Paul K Pietrow

University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States

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Publications (32)83.71 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ureteral stents commonly cause lower urinary tract and flank discomfort. We evaluated the use of extended release oxybutynin versus phenazopyridine versus placebo for the management of ureteral stent discomfort after ureteroscopy. Each of 60 patients who received a unilateral stent after ureteroscopy was given a blister pack containing 21 unmarked capsules of either extended release oxybutynin 10 mg, phenazopyridine 200 mg, or placebo in a prospective, randomized, and double-blinded fashion. Patients were instructed to take 1 capsule 3 times daily immediately after the procedure. Patients were given 50 tablets of oral narcotic to be taken as needed. Patients reported bothersome scores for flank pain, suprapubic pain, urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria, and hematuria on postoperative day 1, day 2, and the day of stent removal. Narcotic use was also recorded. Eight patients were excluded from the analysis for stent migration necessitating early removal (1), uncontrollable pain (1), failure to complete blister pack (4), and inability to contact for follow-up surveys (2). There was no difference in bothersome score among the groups for flank pain, suprapubic pain, urinary frequency, urgency, and dysuria. The phenazopyridine group reported less hematuria on postoperative day 1 when compared with placebo, which was statistically significant. The oxybutynin group required fewer narcotics, but this finding was not statistically significant. Although this study failed to show a significant difference in bothersome scores among the groups, the small sample size precludes definitive conclusion. Future studies pooling these data will determine the overall treatment effect and the optimal management of ureteral stent morbidity.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Urology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal management of lower pole renal calculi is controversial. We compared shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and ureteroscopy (URS) for the treatment of patients with small lower pole stones in a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. A total of 78 patients with 1 cm or less isolated lower pole stones were randomized to SWL or URS. The primary outcome measure was stone-free rate on noncontrast computerized tomography at 3 months. Secondary outcome parameters were length of stay, complication rates, need for secondary procedures and patient derived quality of life measures. A total of 67 patients randomized to SWL (32) or URS (35) completed treatment. The 2 groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, body mass index, side treated and stone surface area. Operative time was significantly shorter for SWL than URS (66 vs 90 minutes). At 3 months of followup 26 and 32 patients who underwent SWL and URS had radiographic followup that demonstrated a stone-free rate of 35% and 50%, respectively (p not significant). Intraoperative complications occurred in 1 SWL case (unable to target stone) and in 7 URS cases (failed access in 5 and perforation in 2), while postoperative complications occurred in 7 SWL and 7 URS cases. Patient derived quality of life measures favored SWL. This study failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in stone-free rates between SWL and URS for the treatment of small lower pole renal calculi. However, SWL was associated with greater patient acceptance and shorter convalescence.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · The Journal of urology
  • Paul K. Pietrow
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of renal calculus disease underwent drastic changes in the early 1980s with the arrival of percutaneous surgery and Shockwave lithotripsy within several years of each other. Previously, patients were managed with an array of open procedures, including pyelolithomy, ureterolithotomy and anatrophic nephrolithotomy. The opportunity to effectively manage renal calculi in a percutaneous manner has drastically reduced patient morbidity when compared to an open, flank approach. Fernstrom and Johansson were the first to describe a percutaneous approach to the renal collecting system for the management of calculi (1). Much of the early pioneering efforts were performed at the University of Minnesota and were made possible by the arrival of improved equipment and of an effective ultrasonic device that could be used to destroy and remove stones of varying compositions (2). Although the availability of improved access devices, nephroscopes and lithotrites have made this procedure more facile and safe, the basic principles and techniques have not changed dramatically over the past 20 yr.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2006
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    Paul K Pietrow · Michael E Karellas
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrolithiasis is a common condition affecting nearly 5 percent of U.S. men and women during their lifetimes. Recurrent calculi can be prevented in most patients by the use of a simplified evaluation, reasonable dietary and fluid recommendations, and directed pharmacologic intervention. Serum studies and 24-hour urine collections are the mainstays of metabolic investigation and usually are warranted in patients with recurrent calculi. Although some stones are the result of inherited conditions, most result from a complex interaction between diet, fluid habits, and genetic predisposition. Calcium-sparing diuretics such as thiazides often are used to treat hypercalciuria. Citrate medications increase levels of this naturally occurring stone inhibitor. Allopurinol can be helpful in patients with hyperuricosuria, and urease inhibitors can help break the cycle of infectious calculi. Aggressive fluid intake and moderated intake of salt, calcium, and meat are recommended for most patients.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · American family physician
