[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) is preferentially cytotoxic to cancer cells over normal cells.
However, many cancer cells, including malignant glioma cells, tend to be resistant to TRAIL. Monensin (a polyether ionophore
antibiotic that is widely used in veterinary medicine) and salinomycin (a compound that is structurally related to monensin
and shows cancer stem cell-inhibiting activity) are currently recognized as anticancer drug candidates. In this study, we
show that monensin effectively sensitizes various glioma cells, but not normal astrocytes, to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis; this
occurs at least partly via monensin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, CHOP-mediated DR5 upregulation and proteasome-mediated
downregulation of c-FLIP. Interestingly, other polyether antibiotics, such as salinomycin, nigericin, narasin and lasalocid
A, also stimulated TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in glioma cells via ER stress, CHOP-mediated DR5 upregulation and c-FLIP downregulation.
Taken together, these results suggest that combined treatment of glioma cells with TRAIL and polyether ionophore antibiotics
may offer an effective therapeutic strategy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rottlerin, a selective inhibitor of novel isoforms of protein kinase C δ (PKC δ), has been shown to exert multiple effects on cancer cells, including inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood. We found that rottlerin dramatically induced non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1 (NAG-1) expression in both p53 wild-type and p53-null cancer cell lines, suggesting that NAG-1 upregulation is a common response to rottlerin that occurs independently of p53 in multiple cell lines. Although rottlerin is known to inhibit PKC δ, PKC δ siRNA and overexpression of dominant-negative (DN)-PKC δ did not affect rottlerin-mediated induction of NAG-1. These results suggest that rottlerin induces NAG-1 upregulation via a PKC δ-independent pathway. We also observed that CHOP protein levels were significantly increased by rottlerin, but CHOP siRNA did not affect rottlerin-induced NAG-1 expression. In addition, we demonstrated the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) signal transduction pathway in rottlerin-induced NAG-1 expression. Inhibitors of MEK (PD98059) and p38 MAP kinase (SB203580) prevented rottlerin-induced NAG-1 expression. Furthermore, we found that down-regulation of NAG-1 attenuated rottlerin-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that upregulation of NAG-1 contributes to rottlerin-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Chemico-biological interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curcumin is considered a pharmacologically safe agent that may be useful in cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Here, we show for the first time that curcumin effectively induces paraptosis in malignant breast cancer cell lines, including MDA-MB-435S, MDA-MB-231, and Hs578T cells, by promoting vacuolation that results from swelling and fusion of mitochondria and/or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide blocked curcumin-induced vacuolation and subsequent cell death, indicating that protein synthesis is required for this process. The levels of AIP-1/Alix protein, a known inhibitor protein of paraptosis, were progressively downregulated in curcumin-treated malignant breast cancer cells, and AIP-1/Alix overexpression attenuated curcumin-induced death in these cells. ERK2 and JNK activation were positively associated with curcumin-induced cell death. Mitochondrial superoxide was shown to act as a critical early signal in curcumin-induced paraptosis, whereas proteasomal dysfunction was mainly responsible for the paraptotic changes associated with ER dilation. Notably, curcumin-induced paraptotic events were not observed in normal breast cells, including mammary epithelial cells and MCF-10A cells. Taken together, our findings on curcumin-induced paraptosis may provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the selective anti-cancer effects of curcumin against malignant cancer cells.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme activated by its substrate heme and diverse stimuli. The induction of HO-1 gene expression is one of the important events in cellular response to pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory insults. In this study, the effect of rottlerin, a putative PKC delta inhibitor, on HO-1 expression in HT29 human colon cancer cells was investigated. Rottlerin-induced HO-1 at both protein and mRNA levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Rottlerin-mediated HO-1 induction was abrogated in the presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH). Rottlerin induced nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven transcriptional activity. Additionally, rottlerin activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ERK. The pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 MAPK inhibited rottlerin-induced HO-1 up-regulation. However, suppression of protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) expression by siRNA or overexpression of WT-PKC delta did not abrogate the rottlerin-mediated induction of HO-1. These results suggest that rottlerin induces up-regulation of HO-1 via PKC delta-independent pathway. Taken together, the present study identified rottlerin as a novel inducer of HO-1 expression and identified the mechanisms involved in this process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent mediator of macrophage migration and therefore, plays an essential role in early events of inflammation. In the present study, we show the protein kinase C activator, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), potently induced mRNA expression and secretion of the C-C chemokine MCP-1 in U937 cells. We found that curcumin, a natural biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma species, significantly inhibited the PMA-induced increase in MCP-1 expression and secretion. These effects of curcumin are dose dependent and correlate with the suppression of MCP-1 mRNA expression levels. Curcumin inhibited PMA-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Therefore, one possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of curcumin may be to inhibit the secretions of inflammatory MCP-1 chemokine.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) plays a key role in monocyte/macrophage infiltration to the sub-endothelial space of the blood vessel wall, which is a critical initial step in atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the intracellular signaling pathway of IL-1β-induced MCP1 expression using various chemical inhibitors. The pretreatment of a phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific PLC (PC-PLC) inhibitor (D609), PKC inhibitors, or an NF-κB inhibitor completely suppressed the IL-1β-induced MCP1 expression through blocking NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Pretreatment with inhibitors of tyrosine kinase or PLD partially suppressed MCP1 expression and failed to block nuclear NF-κB translocation. These results suggest that IL-1β induces MCP1 expression through activation of NF-κB via the PC-PLC/PKC signaling pathway.
Preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Experimental and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates that combined treatment with subtoxic doses of quercetin (3',3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), a flavonoid found in many fruits and vegetables, plus tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces rapid apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Effective induction of apoptosis by the combined treatment with quercetin and TRAIL was not blocked by overexpression of Bcl-xL, which is known to confer resistance to various chemotherapeutic agents. These results suggest that this combined treatment may provide an attractive strategy for treating resistant HCCs. While the proteolytic processing of procaspase-3 by TRAIL was partially blocked in various HCC cells treated with TRAIL alone, co-treatment with quercetin efficiently recovered TRAIL-induced caspase activation. We found that quercetin treatment of HCC cells significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of DR5, a death receptor of TRAIL, in a transcription factor Sp1-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with quercetin significantly decreased the protein levels of c-FLIP, an inhibitor of caspase-8, through proteasome-mediated degradation. Finally, administration of small interfering RNA against DR5 or overexpression of c-FLIPS, but not c-FLIPL, significantly attenuated quercetin-stimulated TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these findings show that quercetin recovers TRAIL sensitivity in various HCC cells via up-regulation of DR5 and down-regulation of c-FLIPS.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rottlerin has been shown to induce antiproliferation and apoptosis of human cancer cell lines. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism of rottlerin-induced apoptosis via death receptor (DR) 5 upregulation. We found that treatment with rottlerin significantly induces DR5 expression both at its messenger RNA and protein levels. Downregulation of DR5 expression with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) efficiently attenuated rottlerin-induced apoptosis, showing that the critical role of DR5 in this cell death. Rottlerin-induced DR5 upregulation was accompanied by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) protein expression and rottlerin-induced increase of DR5 promoter activity was diminished by mutation of a CHOP-binding site of DR5 promoter. Although rottlerin is known to be as an inhibitor of novel isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), specifically PKC delta, not only suppression of PKC delta expression by siRNA but also overexpression of wild-type-PKC delta or dominant-negative-PKC delta did not affect the rottlerin-mediated induction of DR5 in our study. These results suggest that rottlerin induces upregulation of DR5 via PKC delta-independent pathway. Furthermore, subtoxic dose of rottlerin sensitizes human cancer cells, but not normal cells, to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. Thus, DR5-mediated apoptosis, which is induced by rottlerin alone or by the combined treatment with rottlerin and TRAIL, may offer a new therapeutic strategy against cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rottlerin, a compound reported to be a PKC δ-selective inhibitor, has been shown to induce growth arrest or apoptosis of human
cancer cell lines. In our study, rottlerin dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in colon carcinoma cells. Treatment
of HT29 human colon carcinoma cells with rottlerin was found to induce a number of signature ER stress markers; phosphorylation
of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α), ER stress-specific XBP1 splicing, and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein
(GRP)-78 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). However, suppression of PKC δ expression by siRNA or
overexpression of WT-PKC δ and DN-PKC δ did not abrogate the rottlerin-mediated induction of CHOP. These results suggest that
rottlerin induces up-regulation of CHOP via PKC δ-independent pathway. Furthermore, down-regulation of CHOP expression using
CHOP siRNA attenuated rottlerin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study thus provides strong evidence to support
an important role of ER stress response in mediating the rottlerin-induced apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (3,4',5 tri-hydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound highly enriched in grapes and red wine, has been shown to induce anti-proliferation and apoptosis of human cancer cell lines. Resveratrol-induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in colon carcinoma cells, was measured by FACS analysis. Treatment of HT29 human colon carcinoma cells with resveratrol was found to induce a number of signature ER stress markers; phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF-2alpha), ER stress-specific XBP1 splicing and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). In addition, resveratrol induced up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78, suggesting the induction of ER stress. Furthermore, the inhibition of caspase-4 activity by z-LEVD-fmk significantly reduced resveratrol-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study therefore provides strong evidence to support an important role of ER stress response in mediating the resveratrol-induced apoptosis.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Oncology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an exciting new class of drugs that are targeted as anti-cancer agents. These compounds can induce growth arrest, apoptosis, and/or terminal differentiation in a variety of cancers. The inhibition of HDACs shifts toward hyper-acetylation, thereby driving transcriptional activation. In present study, HDAC inhibitor apicidin was used to elucidate the effect on expression of cell cycle related proteins and the molecular mechanism for transcriptional regulation of cyclin D3 in response to HDAC inhibitors in human colon cancer cells. We found that apicidin increases the transcriptional activity of cyclin D3 gene, which results in accumulation of cyclin D3 mRNA and protein. Apicidin-induced cyclin D3 expression is mediated by Sp1 sites within the cyclin D3 promoter. Apicidin-mediated cyclin D3 expression is attenuated by rottlerin, a specific protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) inhibitor, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) inhibitors. Furthermore, suppression of PKC-delta expression by transfection with its siRNA prominently attenuated apicidin-induced cyclin D3 expression. These results indicate that the cyclin D3 induction caused by apicidin was associated with PKC-delta signaling pathway not MAPKs signaling pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that the activation of cyclin D3 transcription by HDAC inhibitor apicidin was mediated through Sp1 sites and pointed to the possible participation of PKC-delta.