[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermotoga thermarum Windberger et al. 1989 is a member to the genomically well charac-terized genus Thermotoga in the phylum 'Thermotogae'. T. thermarum is of interest for its origin from a continental solfataric spring vs. predominantly marine oil reservoirs of other members of the genus. The genome of strain LA3T also provides fresh data for the phylogenomic positioning of the (hyper-)thermophilic bacteria. T. thermarum strain LA3 T is the fourth sequenced genome of a type strain from the genus Thermotoga, and the sixth in the family Thermotogaceae to be formally described in a publication. Phylogenetic analyses do not reveal significant discrepancies between the current classification of the group, 16S rRNA gene data and whole-genome sequences. Nevertheless, T. thermarum significantly dif-fers from other Thermotoga species regarding its iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, as it contains only a minimal set of the necessary proteins. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,039,943 bp long chro-mosome with its 2,015 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclo-pedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Introduction Strain LA3 T (= DSM 5069 = NBRC 107925) is the type strain of the species Thermotoga thermarum , one out of currently nine species in the genus Thermotoga . The genus name was derived from the Greek word thermê, heat, and the Latin word toga, Roman outer garment; Thermotoga,
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Standards in Genomic Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ERGO TM (http://ergo.integratedgenomics.com/ ERGO/) genome analysis and discovery suite is an integration of biological data from genomics, bio-chemistry, high-throughput expression profiling, genetics and peer-reviewed journals to achieve a comprehensive analysis of genes and genomes. Far beyond any conventional systems that facilitate functional assignments, ERGO combines pattern-based analysis with comparative genomics by visua-lizing genes within the context of regulation, expres-sion profiling, phylogenetic clusters, fusion events, networked cellular pathways and chromosomal neighborhoods of other functionally related genes. The result of this multifaceted approach is to provide an extensively curated database of the largest avail-able integration of genomes, with a vast collection of reconstructed cellular pathways spanning all domains of life. Although access to ERGO is provided only under subscription, it is already widely used by the academic community. The current version of the system integrates 500 genomes from all domains of life in various levels of completion, 403 of which are available for subscription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) data warehouse integrates genomes from all three domains of life, as well as plasmids,
viruses and genome fragments. IMG provides tools for analyzing and reviewing the structural and functional annotations of
genomes in a comparative context. IMG’s data content and analytical capabilities have increased continuously since its first
version released in 2005. Since the last report published in the 2012 NAR Database Issue, IMG’s annotation and data integration
pipelines have evolved while new tools have been added for recording and analyzing single cell genomes, RNA Seq and biosynthetic
cluster data. Different IMG datamarts provide support for the analysis of publicly available genomes (IMG/W: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/w), expert review of genome annotations (IMG/ER: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/er) and teaching and training in the area of microbial genome analysis (IMG/EDU: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/edu).
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frateuria aurantia (ex Kondô and Ameyama 1958) Swings et al. 1980 is a member of the bispecific genus Frateuria in the family Xanthomonadaceae, which is already heavily targeted for non-type strain genome sequencing. Strain Kondô 67T was initially (1958) identified as a member of ‘Acetobacter aurantius’, a name that was not considered for the approved list. Kondô 67T was therefore later designated as the type strain of the newly proposed acetogenic species Frateuria aurantia. The strain is of interest because of its triterpenoids (hopane family). F. aurantia Kondô 67T is the first member of the genus Frateura whose genome sequence has been deciphered, and here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,603,458-bp long chromosome with its 3,200 protein-coding and 88 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Standards in Genomic Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome sequencing enhances our understanding of the biological world by providing blueprints for the evolutionary and functional diversity that shapes the biosphere. However, microbial genomes that are currently available are of limited phylogenetic breadth, owing to our historical inability to cultivate most microorganisms in the laboratory. We apply single-cell genomics to target and sequence 201 uncultivated archaeal and bacterial cells from nine diverse habitats belonging to 29 major mostly uncharted branches of the tree of life, so-called 'microbial dark matter'. With this additional genomic information, we are able to resolve many intra- and inter-phylum-level relationships and to propose two new superphyla. We uncover unexpected metabolic features that extend our understanding of biology and challenge established boundaries between the three domains of life. These include a novel amino acid use for the opal stop codon, an archaeal-type purine synthesis in Bacteria and complete sigma factors in Archaea similar to those in Bacteria. The single-cell genomes also served to phylogenetically anchor up to 20% of metagenomic reads in some habitats, facilitating organism-level interpretation of ecosystem function. This study greatly expands the genomic representation of the tree of life and provides a systematic step towards a better understanding of biological evolution on our planet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective comparative analysis of microbial genomes requires a consistent and complete view of biological data. Consistency regards the biological coherence of annotations, while completeness regards the extent and coverage of functional characterization for genomes. We have developed tools that allow scientists to assess and improve the consistency and completeness of microbial genome annotations in the context of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) family of systems. All publicly available microbial genomes are characterized in IMG using different functional annotation and pathway resources, thus providing a comprehensive framework for identifying and resolving annotation discrepancies. A rule based system for predicting phenotypes in IMG provides a powerful mechanism for validating functional annotations, whereby the phenotypic traits of an organism are inferred based on the presence of certain metabolic reactions and pathways and compared to experimentally observed phenotypes. The IMG family of systems are available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov/.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niabella soli Weon et al. 2008 is a member of the Chitinophagaceae, a family within the class Sphingobacteriia that is poorly characterized at the genome level, thus far. N. soli strain JS13-8T is of interest for its ability to produce a variety of glycosyl hydrolases. The genome of N. soli strain JS13-8T is only the second genome sequence of a type strain from the family Chitinophagaceae to be published, and the first one from the genus Niabella. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,697,343 bp long chromosome with its 3,931 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Standards in Genomic Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Desulfurococcus fermentans is the first known cellulolytic archaeon. This hyperthermophilic and strictly anaerobic crenarchaeon produces hydrogen from
fermentation of various carbohydrates and peptides without inhibition by accumulating hydrogen. The complete genome sequence
reported here suggested that D. fermentans employs membrane-bound hydrogenases and novel glycohydrolases for hydrogen production from cellulose.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulfobacillus acidophilus Norris et al. 1996 is a member of the genus Sulfobacillus which comprises five species of the order Clostridiales. Sulfobacillus species are of interest for comparison to other sulfur and iron oxidizers and also have biomining applications. This is the first completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Sulfobacillus, and the second published genome of a member of the species S. acidophilus. The genome, which consists of one chromosome and one plasmid with a total size of 3,557,831 bp harbors 3,626 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes, and is a part of the Genomic
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Holophaga foetida Liesack et al. 1995 is a member of the phylum Acidobacteria and is of interest for its ability to anaerobically degrade aromatic compounds and for its production of volatile sulfur compounds through a unique pathway. The genome of H. foetida strain TMBS4T is the first to be sequenced for a representative of the class Holophagae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence (improved high quality draft), and annotation. The 4,127,237 bp long chromosome with its 3,615 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Standards in Genomic Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, a family in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria that is currently poorly characterized at the genome level. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Standards in Genomic Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Halopiger xanaduensis is the type species of the genus Halopiger and belongs to the euryarchaeal family Halobacteriaceae. H. xanaduensis strain SH-6, which is designated as the type strain, was isolated from the sediment of a salt lake in Inner Mongolia, Lake Shangmatala. Like other members of the family Halobacteriaceae, it is an extreme halophile requiring at least 2.5 M salt for growth. We report here the sequencing and annotation of the 4,355,268 bp genome, which includes one chromosome and three plasmids. This genome is part of a Joint Genome Institute (JGI) Community Sequencing Program (CSP) project to sequence diverse haloarchaeal genomes.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Standards in Genomic Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available
genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG integrates publicly available draft and complete genomes from all three
domains of life with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the
annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been continuously
extended through regular updates since its first release in March 2005. IMG is available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov. Companion IMG systems provide support for expert review of genome annotations (IMG/ER: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/er), teaching courses and training in microbial genome analysis (IMG/EDU: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/edu) and analysis of genomes related to the Human Microbiome Project (IMG/HMP: http://www.hmpdacc-resources.org/img_hmp).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most important aspects of genomic analysis is the prediction of which pathways, both metabolic and non-metabolic, are present in an organism. In IMG, this is carried out by the assignment of IMG terms, which are organized into IMG pathways. Based on manual and automatic assignment of IMG terms, the presence or absence of IMG pathways is automatically inferred. The three categories of pathway assertion are asserted (likely present), not asserted (likely absent), and unknown. In the unknown category, at least one term necessary for the pathway is missing, but an ortholog in another organism has the corresponding term assigned to it. Automatic pathway inference is an important initial step in genome analysis.
Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Standards in Genomic Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The integrated microbial genomes and metagenomes (IMG/M) system provides support for comparative analysis of microbial community
aggregate genomes (metagenomes) in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG/M integrates metagenome data sets with isolate
microbial genomes from the IMG system. IMG/M's data content and analytical capabilities have been extended through regular
updates since its first release in 2007. IMG/M is available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov/m. A companion IMG/M systems provide support for annotation and expert review of unpublished metagenomic data sets (IMG/M ER:
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Nucleic Acids Research