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the metabolic analyses of patients with calyceal diverticular stones who had surgical treatment of their calculi and to examine the effect of selective medical therapy on stone recurrence, as recent reports suggest that metabolic abnormalities contribute to stone development. In all, 37 patients who had endoscopic treatment of symptomatic calyceal diverticular calculi were retrospectively reviewed. Stone composition and initial 24-h urine collections (24-h urinary volumes, pH, calcium, sodium, uric acid, oxalate, citrate, and the number of abnormalities/patient per collection) were compared with 20 randomly selected stone-forming patients (controls) with no known anatomical abnormalities. Stone formation rates before and after the start of medical therapy were calculated in the patients available for follow-up. Twelve of the diverticulum patients (five men and seven women) had complete 24-h urine collections, all of whom had at least one metabolic abnormality. Seven patients had hypercalciuria, four had hyperuricosuria and three had mild hyperoxaluria. The most common abnormality was a low urine volume; 11 of the 12 patients had urine volumes of <2000 mL/day (range 350-1950). Ten patients had hypocitraturia in at least one of the two 24-h urine samples; seven had low urinary citrate levels (172-553 mg/day) on both samples. The findings were similar in the control group. The diverticulum patients had 3.1 abnormalities/patient, and the controls had 2.9 abnormalities/patient (P > 0.05). No patients had gouty diathesis and none developed cystine stones. Stone analyses were similar in the two groups; both developed either calcium oxalate or mixed calcium oxalate/calcium phosphate stones. Six patients were followed for a mean of 23.1 months while on selective medical therapy; only one passed any additional stones, thought to be existing calculi, for a remission rate of five of six (83%). All patients with symptomatic calyceal diverticular stones who had comprehensive metabolic evaluation had metabolic abnormalities. There were similar abnormalities in the control random stone-formers. The abnormalities were corrected with selective medical therapy, as shown by the high remission rate. We recommend that, for patients with symptomatic calyceal diverticular calculi, a metabolic evaluation should be considered to determine stone forming risk factors.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · BJU International
  • Paul K Pietrow · Robert A Bass · H J Porter
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycystic kidney disease occurring in individuals with crossed fused renal ectopia is an extremely rare occurrence. The treatment of individuals with this condition is a unique surgical challenge for the operating physician. Today's advances in laparoscopic techniques provide us with new and innovative ways of performing complex procedures while subjecting patients to relatively minimal surgical trauma. We describe the laparoscopic removal of a severely diseased polycystic crossed fused kidney.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Urology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic bipolar instruments are commonly employed to cauterize and divide tissue. A next-generation bipolar device has been developed that employs vapor pulse coagulation energy. We assessed the vessel-sealing capability of this device and quantified thermal spread during application. Bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed on six common swine >25 kg. Five-millimeter clips and surgical staplers (US Surgical, Norwalk, CT) were utilized to perform nephrectomy on one side, while the Gyrus PlasmaKinetic bipolar device (Minneapolis, MN) was employed for the contralateral nephrectomy. Vessel-sealing capabilities were assessed via burst-pressure studies. The extent of thermal spread was measured after tissue fixation and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Surgical clips/vascular staplers adequately controlled/sealed renal hilar vessels with burst pressures nearing 300 mm Hg. The Gyrus bipolar device reliably sealed and divided renal arteries <or=5 mm with burst pressures averaging 291 mm Hg. Renal arteries above this size were not consistently sealed, but, with the exception of one technical error, renal veins of all sizes (3-12 mm) were reliably controlled (average burst pressure 288 mm Hg). Histologic evidence of thermal spread extended an average of 3.6 mm from the cut edges of arteries and 3.4 mm from the edges of veins. The Gyrus PlasmaKinetic bipolar device is capable of reliably sealing/ dividing arteries as large as 6 mm, although we recommend restricting its use to vessels no larger than 5 mm in diameter to allow a safety margin. In addition, porcine renal veins of all sizes are adequately controlled. These sealed vessels are able to withstand pressures approaching 300 mm Hg. Thermal spread affects only the area surrounding the divided vessel. Further clinical studies are warranted.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Journal of Endourology
