[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Aims:
To analyze the relationship between maternal, cord blood and neonatal procalcitonin (PCT) levels in preterm deliveries with and without histologically proven chorioamnionitis (HCA).
91 mother-infant pairs from 24+0 to 33+0 gestational weeks were analyzed. Procalcitonin was measured in all mothers within 24 hours before and subsequently in cord blood and in neonates within the first two hours after delivery. PCT levels were analysed in relationship to HCA and clinical outcome.
HCA was confirmed in 28 cases (31%). We found no differences in PCT values between HCA positive and negative groups in maternal blood (0.1±0.1 vs 0.09±0.09 ng/L, P = 0.76). PCT values in cord blood and neonates were significantly higher in the HCA positive compared to HCA negative group (0.23±0.1 vs 1.2±2.7 ng/L, P < 0.001 and 0.89±3.4 vs 4.2±9.3 ng/L, P < 0.0001 respectively). PCT values in neonates were significantly higher than those of cord blood. Levels were not influenced by the mode of delivery, gestational age or premature rupture of membranes. Chorioamnionitis was more frequently associated with early onset neonatal sepsis (36% in HCA group vs 5% in non HCA group, P < 0.0001). Comparison of other clinical data revealed no differences between HCA positive and negative groups.
This study showed higher PCT in cord and neonatal blood in the presence of proven histological chorioamnionitis. The measurement of PCT in mothers' blood is not helpful for diagnosis of HCA. The changes in PCT values shown suggest its production and release by fetal tissue.
Full-text available · Article · Sep 2016 · Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Introduction and hypothesisDuring vaginal delivery, the levator ani muscle (LAM) undergoes severe deformation. This stress can lead to stretch-related LAM injuries. The objective of this study was to develop a sophisticated MRI-based model to simulate changes in the LAM during vaginal delivery. MethodsA 3D finite element model of the female pelvic floor and fetal head was developed. The model geometry was based on MRI data from a nulliparous woman and 1-day-old neonate. Material parameters were estimated using uniaxial test data from the literature and by least-square minimization method. The boundary conditions reflected all anatomical constraints and supports. A simulation of vaginal delivery with regard to the cardinal movements of labor was then performed. ResultsThe mean stress values in the iliococcygeus portion of the LAM during fetal head extension were 4.91–7.93 MPa. The highest stress values were induced in the pubovisceral and puborectal LAM portions (mean 27.46 MPa) at the outset of fetal head extension. The last LAM subdivision engaged in the changes in stress was the posteromedial section of the puborectal muscle. The mean stress values were 16.89 MPa at the end of fetal head extension. The LAM was elongated by nearly 2.5 times from its initial resting position. Conclusions
The cardinal movements of labor significantly affect the subsequent heterogeneous stress distribution in the LAM. The absolute stress values were highest in portions of the muscle that arise from the pubic bone. These areas are at the highest risk for muscle injuries with long-term complications.
Full-text available · Article · Aug 2016 · International Urogynecology Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives: Respiratory morbidity in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with high mortality and adverse outcome. Accurate prenatal diagnosis is essential for prognosis and potential treatment in utero. The aim was to evaluate the prenatal ultrasound findings in assessing the respiratory prognosis in fetuses with isolated left-sided CDH. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 59 prenatally diagnosed left-sided CDH cases managed at a tertiary perinatal center. Results: Survival rate in the study group was 73% (43/59). We found no statistically significant relationship between survival and the presence of polyhydramnios, gestational age at diagnosis, lung-to-head ratio (LHR) and observed/expected LHR (O/E LHR) values, gestational age at birth and birth weight. Intrathoracic liver herniation was a statistically significant parameter adversely affecting survival (37.2% in survivors, 68.8% in non-survivors, p = 0.031) and logistic regression confirmed this relationship. The presence of pneumothorax and severe pulmonary hypertension were significantly associated with mortality (82% non-survivors versus 15% in survivors, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Intrathoracic liver herniation seems to be a reliable parameter in the prediction of survival and neonatal respiratory morbidity in fetuses with isolated left-sided CDH. In contrast, we found no significant correlation between perinatal outcome and LHR, O/E LHR values, birth weight and gestational age.
Article · Mar 2016 · Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Breastfeeding is known to reduce infant morbidity and improve well-being. Nevertheless, breastfeeding rates remain low despite public health efforts. Our study aims to investigate the effect of controlled limited formula usage during birth hospitalisation on breastfeeding, using the primary hypothesis that early limited formula feeds in infants with early weight loss will not adversely affect the rate of exclusive or any breastfeeding as measured at discharge, 3 and 6 months of age.
Material and methods:
We randomly assigned 104 healthy term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, with ≥ 5% loss of birth weight to controlled limited formula (CLF) intervention (10 ml formula by syringe after each breastfeeding, discontinued at onset of lactation) or control group (standard approach, SA). Groups were compared for demographic data and breastfeeding rates at discharge, 3 months and 6 months of age (p-values adjusted for multiple testing).
Fifty newborns were analysed in CLF and 50 in SA group. There were no differences in demographic data or clinical characteristics between groups. We found no evidence of difference between treatment groups in the rates of exclusive as well as any breastfeeding at discharge (p-value 0.2 and >0.99 respectively), 3 months (p-value 0.12 and 0.10) and 6 months of infants' age (p-value 0.45 and 0.34 respectively). The percentage weight loss during hospitalisation was significantly higher in the SA group (7.3% in CLF group, 8.4% in SA group, p = 0.002).
The study shows that controlled limited formula use does not have an adverse effect on rates of breastfeeding in the short and long term. Larger studies are needed to confirm a possible potential in controlled limited formula use to support establishing breastfeeding and to help to improve the rates of breastfeeding overall.
ISRCTN registry ISRCTN61915183.
Full-text available · Article · Feb 2016 · PLoS ONE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to measure the volume of gestational sac and amniotic sac in physiological pregnancies and missed abortion. We wanted to create nomograms for individual weeks of gestation.
Retrospective cohort study.
Institute for the Care of Mother and Child, Prague.
The study randomized 413 women after spontaneous conception. The patients were divided into two groups: women with physiological pregnancy and childbirth in the period (374), and women with pregnancy terminated by missed abortion. Both groups were performed measurement volume of gestational and amniotic sac in the first trimester of pregnancy. Analysis was performed using 4D View software applications, and volume calculations were performed using VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer Aided anaLysis).
We have created the first in the Czech Republic nomograms volumes of gestational and amniotic sac in physiological pregnancies and missed abortion. We performed a correlation between the size of gestational sac and prosperity pregnancy.
In our study we found no correlation between the volume of gestational sac and the development of the pregnancy.
Article · May 2015 · Ceska gynekologie / Ceska lekarska spolecnost J. Ev. Purkyne
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Among gynaecological cancers, epithelial ovarian cancers are the most deadly cancers while endometrial cancers are the most common diseases. Efforts to establish relevant novel diagnostic, screening and prognostic markers are aimed to help reduce the high level of mortality, chemoresistance and recurrence, particularly in ovarian cancer. MicroRNAs, the class of post-transcriptional regulators, have emerged as the promising diagnostic and prognostic markers associated with various diseased states recently. Urine has been shown as the source of microRNAs several years ago; however, there has been lack of information on urine microRNA expression in ovarian and endometrial cancers till now. In this pilot study, we examined the expression of candidate cell-free urine microRNAs in ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer patients using quantitative real-time PCR. We compared the expression between pre- and post-surgery ovarian cancer samples, and between patients with ovarian and endometrial cancers and healthy controls, within three types of experiments. These experiments evaluated three different isolation methods of urine RNA, representing two supernatant and one exosome fractions of extracellular microRNA. In ovarian cancer, we found miR-92a significantly up-regulated, and miR-106b significantly down-regulated in comparison with control samples. In endometrial cancer, only miR-106b was found down-regulated significantly compared to control samples. Using exosome RNA, no significant de-regulations in microRNAs expression could be found in either of the cancers investigated. We propose that more research should now focus on confirming the diagnostic potential of urine microRNAs in gynaecological cancers using more clinical samples and large-scale expression profiling methods.
Full-text available · Article · Apr 2015 · Pathology & Oncology Research