[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high mortality rates in dogs, which may be a consequence of late recognition using traditional diagnostic tests. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a protein-induced during kidney injury that may identify AKI earlier than traditional tests. To evaluate urinary NGAL (uNGAL) and uNGAL-to-urinary creatinine ratio (UNCR) as early markers of kidney injury and recovery in an AKI model in dogs. It was hypothesized that these markers would document AKI earlier than serum creatinine concentration. Five purpose-bred dogs. Prospective study. Acute kidney injury, defined as a > 50% increase in serum creatinine concentration above baseline, was induced in dogs by gentamicin administration (8–10 mg/kg SC q8h). Blood and urine collected for biochemical analyses and uNGAL and urinary creatinine concentrations, respectively, during AKI induction and recovery. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed significantly earlier based on a 7-fold increase in UNCR compared to a > 50% increase in serum creatinine concentration (day 8; range, 2–10 mg/dl vs day 16; range, 14–19 mg/dl; P = .009). During recovery, the initial decrease in UNCR preceded the decrease in serum creatinine concentration by a median of 2 days. The uNGAL changes paralleled UNCR changes, but the increase in uNGAL was triphasic; the initial peak occurred earlier than UNCR (median, day 11 versus median, day 19). The UNCR was early marker of gentamicin-induced AKI and its decrease documented onset of renal recovery. Additional studies are needed to validate this marker in dogs with naturally occurring renal injury.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To calculate the prevalence of urolithiasis in client-owned chelonians examined at a veterinary teaching hospital and to describe the clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of urolithiasis in chelonians. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-40 client-owned turtles and tortoises with urolithiasis. Procedures-The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched from 1987 through 2012 for records of client-owned chelonians with urolithiasis. The prevalence of urolithiasis was calculated for client-owned chelonians examined at the hospital. Signalment and physical examination, hematologic, biochemical, urinalysis, diagnostic imaging, treatment, and necropsy results were described. Results-The mean prevalence of urolithiasis in client-owned chelonians for the study period was 5.1 cases/100 client-owned chelonians examined. Thirty-one of the 40 chelonians were desert tortoises. Only 5 of 40 chelonians had physical examination abnormalities associated with the urogenital tract. Surgery was performed on 17 chelonians; 5 developed postoperative complications, and 4 of those died. Necropsy was performed on 18 chelonians, and urolithiasis contributed to the decision to euthanize or was the cause of death for 9. Uroliths from 13 chelonians were analyzed, and all were composed of 100% urate. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated chelonians with urolithiasis have various clinical signs and physical examination findings that may or may not be associated with the urinary tract. Hematologic, biochemical, and urinalysis findings were nonspecific for diagnosis of urolithiasis. Many chelonians died or were euthanized as a consequence of urolithiasis, which suggested the disease should be identified early and appropriately treated.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of regional DNA variants upstream to the translation initiation site of the canine Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) gene in healthy dogs. Cox-2 plays a role in various disease conditions such as acute and chronic inflammation, osteoarthritis and malignancy. A role for Cox-2 DNA variants in genetic predisposition to canine renal dysplasia has been proposed and dog breeders have been encouraged to select against these DNA variants. We sequenced 272-422 bases in 152 dogs unaffected by renal dysplasia and found 19 different haplotypes including 11 genetic variants which had not been described previously. We genotyped 7 gray wolves to ascertain the wildtype variant and found that the wolves we analyzed had predominantly the second most common DNA variant found in dogs. Our results demonstrate an elevated level of regional polymorphism that appears to be a feature of healthy domesticated dogs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in dogs. The responsible bacterial populations have evolved with increasing resistance to many antimicrobials.Objective
To characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of canine urinary tract isolates over a 51-month period.AnimalsOne thousand six hundred and thirty-six bacterial isolates from 1,028 dogs.Methods
Aerobic bacterial isolate growth and susceptibility data from urine cultures of dogs were identified, retrospectively. Medical records were reviewed to obtain signalment, comorbidities, and antimicrobial use in the previous 30 days. The UTIs were further categorized as uncomplicated, complicated, or pyelonephritis.ResultsCommon bacterial isolates identified were Escherichia coli (52.5%), Staphylococcus spp. (13.6%), and Enterococcus spp. (13.3%). In vitro susceptibility among all isolates varied for commonly prescribed antimicrobials (amoxicillin [59%], amoxicillin/clavulanic acid [76%], cephalexin [66%], enrofloxacin [74%] and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [86%]). For all antimicrobials tested (except aminoglycosides), in vitro susceptibility was higher in uncomplicated versus complicated infections (P < .05). Uncomplicated infection isolate susceptibility rates remained ≤90% for PO administered antimicrobials. Administration of amoxicillin, doxycycline, and enrofloxacin, but not amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the previous 30 days was associated with resistance to that antimicrobial. Multidrug resistant isolates of E. coli and Staphylococcus spp. were more common in dogs with complicated than uncomplicated UTIs (36% versus 21%, P < .0001).Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceIn vitro susceptibility was highly variable and no PO administered antimicrobial had >90% efficacy among isolates tested. Multidrug resistance was frequent among isolates tested suggesting that routine culture and susceptibility testing is indicated. Previously prescribed antimicrobials may affect empirical choices made pending susceptibility testing.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective, cross-over, blinded study evaluated the effect of various doses of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on blood pressure in dogs. Dogs were randomized to receive a placebo or 1 of 3 dosages of immediate release PPA, q12h for 7 days [1 mg/kg body weight (BW), 2 mg/kg BW, or 4 mg/kg BW] in a cross-over design. Blood pressure was recorded every 2 h, for 12 h, on days 1 and 7. There were significant increases in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure following administration of PPA at 2 mg/kg BW and 4 mg/kg BW. A significant decrease in heart rate was also noted at all PPA dosages, but not in the placebo. Administration of PPA was associated with a dose response increase in blood pressure. Dosages of up to 2 mg/kg BW should be considered safe in healthy dogs.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale:
These Guidelines have been developed by the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) and the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) as a resource for veterinary practitioners who want to better understand and manage the important clinical condition of house-soiling in their feline patients. The Guidelines offer straightforward, practical solutions that, in most cases, will help veterinarians and cat owners prevent, manage or entirely remediate feline house-soiling behavior.
The Guidelines include scientifically documented information when it is available. However, because research is often lacking, some recommendations reflect the accumulated clinical experience of the authors.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New concepts: Ideas about the causes of lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) in cats have changed significantly in the past 40 years. Recent research is challenging the conventional view that the bladder is always the perpetrator of LUTS, and suggests that the bladder can also be one victim of a systemic process associated with a sensitized central stress response system. Aim: In this article the authors provide their perspective on the implications of these findings for the diagnosis and treatment of cats with LUTS, provide some historical context, and suggest ways that the veterinary profession might work together to better understand the disorders underlying these signs, and possibly reduce their prevalence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate the performance of a veterinary urine dipstick paddle (UDP) for diagnosis and identification of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and cats. Design-Prospective, randomized, blinded study. Sample-207 urine specimens. Procedures-UDPs were inoculated by 2 investigators and incubated according to manufacturer's instructions. Results, including presence or absence of bacterial growth, organism counts, and identification of uropathogens, were compared between investigators and with microbiology laboratory results. A subset of UDPs with bacterial growth was submitted to the laboratory for confirmation. Results-The laboratory reported 64 (30.9%) specimens had growth of bacteria. Bacterial growth was reported for 63 (30.4%) and 58 (28.0%) of the UDPs by investigators 1 and 2, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the UDP for detection of bacterial growth were 97.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for investigator 1 and 89.1% and 99.3%, respectively, for investigator 2. For UPDs with ≥ 10(5) colony-forming units/mL, organism counts correlated well between the laboratory and investigators 1 (r = 0.95) and 2 (r = 0.89). Pathogen identification was not always accurate. Only 25 of 33 (75.8%) UDPs submitted for confirmation yielded bacteria consistent with those isolated from the original bacterial culture of urine. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The veterinary UDP system was a sensitive test for screening patients for bacterial UTI, but uropathogen identification was not always accurate. When UDPs have bacterial growth, a fresh urine specimen should be submitted to the laboratory to confirm the identity of the organisms and to permit antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectopic ureters are the most common cause of urinary incontinence in young dogs but should be considered as a differential in any incontinent dog for which the history is not known. Ectopic ureters can be diagnosed with excretory urography, fluoroscopic urethrography or ureterography, abdominal ultrasonography, cystoscopy, helical computed tomography, or a combination of these diagnostic procedures. Other congenital abnormalities can also occur in dogs with ectopic ureters, including renal agenesis or dysplasia, hydronephrosis, and/or hydroureter and vestibulovaginal anomalies; therefore, the entire urinary system must be evaluated with ultrasonography if cystoscopy is the only other diagnostic tool used before surgery. Novel surgical techniques and adjunctive medical management have improved the prognosis for dogs with urinary ectopia.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this case, we describe a middle-aged, male Weimaraner that presented with upper and lower urinary tract urate urolithiasis. The dog required surgical intervention to remove the obstruction in the right ureter as well as medical management to prevent recurrent calculi. While the genetic defect that causes this disease in Dalmatians is well known among clinicians, this is the first clinical case documented in the Weimaraner breed. This dog shared the same SLC2A9 mutation as Dalmatians, which likely predisposed this dog to developing urate calculi. For dogs where urate uroliths are suspected on imaging studies, genetic testing may be warranted to help elucidate any predisposing factors for stone formation. Knowing the aetiology of the stone formation will alter the therapeutic approach for treatment and management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nine-month-old intact female Newfoundland dog was presented for evaluation of an ectopic ureter without lower urinary tract signs. Due to progression of the disease and periodic urinary infections, a nephrectomy and uretectomy were performed after assessment of global and individual renal function with complementary tools. Ectopic insertion of the left ureter with hydronephrosis was revealed by ultrasound, cystoscopy and contrast uretrogram. Individual glomerular filtration rate of the contralateral kidney estimated by plasma exogenous creatinine clearance and renal scintigraphy was deemed sufficient to remove the left kidney safely. A left nephrectomy and uterectomy were performed without complications, and periodic monitoring of the glomerular filtration rate revealed stable renal function during the follow-up period of two years. The dog remained continent and free of urinary infections. In this case of ureteral ectopia in a dog, complementary diagnostic tools were used to assess renal function and plan interventional treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and often fatal disorder in dogs.
Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)/creatinine ratio is a sensitive and specific biomarker of AKI in dogs.
Prospective study. Dogs were classified as follows: (1) healthy dogs, (2) dogs with lower urinary tract disorders, (3) dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD), (4) dogs with azotemic International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) AKI Grades II-V, and (5) dogs with IRIS AKI Grade I (nonazotemic). Urinary NGAL was quantitated in each dog using an ELISA assay and concentrations were expressed as a ratio to urinary creatinine concentration from the same specimen, and designated the urinary NGAL/creatinine ratio (UNCR).
There was a significant difference in UNCR among the study groups (P < .001). Both the azotemic and nonazotemic AKI groups had higher UNCR when compared with all other groups (P < .001 for all pairs). There was a statistically significant difference in UNCR between dogs diagnosed with CKD compared with dogs with lower urinary tract diseases (P = .005) as well as between dogs with CKD and healthy dogs (P = .001). Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis of UNCR as an indicator of azotemic and nonazotemic AKI had an area under the ROC curve of 0.94 and 0.96, respectively.
NGAL/creatinine ratio is a sensitive and specific marker of AKI. It can be used to screen patients at risk for AKI and can be utilized to diagnose milder forms of AKI potentially earlier in the course of the disease.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the mineral composition and anatomic location of urinary calculi and to investigate sex and reproductive status as predisposing factors for development of urolithiasis in potbellied pigs. Design-Retrospective case series Samples-Urinary calculi from 50 purebred and crossbred potbellied pigs. Procedures-Laboratory records for urinary calculi of potbellied pigs submitted to the University of California-Davis Stone Laboratory from 1982 through 2012 were reviewed. Mineral composition of calculi was determined by polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and, in some cases, x-ray diffractometry. Results-Of the 48 urinary calculi analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, 21 (44%) were composed primarily of amorphous magnesium calcium phosphate; another 9 (19%) were primarily composed of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. Of 50 urinary calculi, 22 (44%), 14 (28%), 10 (20%), 3 (6%), and 1 (2%) were removed from the urinary bladder only, urethra, both urinary bladder and urethra, urine, and renal pelvis, respectively. Sex of 6 potbellied pigs was not recorded. For 44 urinary calculi, 41 (93%) were from males (11 sexually intact males and 30 castrated) and 3 (7%) were from females (2 sexually intact females and 1 spayed). Among males, 73% (30/41) of submissions were from castrated males. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In contrast to results from studies in commercial pigs, the most common composition of urinary calculi identified in purebred and crossbred potbellied pigs was amorphous magnesium calcium phosphate. Potential predisposing factors for urolithiasis in potbellied pigs may be similar to those for urolithiasis in commercial pigs. These include diet, urinary tract infections, and sex. Thus, prevention of urolithiasis should target these potential predisposing factors.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Case description:
An 8-month-old castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of hematuria, stranguria, and dysuria of approximately 2 weeks' duration that developed immediately following elective castration.
Results of physical examination, ultrasonography, retrograde double-contrast cystourethrography, and urethroscopy were consistent with a traumatic urethral stricture immediately proximal to the os penis resulting in a partial obstruction of urine outflow. Results of ultrasonographic examination of abdominal organs were considered normal. Digital radiography revealed no evidence of calculi.
Treatment and outcome:
Balloon dilation of the urethral stricture was performed and was followed by 2 bougienage procedures during the subsequent 2 weeks when clinical signs returned. The owners declined scrotal urethrostomy, and a self-expanding, covered nitinol stent was placed approximately 3 weeks after the initial evaluation, resulting in amelioration of clinical signs. Results of follow-up urethroscopy and contrast cystourethrography 1 year after stent placement revealed a statically positioned, patent urethral stent, although a small number of polypoid mucosal structures were identified distal to the stent and 1 small structure consistent with tissue ingrowth into the stent was identified.
Placement of a covered nitinol stent resulted in long-term resolution of clinical signs associated with traumatic stricture of the penile urethra in this young dog. Because the os penis in dogs limits radial expansion of the urethra, its presence may limit the use of stents in this location.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines rationale: A cat's level of comfort with its environment is intrinsically linked to its physical health, emotional wellbeing and behavior. Having a basic understanding of the cat's species-specific environmental needs and how cats interact with their environment will provide a foundation for addressing these fundamental requirements. Environmental needs: Addressing environmental needs is essential (not optional) for optimum wellbeing of the cat. Environmental needs include those relating not only to the cat's physical surroundings (indoors or outdoors; in the home environment or at the veterinary practice) but also those affecting social interaction, including responses to human contact. Five 'pillars' framework: The authorship panel has organized the Guidelines around five primary concepts ('pillars') that provide the framework for a healthy feline environment. Understanding these principles and the unique environmental needs of the cat will help veterinarians, cat owners and care-givers to reduce stress, the incidence of stress-related disorders, and unwanted behavior in their feline patients and pets. The recommendations in the Guidelines apply to all pet cats, regardless of lifestyle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten of 12 red-bellied short-necked turtles from a single clutch presented at 9 months of age with multiple white to tan nodules on their feet. Histologically, the nodules were composed of large periarticular deposits of mineralized crystalline material that extended into the joint spaces of interphalangeal joints and was surrounded by granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis. Crystallographic analysis determined the material to be apatite (calcium phosphate hydroxide) consistent with the tumoral calcinosis form of hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD). HADD has previously been described in aquatic turtles and rarely lizards and must be differentiated from gout in reptiles. A cause for the tumoral calcinosis lesions in these turtles could not be determined; however, based on previous reports in this species, a species-specific predilection, in conjunction with unknown environmental factors, is suspected. The use of the terms HADD, pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease), and calcinosis circumscripta has been inconsistent, creating confusion in the literature.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Veterinary Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between urolithiasis and growth of bacteria in the urine or urolith has not been recently evaluated in the past 15 years, and the effects of antimicrobial administration on urolith cultures have not been reported. As well, laboratory techniques for urolith cultures have not been critically evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to 1) report bacterial isolates from uroliths and their association with signalment, urolith composition, antimicrobial use, and urine cultures and 2) evaluate laboratory techniques for urolith cultures. For the first objective, a retrospective search of bacterial isolates cultured from uroliths submitted to the laboratory as well as the signalment, urine culture results, and antimicrobial use were recorded. For the second objective, 50 urolith pairs were cultured by washing each urolith either 1or 4 times and culturing the core. Five hundred twenty canine and 168 feline uroliths were reviewed. Struvite-containing uroliths had an increased prevalence of a positive culture compared to nonstruvite-containing uroliths (P < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 5.4), as did uroliths from female dogs (P < 0.0001, OR = 2.9). No significant difference between culture results and previous antimicrobial administration was found (P = 0.41). Eighteen percent of cases with negative urine cultures had positive urolith cultures. There was no significant difference in core culture results whether the urolith was washed 1 or 4 times. (P = 0.07). Urolith culture outcome was not always influenced by previous antimicrobial administration, and bacterial culture of a urolith may not yield the same results as those obtained from the urine. The modified protocol, which requires less time and expense for urolith cultures, may be an acceptable alternative.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc