Apiradee Theamboonlers

Chulalongkorn University, Siayuthia, Bangkok, Thailand

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Publications (248)466.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects ≥ 180 million individuals worldwide especially those living in developing countries. Recent advances in direct-acting therapeutics promise effective treatments for chronic HCV carriers, but only if the affected individuals are identified. Good treatment coverage therefore requires accurate epidemiological data on HCV infection. In 2014, we determined the current prevalence of HCV in Thailand to assess whether over the past decade the significant number of chronic carriers had changed. In total, 5964 serum samples from Thai residents between 6 months and 71 years of age were obtained from 7 provinces representing all 4 geographical regions of Thailand and screened for the anti-HCV antibody. Positive samples were further analyzed using RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis to identify the prevailing HCV genotypes. We found that 56 (0.94%) samples tested positive for anti-HCV antibody (mean age = 36.6±17.6 years), while HCV RNA of the core and NS5B subgenomic regions was detected in 23 (41%) and 19 (34%) of the samples, respectively. The seropositive rates appeared to increase with age and peaked in individuals 41-50 years old. These results suggested that approximately 759,000 individuals are currently anti-HCV-positive and that 357,000 individuals have viremic HCV infection. These numbers represent a significant decline in the prevalence of HCV infection. Interestingly, the frequency of genotype 6 variants increased from 8.9% to 34.8%, while the prevalence of genotype 1b declined from 27% to 13%. These most recent comprehensive estimates of HCV burden in Thailand are valuable towards evidence-based treatment coverage for specific population groups, appropriate allocation of resources, and improvement in the national public health policy.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Human rotavirus A (RVA) is the major infectious virus causing acute watery diarrhea in children, especially those younger than 5years of age, and is a major public health problem in Thailand. Outbreaks of this virus have been reported worldwide. Besides the common genotypes, unusual genotypes providing evidence of inter-species transmission have also been described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of RVA in Thailand. A total of 688 samples were collected from children who were hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Chumphae Hospital in Khon Kaen and Chulalongkorn Hospital in Bangkok. RVA was detected using one-step RT-PCR and the genotypes were evaluated by sequencing. Overall, 204 of the 688 samples (30%) were positive for RVA. Nine genotypes were identified: three common in humans (G1P[8] [53%], G2P[4] [18%], G3P[8] [12%]), one feline-like (G3P[9] [1%]), four porcine-like (G4P[6] [0.5%], G5P[6] [0.5%], G9P[8] [0.5%], G12P[6] [1.5%]), and one bovine-like (G8P[8] [13%]) genotype. The variation in virus genotypes and the animal-like genotypes detected in this study suggested that a high diversity of RVA types is circulating in the Thai population. Therefore, continuous molecular epidemiological monitoring of RVA is essential and has implications for the national vaccination program.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was associated with severe lower respiratory tract infection and neurological abnormalities including acute myelitis and cranial nerve dysfunction. To determine whether the increased incidence of EV-D68 also occurs in Southeast Asia, we retrospectively tested specimens collected from Thai pediatric patients less than five years of age presented with acute respiratory tract infections between 2012 and 2014. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing of the 5'UTR/VP2 region were used to identify EV-D68. We also examined the epidemiological pattern of EV-D68 since 2009 when it was first identified in Thailand and compiled clinical manifestations of children with confirmed EV-D68 infection. From the total of 837 samples, 5 samples (0.6%) were confirmed positive for EV-D68. All patients presented viral pneumonia and required hospitalization. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4/VP2 regions revealed that EV-D68 strains circulating in Thailand during the past three years were closely related to the strains reported in Japan, United Kingdom, China, and France. Continued surveillance of probable EV-D68-associated severe respiratory tract infection and the development of rapid diagnostic test for EV-D68 are essential in assisting awareness and facilitating disease prevention and control.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Japanese journal of infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Under selective pressure from the host immune system, antigenic epitopes of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) have continually evolved to escape antibody recognition, termed antigenic drift. We analyzed the genomes of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strains circulating in Thailand between 2010 and 2014 and assessed how well the yearly vaccine strains recommended for the southern hemisphere matched them. We amplified and sequenced the HA gene of 120 A(H3N2) and 81 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus samples obtained from respiratory specimens and calculated the perfect-match vaccine efficacy using the pepitope model, which quantitated the antigenic drift in the dominant epitope of HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the A(H3N2) HA1 genes classified most strains into genetic clades 1, 3A, 3B, and 3C. The A(H3N2) strains from the 2013 and 2014 seasons showed very low to moderate vaccine efficacy and demonstrated antigenic drift from epitopes C and A to epitope B. Meanwhile, most A(H1N1)pdm09 strains from the 2012–2014 seasons belonged to genetic clades 6A, 6B, and 6C and displayed the dominant epitope mutations at epitopes B and E. Finally, the vaccine efficacy for A(H1N1)pdm09 (79.6–93.4%) was generally higher than that of A(H3N2). These findings further confirmed the accelerating antigenic drift of the circulating influenza A(H3N2) in recent years.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects an estimated two billion people worldwide. Since 1992, Thailand implemented universal HBV vaccination as part of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) for newborns. This study aims to compare genotypes and characterize HBV by assessing pre-S/S and basic core promoter (BCP)/precore (PC) mutations in populations born before and after EPI implementation. A nationwide serosurvey conducted in 2014 assessed the impact of universal HBV vaccination in Thailand. Two cohort groups were established based on whether they were born before or after 1992. HBV DNA was amplified from HBsAg positive samples by PCR and sequenced. HBV genotypes, pre-S/S regions and BCP/PC mutations were characterized. From a total of 5,964 subjects, there were 2,805 (47.0%) and 3,159 (53.0%) individuals who were born before and after EPI implementation, respectively. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 2.2%. The prevalence of HBsAg was significantly higher in the before EPI group (4.3%) than in the after EPI group (0.3%) (P< 0.001). HBV DNA was detected in 119 samples; 111 HBV-positive samples (93%) were genotype C (subgenotype C1). The "a" determinant mutation was only detected in the "before EPI" group. Twenty-two years after implementation of the EPI program, the HBV carrier rate is significantly reduced. The most prevalent genotype for the remaining HBV was C1. The "vaccine escape" mutant, especially the "a" determinant, was not detected after the launch of the EPI program, and the current HBV vaccine remains highly effective. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Medical Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis, a re-emerging public health problem, is uncommon in infancy. Two healthy completely immunized infants presenting with manifestations compatible with osteoarticular infection required surgical debride-ment. The cultures of the specimens were positive for M. tuberculosis (MTB) complex comprised multiple subspecies. One case was misdiagnosed as a Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) related osteomyelitis by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on detection of genes at the region of difference 1. Genome extraction and PCR using the rimM gene and sequences analysis against MTB and BCG control samples confirmed that both specimens were infected by M. tuberculosis. The lesions were successfully healed within one year. Surgical debridement of suspected lesions is warranted in infants as a definitive treatment and to obtain tissues for further evaluation. Microbiological cultures only confirm nonspecific MTB complex infection. PCR kits may yield a false positive result. Identification of the pathogen by DNA extraction and sequence analysis should be recommended.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Norovirus is a leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, affecting developing and developed countries, both children and adults. This study describes an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis at a daycare center of a tertiary level hospital in Bangkok, Thailand during October 2014. Although none of the staff became symptomatic, 8 01 11 children attending the center and 4 of their household contacts developed acute gastroenteritis. No pathogenic bacteria or rotavirus were detected in their evaluation; however, 3 out of 7 stool samples from the cases were positive for norovirus GII.17. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis with sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed the viral strain was the same strain reported from Taiwan in 2013. Because norovirus is a frequent cause of outbreaks in crowded conditions, early detection and preventive measures are important to control outbreaks.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Global burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated at 150 million individuals, or 3% of the world's population. The distribution of the seven major genotypes of HCV varies with geographical regions. Since Asia has a high incidence of HCV, we assessed the distribution of HCV genotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. From 588 HCV-positive samples obtained throughout Thailand, we characterized the HCV 5' untranslated region, Core, and NS5B regions by nested PCR. Nucleotide sequences obtained from both the Core and NS5B of these isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results were compared to the epidemiological data of HCV genotypes identified within Southeast Asian. Among the HCV subtypes characterized in the Thai samples, subtype 3a was the most predominant (36.4%), followed by 1a (19.9%), 1b (12.6%), 3b (9.7%) and 2a (0.5%). While genotype 1 was prevalent throughout Thailand (27-36%), genotype 3 was more common in the south. Genotype 6 (20.9%) constituted subtype 6f (7.8%), 6n (7.7%), 6i (3.4%), 6j and 6m (0.7% each), 6c (0.3%), 6v and 6xa (0.2% each) and its prevalence was significantly lower in southern Thailand compared to the north and northeast (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively). Within Southeast Asia, high prevalence of genotype 6 occurred in northern countries such as Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, while genotype 3 was prevalent in Thailand and Malaysia. Island nations of Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines demonstrated prevalence of genotype 1. This study further provides regional HCV genotype information that may be useful in fostering sound public health policy and tracking future patterns of HCV spread.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Bufavirus (BuV) was initially discovered in fecal samples from children with acute diarrhea. In this study, we determined the prevalence, distribution, and genotype(s) of BuV in Thailand. A total of 1,495 diarrheal and 741 non-diarrheal stool specimens were collected and analyzed. A portion of the NS1 gene of BuV was amplified by nested RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to classify the BuV strains found. We detected bufavirus (BuV) in diarrheal (4/1495; 0.27 %) but not in non-diarrheal specimens (0/726). All four strains belonged to BuV genotype 1. BuV could be detected in adults and children, but its role in causing acute diarrhea remains unclear.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Archives of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in developing countries are associated with contaminated food or water. Although Thailand is non-endemic for HEV, sporadic infections may occur from zoonotic transmission. Individuals between 7 months to 69 years (mean age = 32.8) from predominantly Islamic Narathiwat (n = 305) and swine farm-dense Lop Buri (n = 416) provinces were screened for anti-HEV and anti-HAV antibodies by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and automated chemiluminescent micro-particle immunoassay, respectively. Seroprevalence and relative antibody titers were analyzed according to age groups. HAV IgG antibody positive rates in Lop Buri and Narathiwat residents were 39.9% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.001). Greater than 90% of individuals >50 years old in both provinces possessed anti-HAV IgG. In contrast, seroprevalence for anti-HEV IgG was much higher in Lop Buri (37.3%) than in Narathiwat (8.9%) (p< 0.001). Highest anti-HEV IgG prevalence was found among 21-30 year-olds (50%) in Lop Buri and 41-50 year-olds (14.1%) in Narathiwat. In summary, fewer individuals possessed anti-HEV IgG in Narathiwat where most residents abstained from pork and fewer swine farms are present. Therefore, an increased anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence was associated with the density of swine farm and possibly pork consumption. Adults were more likely than children to have antibodies to both HEV and HAV.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (HCVcAg) concentrations correlate with HCV RNA levels in HCV monoinfected patients. Data in HCV/HIV coinfected patients are still limited. We aim to compare the use of HCVcAg measurement with respect to HIV status, HCV genotypes, interferon-lambda-4 (IFNL4) polymorphism and clinical parameters. Methods: We analyzed an untreated cohort of 104 patients with HCV monoinfection and 85 patients with HCV/HIV coinfection. Serum HCVcAg was measured by a commercial chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The presence of IFNL4 polymorphism ss469415590 was identified by real-time PCR. Results: log10 HCVcAg levels were significantly correlated with corresponding log10 HCV RNA levels (r = 0.889, p < 0.001), but not with ALT levels and liver stiffness. The correlation between HCV RNA and HCVcAg was particularly high in coinfected patients and those with high viremia. Mean log10 HCVcAg concentration was significantly higher in coinfected patients than in monoinfected patients. Patients harboring the TT/TT genotype of ss469415590 had significantly higher levels of log10 HCVcAg than those with the non-TT/TT genotype. HCVcAg levels were similar across HCV genotypes. Conclusions: HCVcAg concentrations had an excellent correlation with HCV RNA levels, particularly in HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals and might be associated with IFNL4 polymorphism. HCVcAg testing could be used as an alternative to HCV RNA assays in resource-limited settings.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks are often attributed to viral infection. In 2014, an unprecedented nationwide outbreak of infectious conjunctivitis occurred in Thailand, which affected >300 000 individuals over 3 months. To identify and characterize the virus responsible for the epidemic, eye swab specimens from 119 patients were randomly collected from five different provinces. Conserved regions in the enteroviral 5′-UTR and adenovirus hexon gene were analysed. Enterovirus was identified in 71·43% (85/119) of the samples, while no adenovirus was detected. From enterovirus-positive samples, the coxsackievirus A24 variant (70·59%, 84/119) and echovirus (0·84%, 1/119) were identified. Additional sequencing of full-length VP1 and 3C genes and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that these clinical isolates form a new lineage cluster related to genotype IV-C5. In summary, the coxsackievirus A24 variant was identified as an aetiological agent for the recent acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreak in Thailand.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Epidemiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus is a major cause of influenza pandemics and can infect several host species including humans and animals. The objective of this study was to develop a one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) for the detection of genetically diverse influenza A viruses from both human and animal hosts. First, a set of two inner and two outer primers were designed based on the conserved region of the matrix (M) gene of influenza A viruses. The amplification reaction was optimized at 63 o C for 60 min and performed in a simple heat block. The amplicons could be visualized either by gel electrophoresis or by visual analysis upon addition of SybrGreen. The developed LAMP assay was tested with 50 influenza A isolates including H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N4 from swine, avian and human hosts. In sensitivity test, the assay detection capability was ten times more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and comparable to real time RT-PCR. In summary, this assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive assay suitable for less-equipped laboratories and thus can be utilized in the field as a screening test.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Thai veterinary medicine
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    ABSTRACT: An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand. The diphtheria outbreak in northeastern Thailand occurred among adults aged > or =15 years; sporadic cases occurred among children from upper southern Thailand. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 890 Thai adults from 4 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years) in 7 different geographical areas of Thailand (Chiang Mai, Ratchaburi, Chon Buri, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phitsanulok, Khon Kaen and Songkhla). Diptheria toxin antibody levels were measured with a commercially available ELISA test. The seroprotection rate ranged from 83% to 99%, with the highest in eastern Thailand (Chon Buri, 99%) and the lowest in northern Thailand (Chiang Mai, 83%). Diphtheria antibodies declined with increasing age. We recommend one doseof diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (dT) vaccine once after 20 years of age in order to boost the antibody and revaccinations every 10 years to prevent future outbreaks.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To report clinical outcomes and viral genotypes of acute symptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEY) infection in Thailand. Methods: Forty patients with acute symptomatic HEY infection were recruited during 2009-2013. Clinical, demographic and laboratory data were collected. Diagnosis was accomplished by detection of anti-HEY IgM and/or HEY RNA in the serum or stool. HEY genotypes were classified by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products and phylogenetic analysis. Results: The high risk group, comprising immune-compromised, liver cirrhosis and very elderly (>80 years) patients (17 cases), had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase at presentation compared with the low risk group. Two fatal cases resulted from acute hepatitis E in the high risk group. Initial clinical presentation did not show statistically significant differences. In six cases (6/40), the virus could tic detected in scrum or stool by RT-PCR and sequencing. Upon molecular characterization, the viruses were classified as HEV genotype 3f and were in the same cluster as Thai swine REV. Conclusions: Our data showed that acute HEY infection has various clinical presentations and outcomes. Higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase were observed in high risk patients. All isolated viruses were identified as HEY genotype 3f possibly originating from swine.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Timely antibiotic initiation for acute pyelonephritis (APN) can prevent renal complications. We investigated whether urine heparin binding protein (UHBP), a cytokine released from activated neutrophils, was a useful diagnostic tool for APN. Febrile children with presumed APN were prospectively enrolled between January and September 2013, and divided into two groups based on urine cultures. UHBP levels were measured at enrollment in all children and 1 month after antibiotic treatment in children with APN. UHBP levels in children with APN at baseline and 1 month versus controls were 47.0 ± 8.4 and 16.6 ± 3.8 vs. 15.0 ± 2.9 ng/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). Test performance characteristics were calculated against a gold standard of positive urine cultures and compared with leukocyte esterase (LE) and nitrite measured by dipsticks and pyuria by microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity for UHBP levels ≥34 ng/mL were 100 and 100 %. Spearman's rank coefficient was used to assess the associations between routine laboratory tests and UHBP levels. Significant positive correlations were found with pyuria grade (Spearman's rho = 0.62; p < 0.001), neutrophil count (rho = 0.38; p = 0.03), and platelet count (rho = 0.39; p = 0.03). Conclusions: UHBP is a valid adjunctive diagnostic tool for aiding clinicians in making rapid treatment decisions for APN.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · European Journal of Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory illness in infants and young children. In order to classify the HPIV isolates circulating in the central part of Thailand, 650 samples obtained from the lower respiratory tract of patients from two hospital pediatric wards during 2010 to 2013, were analyzed for the presence and types of HPIVs by multiplex semi-nested PCR of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene. The results showed that 4.8% of the samples were positive for HPIV, among which 0.5%, 2.5% and 1.5% were positive for HPIV-1, HPIV-3, and HPIV-4, respectively, and none were positive for HPIV-2. A phylogenetic tree constructed from 31 HPIV HN gene sequences compared to those in GenBank showed greater than 80% identity to other reference strains. Prevalence of HPIV infection and phylogenetic characteristics of the circulating HPIVs may help explain the impact of HPIVs infection in Thai children.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health

Publication Stats

4k Citations
466.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993-2016
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Siayuthia, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2006
    • Bangkok University
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2005
    • King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital
      Siayuthia, Bangkok, Thailand