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The death receptor 5 (DR-5), a receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), is critical for TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in various tumor cells. The ESE-3, a member of Ets transcription factors, regulates the expression of a variety of cellular genes by binding to purine-rich GGAA/T core sequence in cooperation with other transcription factors and co-factors. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that ESE-3 regulates DR-5 expression through Ets binding sequences on the DR-5 promoter. Using a combination of the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and the luciferase reporter assay, we identified putative Ets sites responsible for ESE-3 transcriptional activity on the DR-5 promoter. In addition, we show the possible involvement of co-factors CBP and p300 in ESE-3-mediated DR-5 up-regulation.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quercetin, a natural product derived from grapes, has been shown to prevent carcinogenesis in murine models. We report here that quercetin induces anti-proliferation and arrests G2/M phase in U937 cells. The G2/M phase accumulation was accompanied by an increase in the level of the cyclin B. In contrast, the level of the cyclin D, cyclin E, E2F1, and E2F2 was marked decreased in quercetin-treated U937 cells. Removal of quercetin from the culture medium stimulates U937 cells to synchronously re-enter the cell cycle, decrease expression level of cyclin B, and increased the expression level of cyclin D and cyclin E. These data demonstrate that quercetin causes reversible G2/M phase arrest, which was related with dramatic changes in the level of cyclin B, cyclin D, and cyclin E. Quercetin-induced down-regulation of cyclin D and cyclin E was associated with suppression of transcriptional levels but not protein stability. In addition, quercetin-treated U937 cells showed DNA fragmentation, increased sub-G1 population, and generated a 60kDa cleavage product of PLC-gamma1 in a dose-dependent manner, which were significantly inhibited by z-VAD-fmk. These data clearly indicate that quercetin-induced apoptosis is associated with caspase activation. In summary, the growth inhibition of the quercetin is highly related to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in human promonocytic U937 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of baicalein or baicalin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in cultured Raw 264.7 cells were studied. In the present study, baicalein and baicalin, a flavonoid present in the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, were examined for their effects on LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Baicalein, but not baicalin, inhibited COX-2 gene expression in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 cells. However, both polyphenolic compounds inhibited LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, iNOS mRNA expression, and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the mechanism by which baicalein inhibits COX-2 gene expression, we examined activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Raw 264.7 cells. We did not observe any significant change in the phosphorylation of MAPKs between baicalein- and baicalin-treated cells. Baicalein and baicalin had no effect on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) DNA binding activity. Baicalein, but not baicalin, significantly inhibited the DNA binding activity of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) These results indicated that differential effects of baicalein and baicalin on COX-2 gene expression in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 cells were mediated through inhibition of C/EBPbeta DNA binding activity. Taken together, these results suggest that baicalein acts to inhibit inflammation through inhibition of COX-2 gene expression through blockade of C/EBPbeta DNA binding activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic substance found in green tea, is well recognized to be beneficial for human health. However, it is still controversial as to what dose of this compound is indeed good for human health. Though some recent studies have interestingly reported various beneficial effects of EGCG in cell culture system, however, plasma levels of EGCG attainable by oral regular intake in humans are normally in nanomolar range. However, potential side effects of EGCG when administered parenterally at higher concentration have not been thoroughly tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of EGCG on ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. EGCG inhibited the activity of the Kir6.2/SUR1 and Kir6.2DeltaC36 channels with IC(50) of 142+/-37 and 19.9+/-1.7microM, respectively. Inhibition of EGCG was also observed in Kir6.2/SUR2A or Kir6.2/SUR2B channels. Notably, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), another major polyphenolic substance in green tea, was found to reduce the channel activity with greater potency than EGCG. In contrast to EGCG and ECG, which have the gallic acid-ester moiety in their own structures, (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-epicatechin exhibited very weak inhibition of the K(ATP) channel. Collectively, these results suggest that the gallate-ester moiety of epicatechins may be critical for inhibiting the K(ATP) channel activity via the pore-forming subunit Kir6.2 and this may be a possible mechanism by which green tea extracts or EGCG may cause unexpected side effects at micromolar plasma level.
No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Biochemical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curcumin exhibits anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. Although its functional mechanism has not been elucidated so far, numerous studies have shown that curcumin induces apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we show that subtoxic concentrations of curcumin sensitize human renal cancer cells to the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. This apoptosis induced by the combination of curcumin and TRAIL is not interrupted by Bcl-2 overexpression. We found that treatment with curcumin significantly induces death receptor 5 (DR5) expression both at its mRNA and protein levels, accompanying the generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Not only the pretreatment with N-acetylcystine but also the ectopic expression of peroxiredoxin II, an antioxidative protein, dramatically inhibited the apoptosis induced by curcumin and TRAIL in combination, blocking the curcumin-mediated DR5 upregulation. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that curcumin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis by ROS-mediated DR5 upregulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the XAGE-1 antigen is restricted to germ cells of the testis and a variety of neoplastic tissues. To date, the molecular mechanism for regulating expression of this cancer/testis antigen gene has been unknown. To evaluate methylation as a potential mechanism for regulating expression of this gene, we first correlated gene methylation status (measured by sequencing of bisulfide-modified DNA and COBRA) to expression of XAGE-1 mRNA in normal and cancerous cells. This analysis revealed dense methylation of the CpG island in the XAGE-1 gene promoter for the normal and cancerous cells that do not express this gene but loss of this methylation in normal testis, cancer cell lines and the primary gastric cancers where the gene is highly expressed. Further supporting the role of methylation in regulating expression of XAGE-1 were observations that treatment of 2 heavily methylated cell lines, SNU620 and HT29, with 5'-aza-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation of XAGE-1 promoter and corresponding expression of this gene. Finally, we cloned various segments of the CpG-rich XAGE-1 gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter construct and transiently transfected this construct into HCT116 cells. These experiments confirmed transcriptional regulatory activity for the promoter region that incorporates the CpG island and demonstrated that in vitro methylation of this island results in loss of promoter activity. Collectively, these studies indicate that XAGE-1 expression in normal and cancerous tissues is regulated by methylation of the CpG island in the gene promoter.
Preview · Article · Aug 2005 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In activated macrophage, large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) are generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), resulting in acute or chronic inflammatory disorders. In Raw 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic inflammation, 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) inhibited the LPS-induced expression of both iNOS protein and mRNA in a parallel dose-dependent manner. 8HQ did not enhance the degradation of iNOS mRNA. To investigate the mechanism by which 8HQ inhibits iNOS gene expression, we examined the activation of MAP kinases in Raw 264.7 cells. We did not observe any significant change in the phosphorylation of MAPKs between LPS alone and LPS plus 8HQ-treated cells. Moreover, 8HQ significantly inhibited the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), but not activator protein-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein. Taken together, these results suggest that 8HQ acts to inhibit inflammation through inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression through blockade of C/EBPbeta DNA-binding activity and NF-kappaB activation.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E2F family of transcription factors regulates the transcription of genes required for DNA synthesis. E2F is itself controlled by a series of transcriptional and post-transcriptional pathways. Here we provide evidence that proteasome inhibitor-mediated E2F1 gene down-regulation is regulated by transcriptional events. Using the proteasome-specific inhibitors, MG132 and lactacystin, we show that the p53, the cdk inhibitors p21 and p27, and cyclin A are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in human osteosarcoma cells. Interestingly, the expression levels of E2F1 and E2F2 are down-regulated by proteasome inhibitors. E2F promoter and RT-PCR assay clearly demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors could reduce E2F transcriptional activation. However, MG132-induced repression of E2F1 and E2F2 is not associated with ROS generation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E2F family of transcription factors regulates the transcription of genes required for DNA synthesis. E2F is itself controlled by a series of transcriptional and post-transcriptional pathways. Here we provide evidence that proteasome inhibitor-mediated E2F1 gene down-regulation is regulated by transcriptional events. Using the proteasome-specific inhibitors, MG132 and lactacystin, we show that the p53, the cdk inhibitors p21 and p27, and cyclin A are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in human osteosarcoma cells. Interestingly, the expression levels of E2F1 and E2F2 are down-regulated by proteasome inhibitors. E2F promoter and RT-PCR assay clearly demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors could reduce E2F transcriptional activation. However, MG132-induced repression of E2F1 and E2F2 is not associated with ROS generation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications