[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are a source of regenerative cells available for autologous transplantation to hearts. We compared protective actions of ASC sheets on rat myocardial infarction (MI) in comparison with those of skeletal myoblast cell sheets. Their effects on infarcted hearts were evaluated by biological, histochemical as well as physiological analyses. ASC sheets secreted higher concentrations of angiogenic factors (HGF, VEGF, and bFGF; P < 0.05) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions than those of myoblast cell sheets, associated with reduction of cell apoptosis (P < 0.05). Like myoblast cell sheets, ASC sheets improved cardiac function (P < 0.05) and decreased the plasma level of ANP (P < 0.05) in MI hearts. ASC sheets restored cardiac remodeling characterized by fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and impaired angiogenesis (P < 0.05), which was associated with increases in angiogenic factors (P < 0.05). In isolated perfused rat hearts, ASC sheets improved both systolic and diastolic functions, which was comparable to cardiac functions of myoblast cell sheets, while both cell sheets failed to restore cardiac contractile response to either isoproterenol, pimobendan or dibutyryl cAMP. These results indicated that ASC sheets improved cardiac function and remodeling of MI hearts mediated by their paracrine action and this improvement was comparable to those by myoblast cell sheets.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transplantation of cultured adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) into ischemic tissues promotes neovascularization and blood perfusion recovery. These effects are attenuated in diabetes patients. We examined the effects of hyperglycemia on the angiogenic capacity of ADRCs derived from Wistar rats both in vivo and in vitro. Cultured ADRCs were predominantly composed of CD90 positive cells; prevalence of CD90 positive cells was not affected by hyperglycemia. mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly decreased in ADRCs under hyperglycemic conditions independent of osmolarity, whereas mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor were unaffected. Since ADRCs express glucose transporter proteins GLUT1, 3 and 4, we examined the effects of the glucose transporter
inhibitor phloretin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and angiogenic factors. Phloretin decreased the glucose uptake rate, reduced ROS, and increased VEGF mRNA in ADRCs exposed to a hyperglycemic condition. In vivo transplantation of ADRCs cultured under hyperglycemic conditions into mouse ischemic limbs resulted in significantly decreased blood perfusion and capillary density in ischemic regions compared with transplantation of ADRCs cultured under normoglycemic conditions. These results suggest that hyperglycemia impaired VEGF production in ADRCs via an increase of ROS, impairing the angiogenic capacity of ADRCs transplanted into ischemic limbs.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in UMOD that encodes uromodulin. Topiroxostat, a novel non-purine analog, selectively inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduces the serum uric acid levels and the urinary albuminuria.
Genomic DNA of a patient was extracted from peripheral white blood. Exons and flanking sequences of UMOD were amplified by PCR with primers. Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the PCR products. The wild-type and mutant uromodulin were expressed in HEK293 cells and analyzed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry.
We identified an FJHN patient who carried a novel UMOD mutation G335A (C112Y). The levels of both cytosolic and secreted C112Y protein were significantly decreased compared with the wild-type, whereas the level of ubiquitination was higher in C112Y than that in the wild type. The half-life of C112Y was shortened and it was restored by a proteasome inhibitor MG132. Immunofluorescence revealed decreased levels of C112Y in the Golgi apparatus and on the plasma membrane. Expression of C112Y induced cellular apoptosis as revealed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis induced by C112Y was suppressed by topiroxostat.
C112Y causes its protein instability resulting cellular apoptosis which could be suppressed with topiroxostat.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A KCNE1 polymorphism, D85N, causes long QT syndrome (LQTS) with a decrease in the slowly activating delayed-rectifier K(+) channel current (IKs ). We examined impacts of D85N polymorphism on KCNE1 protein stability and functions, and tested the ability of various drugs to modify them.
KCNE1-D85N or the wild-type protein was coexpressed in COS7 cells with KCNQ1 to form K(+) channels. Expression, degradation, and intracellular localization of KCNE1 proteins, as well as the currents conferred by KCNQ1/KCNE1 complexes, were determined using immunoblots, immunofluorescence, and patch-clamp techniques.
The protein level of KCNE1-D85N was lower than that of the wild-type, in spite of the comparable levels of their mRNA. KCNE1-D85N was highly ubiquitinated and rapidly degraded as compared to the wild-type; a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, inhibited its degradation and increased its steady-state level. Both KCNE1-D85N and the wild-type proteins were co-immunoprecipitated with KCNQ1. Immunofluorescent signals of KCNE1-D85N accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, with reduced levels on the cell membrane. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that the membrane current corresponding to IKs was much smaller in cells expressing KCNE1-D85N than in those expressing the wild-type. Verapamil (0.5-10 μM) increased the protein level of KCNE1-D85N, decreased its ubiquitination, slowed its degradation, and enhanced KCNQ1/KCNE1-D85N channel currents. Pretreatment with amiodarone abolished these effects of verapamil.
KCNE1-D85N is less stable than the wild-type protein, and is rapidly degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Verapamil may be of a therapeutic value in LQTS patients via preventing degradation of KCNE1-D85N.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To examine effects of a long-acting calcium channel blocker (CCB) azelnidipine on uric acid metabolism in hypertensive patients.
Azelnidipine was administered to 72 patients at a daily dose of 8 mg or 16 mg. In 22 cases out of the 72 patients, a different CCB was switched to azelnidipine. Blood pressure was measured and biochemical parameters of blood and urine were evaluated before and 2-3 months after the administration.
Azelnidipine significantly decreased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the heart rate. It decreased both serum urate levels and the urinary uric acid to creatinine ratio (Uur/Ucr), but did not affect the uric acid clearance to creatinine clearance ratio (Cur/Ccr). Azelnidipine decreased both Uur/Ucr and Cur/Ccr in patients with Uur/Ucr ≥ 0.5 or ≥ 0.34, although it did not change these clearance parameters in patients with Uur/Ucr <0.5 or <0.34. Azelnidipine decreased the serum urate levels and Uur/Ucr in hyperuricemic patients with uric acid levels ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males and ≥ 6.0 mg/dL in females. It did not change these parameters in normouricemic patients with serum urate levels <7.0 mg/dL in males and <6.0 mg/dL in females. Azelnidipine decreased Uur/Ucr and Cur/Ccr in hyperuricemic patients with normal or over excretion of uric acid, although it did not change these clearance parameters in hyperuricemic patients with uric acid hypoexcretion.
Azelnidipine decreased the serum urate acid levels and Uur/Ucr, and this response was most prominent in hyperuricemic patients or patients with normal and over excretion of uric acid.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical and Experimental Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the role of Hsp90 in expression and maturation of wild-type and mutant HERG proteins by using Hsp90 inhibitors, geldanamycine (GA) and radicicol, and Hsp90 overexpression.Methods and ResultsThe proteins were expressed in HEK293 cells or collected from HL-1 mouse cardiomyocytes, and analyzed by Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. GA and radicicol suppressed maturation of HERG-FLAG proteins and increased their immature forms. Co-expression of Hsp90 counteracted the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors and suppressed ubiquitination of HERG proteins. Overexpressed Hsp90 also inhibited the binding of endogenous C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) to HERG-FLAG proteins. Hsp90-induced increase of functional HERG proteins was verified by their increased expression on the cell surface and enhanced HERG channel currents. CHIP overexpression decreased both mature and immature forms of HERG-FLAG proteins in cells treated with GA. Hsp90 facilitated maturation of endogenous ERG proteins, whereas CHIP decreased both forms of ERG proteins in HL-1 cells. Mutant HERG proteins harboring disease-causing missense mutations were mainly in the immature form and had a higher binding capacity to CHIP than the wild-type; Hsp90 overexpression suppressed this association. Overexpressed Hsp90 increased the mature form of HERG(1122fs/147) proteins, reduced its ubiquitinated form, increased its immunoreactivity in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the plasma membrane, and increased the mutant-mediated membrane current. CHIP overexpression decreased the immature form of HERG(1122fs/147) proteins.
Enhancement of HERG protein expression through Hsp90 inhibition of CHIP binding might be a novel therapeutic strategy for LQT2 caused by trafficking abnormalities of HERG proteins.
Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cardiovascular Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as one of the most promising therapies for severe ischemic cardiovascular diseases with no optional therapy. Several investigators have reported that transplantation of cultured adipose-derived regenerative cells (cADRCs) to ischemic tissues promotes neovascularization and blood perfusion recovery; however, cell therapy using cultured cells has several restrictions. To resolve this problem, the angiogenic capacity of freshly isolated ADRCs (fADRCs) obtained from Lewis rats was compared with cADRCs, both in vivo and in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis showed that fADRCs contained several cell types such as endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial cells; however, these cells were present in a very small proportion in cADRCs. Transplantation of fADRCs in mice significantly improved blood perfusion, capillary density, and production of several angiogenic factors in transplanted ischemic limbs compared with a saline-injected group, whereas these effects were not observed in the cADRCs-injected group. fADRCs also showed significantly higher expression levels of angiogenic factors than cADRCs in the in vitro study. Furthermore, fADRC stimulated tube formation more remarkably than cADRC in an in vitro tube formation assay. These results suggested that fADRCs have an effective angiogenic capacity, and they would be more valuable as a source for cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis than cADRCs or other stem/progenitor cells.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Biomedical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether salicylate enhances the action of antiarrhythmic agents on human Na+ channels with state dependency and tissue specificity. We therefore investigated effects of salicylate on quinidine-induced block of human cardiac and skeletal muscle Na+ channels. Human cardiac wild-type (hH1), LQT3-related mutant (ΔKPQ), and skeletal muscle (hSkM1) Na+ channel α subunits were expressed in COS7 cells. Effects of salicylate on quinidine-induced tonic and use-dependent block of Na+ channel currents were examined by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Salicylate enhanced the quinidine-induced tonic and use-dependent block of both hH1 and hSkM1 currents at a holding potential (HP) of -100 mV but not at -140 mV. Salicylate decreased the IC50 value for the quinidine-induced tonic block of hH1 at an HP of -100 mV, and produced a negative shift in the steady-state inactivation curve of hH1 in the presence of quinidine. According to the modulated receptor theory, it is probable that salicylate decreases the dissociation constant for quinidine binding to inactivated-state channels. Furthermore, salicylate significantly enhanced the quinidine-induced tonic and use-dependent block of the peak and steady-state ΔKPQ channel currents. The results suggest that salicylate enhances quinidine-induced block of Na+ channels via increasing the affinity of quinidine to inactivated state channels.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Biomedical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac arrhythmogenesis is regulated by channel proteins whose protein levels are in turn regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). We have previously reported on UPS impairment induced by E334K cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBPC), which causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) accompanied by arrhythmia. We hypothesized that UPS impairment induced by E334K cMyBPC causes accumulation of cardiac channel proteins, leading to electrophysiological dysfunction. Wild-type or E334K cMyBPC was overexpressed in HL-1 cells and primary cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The expression of E334K cMyBPC suppressed cellular proteasome activities. The protein levels of K(v)1.5, Na(v)1.5, Hcn4, Ca(v)3.2, Ca(v)1.2, Serca, RyR2, and Ncx1 were significantly higher in cells expressing E334K cMyBPC than in wild type. They further increased in cells pretreated with MG132 and had longer protein decays. The channel proteins retained the correct localization. Cells expressing E334K cMyBPC exhibited higher Ca(2+) transients and longer action potential durations (APDs), accompanied by afterdepolarizations and higher apoptosis. Those augments of APD and Ca(2+) transients were recapitulated by a simulation model. Although a Ca(2+) antagonist, azelnidipine, neither protected E334K cMyBPC from degradation nor affected E334K cMyBPC incorporation into the sarcomere, it normalized the APD and Ca(2+) transients and partially reversed the levels of those proteins regulating apoptosis, thereby attenuating apoptosis. In conclusion, UPS impairment caused by E334K cMyBPC may modify the levels of channel proteins, leading to electrophysiological dysfunction. Therefore, UPS impairment due to a mutant cMyBPC may partly contribute to the observed clinical arrhythmias in HCM patients.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important modulator of cardiovascular function. In this study, we examined whether cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), an initial enzyme in the arachidonic acid pathway, is involved in blood pressure (BP) elevation in a murine model of chronic NO inhibition.
cPLA2α gene-deficient mice (cPLA2α-/-) and wild-type mice (WT) were administered the NO synthesis inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 4 weeks. Before treatment, BP was comparable in both groups; it increased significantly in the WT but not in the cPLA2α-/- after treatment. Bone marrow transplantation experiments showed that cPLA2α in blood cells and plasma eicosanoid concentrations were not involved in BP elevation by L-NAME treatment. Activation of cPLA2α and subsequent production of eicosanoids in the aortic endothelium but not in aortic smooth muscle cell, heart, or kidney was observed after L-NAME treatment. Aortic ring assays revealed that endothelial function was comparable in both groups of mice before treatment. L-NAME treatment disturbed endothelial function in WT but not in cPLA2α-/-.
These results suggest that endothelial cPLA2α may play a principal role in L-NAME-induced hypertension and may be a target molecule for maintaining endothelial function under NO inhibition.
Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the α subunit of the potassium current I(Kr). It is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes and its mutations cause long QT syndrome type 2. Heat shock protein (Hsp)70 is known to promote maturation of hERG. Hsp70 and heat shock cognate (Hsc70) 70 has been suggested to play a similar function. However, Hsc70 has recently been reported to counteract Hsp70.
We investigated whether Hsc70 counteracts Hsp70 in the control of wild-type and mutant hERG stability.
Coexpression of Hsp70 with hERG in HEK293 cells suppressed hERG ubiquitination and increased the levels of both immature and mature forms of hERG. Immunocytochemistry revealed increased levels of hERG in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface. Electrophysiological studies showed increased I(Kr). All these effects of Hsp70 were abolished by Hsc70 coexpression. Heat shock treatment of HL-1 mouse cardiomyocytes induced endogenous Hsp70, switched mouse ERG associated with Hsc70 to Hsp70, increased I(Kr), and shortened action potential duration. Channels with disease-causing missense mutations in intracellular domains had a higher binding capacity to Hsc70 than wild-type channels and channels with mutations in the pore region. Knockdown of Hsc70 by small interfering RNA or heat shock prevented degradation of mutant hERG proteins with mutations in intracellular domains.
These results indicate reciprocal control of hERG stability by Hsp70 and Hsc70. Hsc70 is a potential target in the treatment of LQT2 resulting from missense hERG mutations.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Circulation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A combination therapy of a low-dose antihypertensive diuretic with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) may have unfavorable effects on serum urate levels.
Forty-two hypertensive patients without hyperuricemia (18 men and 24 women, mean age 65 years) were randomly divided into three groups. Each of the group was allocated to a combination therapy with losartan (LOS; CAS 124750-99-8; 50 mg/day)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; CAS 58-93-5; 12.5 mg/day) (LOS/HCTZ group), telmisartan (TEL; CAS 144701-48-4; 40 mg/day)/HCTZ (12.5 mg/day) (TEL/HCTZ group), or candesartan (CND; CAS 145040-37-5; 8 mg/day)/HCTZ (12.5 mg/day) (CND/HCTZ group), respectively. Before and after the treatment, blood pressure and biochemical parameters of blood and urine were evaluated.
Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures significantly decreased in all groups (p < 0.01) without any statistical differences. The LOS/HCTZ group showed no changes in serum urate levels (5.8 +/- 1.0 mg/dl to 5.8 +/- 1.4 mg/dl) and in % fractional excretion of urate (FEUA). In the TEL/HCTZ group, the serum urate level was significantly increased, from 5.5 +/- 0.9 mg/dl to 6.5 +/- 1.2 mg/dl (p < 0.01), whereas FEUA significantly decreased (p < 0.01). Similarly, the CND/HCTZ group showed a significant increase in the serum urate level from 5.4 +/- 0.9 mg/dl to 6.0 +/- 1.2 mg/dl (p < 0.01) and a significant decrease in FEUA (p < 0.01). No significant differences were found in fasting plasma glucose and electrolytes levels in any of the groups.
A combination therapy with a low-dose HCTZ and ARBs resulted in reduced urate excretion and elevated serum urate levels. A combination therapy with the ARB losartan was not accompanied with these effects, likely because of its inhibitory action on urate transporter 1. The study limitations deserve mention in consideration of ethic restrictions, small size, short term examination and uncontrolled design.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Arzneimittel-Forschung
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors are often prescribed to relieve severe ischemic leg pain in critical ischemic limb patients. Prescription of high doses of aspirin and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors is reported to increase cardiovascular events through suppression of the vasodilative prostanoid prostaglandin I(2) in endothelium. Here, we evaluated the influence of aspirin and etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on neovascularization using a murine ischemia hind limb model. C57BL/6J mice were treated with aspirin or etodolac for twenty-eight days after induction of ischemia. We exploited a concentration of the agents that suppressed cyclooxygenase activity efficiently, especially in prostaglandin I(2) production. Recovery of limb blood perfusion and capillary density in ischemic limbs was significantly suppressed by etodolac treatment when compared to the aspirin treated group and untreated group. Production of 6-keto prostaglandin F(1alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) was lower in the aspirin treated group when compared with the etodolac-treated group. Also, these concentrations were lower in both treatment groups compared with the untreated group. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested cyclooxygenase-2 was expressed in endothelium but not in inflammatory cells in ischemic tissue from the acute to chronic phase. Cyclooxygenase-1 was expressed strongly in inflammatory cells in the acute phase. Furthermore, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell transplantation improved neovascularization, whereas aspirin and etodolac did not inhibit these effects. Production of arachidonic acid metabolites by transplanted cells was independent of the improvement of neovascularization. In conclusion, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces ischemia-induced neovascularization.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · European journal of pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fenofibrate have been illustrated to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) pathway, which plays pivotal roles in neovascularization. Here, we evaluated the effect of fenofibrate on neovascularization using a murine ischemic hindlimb model. C57BL/6J mice were treated with fenofibrate and/or NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) for 28 days after ischemia operation. We exploited a concentration of L-NAME that did not affect blood pressure levels but suppress NO activity. Limb blood perfusion and capillary density in ischemic limb, serum NO levels, and aortic NOS activity were significantly increased by fenofibrate treatment when compared with the untreatment group. And, these effects were abolished by coadministration of L-NAME. Fenofibrate treatment significantly lowered serum triglyceride levels. Cotreatment of L-NAME did not inhibit serum triglyceride level, lowering effect of fenofibrate. These results suggested that the lowering in serum triglyceride levels is not involved in the improvement of neovascularization. In an in vitro experiment, fenofibrate stimulated NOS activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Also, fenofibrate stimulated in vitro angiogenesis, and this effect was abolished by coincubation with L-NAME. In conclusions, fenofibrate enhanced neovascularization in a murine hindlimb ischemia model. The mechanism is most likely through activation of NO pathway in endothelial cells.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous cell implantation and angiogenic gene therapy have been evaluated in critical limb ischemic patients. Here, we compared the features of these strategies individually and in combination. C57BL/6J mice with ischemic hindlimbs were injected with adherent mononuclear cells (aMNCs) from bone marrow or adenovirus encoding the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene (Ad-HGF). Under comparable angiogenic conditions, 10 x 10(5) aMNCs produced significantly higher amounts of VEGF and FGF-2 and stimulated the number of arterioles in ischemic muscle compared with 1 x 10(8) plaque-forming units (pfu) of Ad-HGF. Ad-HGF produced 10 times more HGF in ischemic muscle compared with aMNCs. Injection of 0.3 x 10(5) aMNCs previously transfected with Ad-HGF (aMNC/Ad-HGF) increased blood flow and elevated the numbers of capillaries and arterioles to levels comparable with that seen with 10 x 10(5) aMNCs or 1 x 10(8) pfu of Ad-HGF. Hypoxic conditions induced the apoptotic death of aMNCs. However, coincubation with HGF or aMNC/Ad-HGF protected cells against apoptosis. HGF stimulated the migration of aMNCs, and the migration capacity of the aMNC/Ad-HGF group was significantly higher than that in the aMNC/Ad-LacZ group. In conclusion, cell-based HGF gene therapy decreased the number of cells required for neovascularization. This strategy can be an effective angiogenic therapy.