  • No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Journal of Endourology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy (HALN) has become widely used for the management of localized renal masses. Centers of excellence have slowly disseminated this surgical approach throughout academic institutions and private practices. The transfer of this technique to inexperienced surgeons and centers has not been well studied. We examined our outcomes for HALN with an experienced surgeon at a new academic center. Patients and Methods: Thirty-six patients underwent HALN for benign or malignant disease over an 8-month period, with two fellows and three chief residents under the guidance of one attending surgeon performing all procedures. Parameters measured included age, ASA score, body mass index (BMI), operative time, estimated blood loss, number of trocars used, time to oral intake, analgesics required, length of stay, and complications. There was a slight predominance of right-sided lesions. The average patient age was 55 years (range 39-87 years) and the mean ASA score 2.3 (2-4). The mean BMI was 28.6 (range 20-46). Results: All cases were completed without open conversion. The total operative time averaged 175 minutes (range 118-257 minutes), with 80% patients requiring two trocars. The average blood loss was 141 mL, and there were no transfusions. The mean time to oral intake was 17.1 hours (range 1.5-240 hours), the average length of stay was 4.3 days (range 1-28 days), and the total narcotic requirement averaged 111 mg of morphine sulfate equivalents (range 6.7-519 mg). Significant complications included one diaphragm injury (repaired laparoscopically), one postoperative pulmonary embolus, pancreatitis in two patients, and one case of pneumonia. There were no deaths. Conclusions: The HALN techniques can be transferred quickly and efficiently from one center to another under the guidance of an experienced surgeon. Operative times are acceptable, with complication rates comparable to those in previously reported series.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Journal of Endourology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As randomized, prospective trials have become an integral part of clinical research, multi-institutional, collaborative research has become a necessity. However, it may be cumbersome for participants at remote facilities to participate because the submission and compilation of data and results are at times lengthy processes. Internet based clinical studies have been found to be a rapid, easily accessible, safe and secure method of performing multi-institutional trials. The Internet was used at geographically distant medical centers to enroll patients into a multi-institutional, prospective, randomized trial for the management of lower pole renal calculi. The Clinical Research Web-based Information Center secure computer web based program (Simplified Clinical Data Systems, Amherst, New Hampshire) was established to input preliminary demographic and clinical data, randomize patients, and collect treatment and followup information without paper chart documentation. The primary investigators in the study were sent a questionnaire to determine the ease of use of this Internet based program. The results were tabulated. A total of 112 patients from 21 participating institutions were randomized into the secure web site for inclusion into a lower pole renal stone clinical trial. Of the investigators 64% responded to the questionnaire. The majority of those having enrolled patients into the study reported no difficulties or only minimal difficulties in navigating the web site. Moreover, investigators from remote locations throughout North America described the improved convenience, rapid transmission of information, and ability to review and update patient data as benefits of enrolling patients using the Internet. The Internet based system also permits the prompt compilation of data at the host research site for performing interim data assessments and eventually the final analysis. A web based data collection center allows for large, multi-institutional trials to be done with unprecedented accuracy and efficiency. Through centralization of data capture, and real-time study monitoring and data analysis the system removes these responsibilities from those at individual test sites, permitting investigators to concentrate instead on other aspects of the study and its progress. State-of-the-art security protects all information to ensure confidentiality. The Internet may prove to be an invaluable tool in the future of clinical research.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · The Journal of Urology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous stone removal has replaced open renal surgery and has become the treatment of choice for large or complex renal calculi. However, patients with large bilateral stone burdens still present a challenge. Simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been demonstrated to be a well-tolerated, safe, cost-effective, and expeditious treatment. We present what is, to our knowledge, the first large retrospective series comparing synchronous and asynchronous bilateral PCNL. A chart review was performed on 26 patients undergoing 57 PCNLs for bilateral renal calculi over a 7-year period. Seven patients received synchronous PCNL (same anesthesia; Group 1), and 19 patients underwent asynchronous PNL (procedures separated by 1-3 months; Group 2). Complete surgical and hospital records were available on all patients. The average stone burden for Group 1 was 8.03 cm(2) on the left and 9.18 cm(2) on the right v 10.1 cm(2) on the left and 14.23 cm(2) on the right for Group 2 (P> 0.05). Variables of interest included anesthesia time, operative time, blood loss, transfusion rates, length of hospital stay, and complication rates. Each variable was evaluated per operation and per renal unit. Follow-up imaging with stone assessment was available on 20 patients. Group 1 required 1.14 access tracts per renal unit to attempt complete clearance of the targeted stones v 1.88 tracts per renal unit in Group 2 (P> 0.05). The average operative time per renal unit was significantly less in Group 1 (83 minutes) than in Group 2 (168.5 minutes) (P< 0.0001), as was blood loss (178.5 mL v 307.4 mL, respectively; P= 0.02). However, blood loss per operation was similar at 357 mL in Group 1 and 282 mL in Group 2. Comparable transfusion rates of 28.6% and 36.8%, respectively, were noted. Forty percent of the patients in Group 1 were completely stone free compared with 36% of the patients in Group 2; however, an additional 50% and 57%, respectively, had residual stone burden <4 mm (P> 0.05). Complications occurred in 2 of 7 operations (28%) in Group 1 and 8 of 42 operations (19%) in Group 2. The total length of hospital stay was nearly doubled for patients undergoing staged PCNL (P= 0.0005). These results demonstrate similar stone-free rates, blood loss per operation, and transfusion rates for simultaneous and staged bilateral PCNL. The reduced total operative time, hospital stay, and total blood loss, along with the requirement for only one anesthesia, makes synchronous bilateral PCNL an attractive option for select individuals. However, in patients with larger, less easily accessible stones, excessive bleeding may be encountered more frequently on the first side, thereby delaying management of the second side to a later date. Synchronous bilateral PCNL should be considered in patients in whom the first stage of stone removal is accomplished quickly and safely.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Endourology
  • Randall E Dooley · Paul K Pietrow
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Any patient presenting with hematuria of unknown origin should undergo a thorough history, physical examination, and laboratory and radiographic work-up. All attempts should be made to exclude malignancy. Renal hemangiomas are the most likely cause of chronic benign hematuria, particularly in young patients. In the past these lesions were treated with complete or partial nephrectomy. With the availability of small, flexible ureteroscopes capable of primary and secondary deflection, ureterorenoscopy has become an excellent means of diagnosing and treating these lesions. Various instruments--including an electrocautery probe, Nd:YAG laser, and Holmium:YAG laser--have been used with similar results.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Urologic Clinics of North America
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New-generation flexible ureteroscopes allow the management of proximal ureteral and intrarenal pathology with high success rates, including complete removal of ureteral and renal calculi. One problem is that the irrigation pressures generated within the collecting system can be significantly elevated, as evidenced by pyelovenous and pyelolymphatic backflow seen during retrograde pyelography. We sought to determine if the ureteral access sheath (UAS) can offer protection from high intrarenal pressures attained during routine ureteroscopic stone surgery. Five patients (average age 72.6 years) evaluated in the emergency department for obstructing calculi underwent percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) tube placement to decompress their collecting systems. The indications for PCN tube placement were obstructive renal failure (N=1), urosepsis (N=2), and obstruction with uncontrolled pain and elevated white blood cell counts (N=2). Flexible ureteroscopy was subsequently performed with and without the aid of the UAS while pressures were measured via the nephrostomy tube connected to a pressure transducer. Pressures were recorded at baseline and in the distal, mid, and proximal ureter and renal pelvis, first without the UAS, and then with the UAS in place. The average baseline pressure within the collecting system was 13.6 mm Hg. The mean intrarenal pressure with the ureteroscope in the distal ureter without the UAS was 60 mm Hg and with the UAS was 15 mm Hg. With the ureteroscope in the midureter, the pressures were 65.6 and 17.5 mm Hg, respectively; with the ureteroscope in the proximal ureter 79.2 and 24 mm Hg, and with the ureteroscope in the renal pelvis 94.4 and 40.6 mm Hg, respectively. All differences at each location were statistically significant (P<0.008). Compared with baseline, all pressures measured without the UAS were significantly greater, but only pressures recorded in the proximal ureter and renal pelvis after UAS insertion were significantly higher (P<0.03). The irrigation pressures transmitted to the renal pelvis and subsequently to the parenchyma are significantly greater during routine URS without the use of the UAS. The access sheath is potentially protective against pyelovenous and pyelolymphatic backflow, with clinical implications for the ureteroscopic management of upper-tract transitional cell carcinoma, struvite stones, or calculi associated with urinary tract infection.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of Endourology
  • Paul Kenneth Pietrow · David Mois Albala
    No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Atlas of the Urologic Clinics of North America
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the procedure of choice for managing large renal calculi. Investigations have recently focused on reducing the morbidity of the procedure and improving postoperative patient comfort by using smaller endoscopic instruments. We sought to evaluate the effect of a smaller percutaneous drainage catheter on postoperative pain. Thirty consecutive patients were randomized to receive either a 10F pigtail catheter or a 22F Councill-tip catheter for their percutaneous drainage after PCNL. The demographics were similar in the two groups, as was the rate of supracostal access (47% v 43%, respectively). Self-assessed analog pain scores were collected at 6 hours postoperatively as well as on the morning of the first and second postoperative days (POD). Total narcotic usage was tabulated using morphine equivalents. Complications, including the change from baseline hematocrit, were reviewed. There was no significant difference in the change in hematocrit (6.8 v 6.2 percentage points, respectively). Those patients with the smaller nephrostomy tube noted significantly lower pain scores at 6 hours (3.75 v 5.3; P=0.03). Although the pain scores were lower on POD 1 and 2 for the 10F catheter group, the difference was not statistically different (1.9 v 2.9 and 1.25 v 1.9, respectively; both P>0.05). The patients having the 10F catheter required fewer narcotics: 78 mg v 91 mg, although the difference was not statistically significant. The use of a small drainage catheter after PCNL is associated with lower pain scores in the immediate postoperative period, yet no statistically significant benefit to the patient with regard to comfort is demonstrated beyond 6 hours. In addition, there is a trend toward reduced narcotic requirements. Finally, there is no apparent increase in patient morbidity from the use of the smaller nephrostomy tubes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2003 · Journal of Endourology
  • Paul K Pietrow · Brian K Auge · Pei Zhong · Glenn M Preminger
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new combination pneumatic/ultrasonic intracorporeal lithotriptor has been developed for percutaneous applications. It combines the stone clearing efficiency of an ultrasonic device with the fragmentation strength of a pneumatic probe into a single handpiece. We present our early clinical experience with this device in a prospective, randomized comparison a combination pneumatic/ultrasound lithotrite and standard ultrasonic lithotripsy. A total of 20 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy for symptomatic calculi were randomized to receive stone fragmentation and removal using a standard ultrasonic device or a new combination pneumatic/ultrasonic unit. Stone location and burden were assessed before the operative procedure. The stone clearance rate in mm.2 per minute was calculated for the 2 devices. Complications and stone-free rates were compared in the 2 groups. There were no significant differences in stone location and composition in the 2 groups of patients. Average time required for complete stone clearance was considerably less for the combination device (21.1 versus 43.7 minutes, p = 0.036). The opposite was true for the average rate of stone clearance in mm.2 per minute, in that the standard ultrasonic device could clear 16.8 versus 39.5 mm.2 per minute for the combination unit (p = 0.028). Stone-free and complications rates were slightly superior for the combination device but it was likely attributable to patient factors. The combination pneumatic/ultrasonic lithotrite is capable of disintegrating and extracting stone material at a more rapid rate than standard ultrasonic devices. Moreover, stone-free and complication rates appear to be slightly superior with the combination unit. This new combination pneumatic/ultrasonic device appears to be efficacious and safe for removing large renal calculi.
    No preview · Article · May 2003 · The Journal of Urology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Acucise (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, California) electrocautery balloon is a highly successful device used in managing congenital and secondary ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Correct orientation of the cutting wire is essential during insertion of the Acucise catheter to avoid injury to crossing vessels. Moreover, confirmation of the lateral ureteropelvic junction incision is typically verified by fluoroscopic identification of extravasated contrast material. We describe a technique of facilitated passage of the Acucise balloon through a ureteral access sheath followed by ureteroscopic visualization of the incision, affording the opportunity to improve the incision with the holmium laser if necessary. After retrograde pyelography and guidewire placement, a 12/14Fr, 35 cm. ureteral access sheath is fluoroscopically introduced to the proximal ureter. The Acucise balloon is advanced across the ureteropelvic junction and the balloon is partially inflated to confirm proper placement. Following lateral Acucise incision, flexible ureteroscopy allows direct visualization of the ureteropelvic junction, confirming a through-and-through incision. Completion of a partial incision can be performed if needed with a 200 micro holmium laser fiber followed by routine stent placement. During the last 8 months we have used the Acucise device through a ureteral access sheath to treat congenital or secondary ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 8 patients. All incisions demonstrated extravasation of contrast material on retrograde pyelography, and 6 incisions (75%) were noted to be transmural by flexible ureteroscopic inspection. Two patients (25%) with only a partial incision despite contrast extravasation underwent extended incision using the holmium laser. Short-term followup demonstrated patency of the ureteropelvic junction in 7 of the 8 patients (87.5%) with 1 eventually requiring a secondary open pyeloplasty. The ureteral access sheath greatly facilitates placement of the Acucise device and allows rapid ureteroscopic confirmation of the incision. Insertion and removal of the ureteral access sheath and flexible ureteroscope do not compromise or significantly increase the duration of the procedure. Moreover, flexible ureteroscopic visualization allows confirmation of a complete transmural incision and potentially increases success rates of this minimally invasive approach to ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Continued followup is necessary to confirm the long-term benefits of this procedure.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · The Journal of Urology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the long-term incidence of ureteral stricture formation in a series of patients in whom a new-generation ureteral access sheath was used. A new generation of ureteral access sheaths has been developed to facilitate ureteroscopic procedures. However, some have questioned their safety and whether the device might cause significant ureteral trauma. Between September 1999 and July 2001, 150 consecutive ureteroscopic procedures with adjunctive use of an access sheath were performed. A retrospective chart review to April 2002 was done. Of the 150 patients, 130 underwent ureteroscopy for ureteral stones. Patients who underwent endoureterotomy or treatment of transitional cell carcinoma were excluded from this analysis. Sixty-two patients had follow-up greater than 3 months and were included in the analysis. Overall, 71 ureteroscopic procedures were performed, with 9 patients undergoing multiple procedures. Ninety-two percent of the patients had pathologic findings above the iliac vessels. The average patient age was 45.3 years (range 17 to 76), and 70% and 30% of the patients were male and female, respectively. The mean clinical follow-up was 332 days (range 95 to 821), and follow-up imaging was performed within 3 months after ureteroscopy in all patients. The 10/12F access sheath was used in 8 ureteroscopic procedures (11.2%), the 12/14F access sheath in 56 (78.9%), and the 14/16F access sheath in 7 (9.8%). One stricture was identified on follow-up imaging of 71 procedures performed, for an incidence of 1.4%. The patient developed the stricture at the ureteropelvic junction after multiple ureteroscopic procedures to manage recurrent struvite calculi. The access sheath did not appear to be a contributing factor. The results of our series indicate that the ureteral access sheath is safe and beneficial for routine use to facilitate flexible ureteroscopy. However, awareness of the potential ischemic effects with the use of unnecessarily large sheaths for long periods in patients at risk of ischemic injury should be considered. We advocate the routine use of the device for most flexible ureteroscopic procedures proximal to the iliac vessels.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Urology
  • No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2003
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that stone-forming patients with type II diabetes (DM-II) have a high prevalence of uric acid (UA) stones and present with some of the biochemical features of gouty diathesis (GD). The demographic and initial biochemical data from 59 stone-forming patients with DM-II (serum glucose greater than 126 mg/dL, no insulin therapy, older than 35 years of age) from Dallas, Texas and Durham, North Carolina were retrieved and compared with data from 58 patients with GD and 116 with hyperuricosuric calcium oxalate urolithiasis (HUCU) without DM. UA stones were detected in 33.9% of patients with DM-II compared with 6.2% of stone-forming patients without DM (P <0.001). Despite similar ingestion of alkali, the urinary pH in patients with DM-II and UA stones (n = 20) was low (pH = 5.5), as it is in patients with GD, and was significantly lower than in patients with HUCU. The urinary pH in patients with DM-II and calcium stones (n = 39) was intermediate between that in those with DM-II and UA stones and those with HUCU. However, both DM groups had fractional excretion of urate that was not depressed, as it is in those with GD, and was comparable to the value obtained in those with HUCU. The urinary content of undissociated UA was significantly higher, and the saturation of calcium phosphate (brushite) and sodium urate was significantly lower in those with DM-II and UA stones than in those with HUCU. Stone-forming patients with DM-II have a high prevalence of UA stones. Diabetic patients with UA stones share a key feature of those with GD, namely the passage of unusually acid urine, but not the low fractional excretion of urate.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2003 · Urology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
83.71 Total Impact Points


  • 2006
    • University of Kansas
      Lawrence, Kansas, United States
  • 2002-2006
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of Urology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 2004-2005
    • Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
    • University of Kansas Medical Center
      Kansas City, Kansas, United States
  • 2003-2004
    • Duke University
      • Department of Surgery
      Durham, North Carolina, United States