Unintended pregnancy contributed to increased risks of maternal depression and parenting stress. Efforts to increase fathers' participation in childcare and decrease marital conflict might be helpful to mitigate adverse impacts of unintended pregnancy on perinatal maternal mental health.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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    ABSTRACT: This appendix provides two supplementary figures and ten supplementary tables.
    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7% (24·6-29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries. Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition-in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden-is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet
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    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This appendix provides further methodological detail, supplemental figures, and more detailed results for incidence, prevalence, and years of life lived with disability. The appendix is organised in broad sections following the structure of the main paper.
    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1·6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537·6 million in 1990 to 764·8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21·1% in 1990 to 31·2% in 2013. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Lancet
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    ABSTRACT: Figure appendix: Change in YLD rate from 1990 to 2013 for 188 countries and 21 regions (changes have been decomposed into 31 major cause groups and countries are ordered by the YLD rate in 1990).
    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
  • Young-Ho Khang · Jinwook Bahk · Nari Yi · Sung-Cheol Yun
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    ABSTRACT: Income is not frequently used to monitor health equity on a national level largely due to the lack of public data on income. Information on income allows policy makers to identify the economically disadvantaged population in a country directly. We examined differences in life expectancy (LE) at birth by income and quantified age- and cause-specific contributions to the LE differences using national health insurance data. Data from a nationally representative sample of 1 097 333 South Koreans (2% of the total population) collected between 2002 and 2010 (39 737 deaths) were used. National health insurance premiums were used to estimate income level. Age- and cause-specific contributions to differences in LE at birth by income were estimated using Arriaga's decomposition method. LE at birth gradually increased with income in both genders. Interquintile income LE differences were 7.93 years in males and 3.82 years in females. Most of LE differentials were attributed to differences in mortality in middle-aged and older adults. Suicide and cerebrovascular accidents were the two leading causes of death contributing the most to income LE differences in both males and females. The top 10 causes of death accounted for over 50% of the total LE differences by income in both genders. Alcohol-related causes of death explained the majority of the gender differences in the income LE differentials. Income differentials in LE at birth according to national health insurance premiums and data linkage systems could provide a valuable opportunity for monitoring and prioritizing population health inequalities in South Korea. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The European Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods: We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA(1c) (HbA(1c) >= 6 . 5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG >= 7 . 0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT >= 11 . 1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings: Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG- or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r= 0 . 98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA(1c) was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42 . 8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41 . 6%; in the other 15 . 6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA(1c)-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA(1c) 6 . 5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52 . 8% (95% CI 51 . 3-54 . 3%) and a pooled specificity of 99 . 74% (99 . 71-99 . 78%) compared with FPG 7 . 0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30 . 5% (28 . 7-32 . 3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA(1c) versus FPG. Interpretation: Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA(1c)-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
  • Dong-Hun Han · Young-Ho Khang · Hye-Ju Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that taller individuals have better health than that of shorter individuals. However, evidence for links to tooth loss is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between adult height and tooth loss and to examine the roles of covariates in explaining the association in different birth cohorts in Korea. Using data from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES IV and V), the subjects were grouped into two birth cohorts based on their historical context: born from 1920 to 1945 and 1946 to 1962. The dependent variables were loss of 8 or more teeth and total tooth loss (edentulism), while the independent variable was the height quartile. Demographic factors (survey year, age, and gender), early childhood/adult socioeconomic status (SES) (father's education, own education, income, and place of residence), health behaviors (cigarette smoking, binge drinking, frequency of toothbrushing, and regular dental visit), and health problems (diabetes and hypertension) were included in a series of analytical models. The survey year-, age-, and gender-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of the loss of 8 or more teeth for the shortest quartile were 1.23 (95% confidence intervals, CI: 1.13-1.35) for the 1920-1945 birth cohorts and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.20-1.62) for the 1946-1962 birth cohorts. The PRs for edentulousness were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34-2.02) for the 1920-1945 birth cohorts and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.31-3.91) for the 1946-1962 birth cohorts. These associations were moderately attenuated after adjusting for own education but still significant in the fully adjusted models. After full adjustment for the covariates, those in the shortest height quartiles in the relatively young birth cohorts (1946-1962 birth cohorts) had a 1.93 (95% CI: 1.09-3.43) times greater prevalence of edentulism than that of their tallest counterparts. Given that adult height reflects early-life conditions, independent associations between height and tooth loss support the view that early-life circumstances significantly influence oral health outcomes in later life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology
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    Young-Ho Khang
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    ABSTRACT: This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals.
    Preview · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A neighborhood-level analysis of mortality from suicide would be informative in developing targeted approaches to reducing suicide. This study aims to examine the association of community characteristics with suicide in the 424 neighborhoods of Seoul, South Korea. Neighborhood-level mortality and population data (2005-2011) were obtained to calculate age-standardized suicide rates. Eight community characteristics and their associated deprivation index were employed as determinants of suicide rates. The Bayesian hierarchical model with mixed effects for neighborhoods was used to fit age-standardized suicide rates and other covariates with consideration of spatial correlations. Suicide rates for 424 neighborhoods were between 7.32 and 71.09 per 100,000. Ninety-nine percent of 424 neighborhoods recorded greater suicide rates than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries' average. A stepwise relationship between area deprivation and suicide was found. Neighborhood-level indicators for lack of social support (residents living alone and the divorced or separated) and socioeconomic disadvantages (low educational attainment) were positively associated with suicide mortality after controlling for other covariates. Finding from this study could be used to identify priority areas and to develop community-based programs for preventing suicide in Seoul, South Korea.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · International Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors based on disease risk depends on valid risk prediction equations. We aimed to develop, and apply in example countries, a risk prediction equation for cardiovascular disease (consisting here of coronary heart disease and stroke) that can be recalibrated and updated for application in different countries with routinely available information. We used data from eight prospective cohort studies to estimate coefficients of the risk equation with proportional hazard regressions. The risk prediction equation included smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, and total cholesterol, and allowed the effects of sex and age on cardiovascular disease to vary between cohorts or countries. We developed risk equations for fatal cardiovascular disease and for fatal plus non-fatal cardiovascular disease. We validated the risk equations internally and also using data from three cohorts that were not used to create the equations. We then used the risk prediction equation and data from recent (2006 or later) national health surveys to estimate the proportion of the population at different levels of cardiovascular disease risk in 11 countries from different world regions (China, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Iran, Japan, Malawi, Mexico, South Korea, Spain, and USA). The risk score discriminated well in internal and external validations, with C statistics generally 70% or more. At any age and risk factor level, the estimated 10 year fatal cardiovascular disease risk varied substantially between countries. The prevalence of people at high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease was lowest in South Korea, Spain, and Denmark, where only 5-10% of men and women had more than a 10% risk, and 62-77% of men and 79-82% of women had less than a 3% risk. Conversely, the proportion of people at high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease was largest in China and Mexico. In China, 33% of men and 28% of women had a 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease of 10% or more, whereas in Mexico, the prevalence of this high risk was 16% for men and 11% for women. The prevalence of less than a 3% risk was 37% for men and 42% for women in China, and 55% for men and 69% for women in Mexico. We developed a cardiovascular disease risk equation that can be recalibrated for application in different countries with routinely available information. The estimated percentage of people at high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease was higher in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. US National Institutes of Health, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
  • Jinwook Bahk · Sung-Cheol Yun · Yu-Mi Kim · Young-Ho Khang
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal depression is a common health problem during the perinatal period. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the relationship between socioeconomic position and maternal depressive symptoms from prenatal to 3 years postpartum in Korean women. Prospective cohort data were collected from the Panel Study on Korean Children between 2008 and 2011. Maternal depression was assessed using the Kessler 6-Item Psychological Distress Scale. Socioeconomic position indicators used were maternal education, paternal education, maternal occupation, paternal occupation, and household income. Repeated-measures analyses with a generalized estimating equation approach were used to investigate relationships between socioeconomic position and maternal depressive symptoms during the study period. Low socioeconomic position was associated with greater levels of maternal depressive symptoms between 4 months after childbirth and 3 years postpartum, but the association was not evident between 1 month before and after childbirth. The magnitude of the significant association between socioeconomic position and maternal depression was the greatest at 1 year postpartum but then became smaller. Among the five socioeconomic position indicators included, maternal education, paternal education, and household income showed graded inverse relationships with maternal depressive symptoms, while no significant relationship was found for paternal occupation over the study period. Socioeconomic inequalities in maternal depressive symptoms emerged in early childhood in a prospective study of Korean mothers. These emerging inequalities may contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in childhood health and development.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Maternal and Child Health Journal

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,090.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Health Policy and Management
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chung-Ang University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004-2014
    • University of Ulsan
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine
      • • College of Medicine
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2004-2013
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2005
    • Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea