Vicente Sanchis

Universitat de Lleida, Lérida, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (248)519.07 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · World Mycotoxin Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Human exposure to aflatoxins in foods is of great concern. The aim of this work was to use predictive mycology as a strategy to mitigate the aflatoxin burden in pistachio nuts postharvest. The probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, isolated from pistachio nuts, under static and non-isothermal conditions was studied. Four theoretical temperature scenarios, including temperature levels observed in pistachio nuts during shipping and storage, were used. Two types of inoculum were included: a cocktail of 25 A. flavus isolates and a single isolate inoculum. Initial water activity was adjusted to 0.87. Logistic models, with temperature and time as explanatory variables, were fitted to the probability of growth and AFB1 production under a constant temperature. Subsequently, they were used to predict probabilities under non-isothermal scenarios, with levels of concordance from 90 to 100% in most of the cases. Furthermore, the presence of AFB1 in pistachio nuts could be correctly predicted in 70-81 % of the cases from a growth model developed in pistachio nuts, and in 67-81% of the cases from an AFB1 model developed in pistachio agar. The information obtained in the present work could be used by producers and processors to predict the time for AFB1 production by A. flavus on pistachio nuts during transport and storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Food Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Cytotoxicity of ochratoxin A (OTA) was evaluated using the MTS assay, and membrane integrity was measured using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). A transwell system was used to investigate the effect of OTA on the expression of the CYP450 (1A1, 2A6, 2B6, 3A4 and 3A5), NAT2, COX-2, LOX-5, and MRP2 genes in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. TEER decreased by a mean of 63.2% after 24 h in Caco-2 differentiated cells without inducing cell detachment; revealing damage to the intestinal epithelial cell tight junction proteins and an increase in cell permeability. Gene expression analysis showed that modulation of gene expression by OTA was higher in Caco-2 cells than in HepG2 cells, and generally, the duration of exposure to OTA had a more significant effect than the OTA dose. A general OTA down-regulation effect was observed in Caco-2 cells, in contrast with the down- and up-regulation observed in HepG2 cells. In Caco-2 cells, CYP1A1 was the gene with the highest regulation, followed by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Conversely, in HepG2 cells, CYP2B6 was highly regulated at 3 and 12 h compared to the other cytochromes; CYP1A1 was slightly modulated during the first 12 h, but an overexpression was observed at 24 h. Our data support the involvement of the COX-2 and 5-LOX genes in liver metabolism of OTA. On the basis of the gene expression analysis, the results suggest a possible impairment in OTA secretion at the intestinal and hepatic level due to MRP2 repression. In addition, we provide evidence of the effect of OTA on NAT2 gene expression, which had not been reported before.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize the mycoflora of sorghum grains commercialized in the Tunisian retail market and to identify aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) producing species. Sixty four samples of sorghum (37 samples of Tunisian sorghum and 27 samples of Egyptian sorghum) were analyzed. Dilution plating (CFU, colony forming units) was used for fungal enumeration. The isolation of mycobiota was carried out by plating of grains on PDA and malachite green medium. Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and Fusarium isolates were sub-cultured in CYA to test their ability to produce AFs, OTA and ZEA, respectively. The selected Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri, Penicillium and Fusarium isolates were subjected to specific PCR assays using published species-specific primers. The results revealed the dominance of Fusarium (95.3%), followed by Aspergillus (87.2%) and Alternaria (81.2%) species. The fungal counts ranged from 100 to 1.3·104CFU/g for Tunisian sorghum and from 100 to 5.7·103CFU/g for Egyptian sorghum. Among Aspergillus section Flavi isolates identified by molecular biology, Aspergillus flavus was the most dominant (90.1%) while Aspergillus parasiticus represent 9.9% only. About Aspergillus section Nigri, results showed the dominance of Aspergillus niger aggregate species, including Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis and other species. Among Fusarium species, Fusarium incarnatum was the most dominant in both Tunisian and Egyptian sorghum. Penicillium citrinum was the dominant Penicillium species in the studied samples. More than 890 isolates belonging to the genus Aspergillus and Fusarium were tested in order to test their capacity to produce AFs, OTA and ZEA. The percentage of mycotoxin producing isolates in Aspergillus section Flavi, A. section Nigri, and Fusarium was 30.0%, 4.6% and 11.1%, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Stored Products Research
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    ABSTRACT: Bio-geographical differences in fungal infection distribution have been observed around the world, confirming that the climatic conditions are decisive in colonization. This research is focused on the impact of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on Aspergillus species, based on the consideration that an increase in UV-B radiation may have large ecological effects. Conidia of six mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species isolated from vineyards located in the Northeast and South of Spain were incubated for 15 days under light/dark cycles and temperatures between 20 to 30 °C per day. Additionally, six hours of exposure to UV-A or UV-B radiation per day were included in the light exposure. UV irradiance used were 1.7 ± 0.2 mW·cm(-2) of UV-A (peak 365 nm) and 0.10 ± 0.2 mW·cm(-2) of UV-B (peak 312 nm). The intrinsic decrease of viability of conidia along time was accentuated when they were UV irradiated. UV-B radiation was more harmful. Conidial sensitivity to UV light was marked in A. section Circumdati. Conidia pigmentation could be related to UV sensitivity. Different resistance was observed within species belonging to sections Flavi and Nigri. An increase in UV radiation could lead to a reduction in the Aspergillus spp. inoculum present in field (vineyards, nuts, cereal crops). In addition, it could unbalance the spore species present in field leading to a higher predominance of dark pigmented conidia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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    Arnau Vidal · Vicente Sanchis · Antonio J Ramos · Sonia Marín
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    ABSTRACT: The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during thermal processing has been studied. Baking temperature, time and initial mycotoxin concentration in the raw materials were assayed as factors. An improved UPLC-MS/MS method to detect DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON and DOM-1 in wheat baked products was developed in the present assay. The results highlighted the importance of temperature and time in mycotoxin stability in heat treatments. OTA is more stable than DON in a baking treatment. Interestingly, the DON-3-glucoside concentrations increased (>300%) under mild baking conditions. On the other hand, it was rapidly reduced under harsh conditions. The 3-ADON decreased during the heat treatment; while DOM-1 increased after the heating process. Finally, the data followed first order kinetics for analysed mycotoxins and thermal constant rates (k) were calculated. This parameter can be a useful tool for prediction of mycotoxin levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to mycotoxins through dietary food intake involves a highly complex scenario where co-contamination of different mycotoxins has been frequently demonstrated. On the other hand, the effect of the interaction of mycotoxins with other generally considered beneficial food components, as the antioxidants, has been scarcely studied. The main goal of the present work was to assess the cytotoxic effects on Caco-2 cells of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA), alone or combined, and to explore potential protective effects of resveratrol (RES), an antioxidant frequently found in wine. In parallel, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has also been studied as a first approach to understand the underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity. Results indicate a higher toxic effect of the mycotoxins when they are co-exposed. This increase in cytotoxicity was not accompanied by an increase in ROS production. The co-exposure of OTA or DON with RES did not result in a decrease in cytotoxicity; on the contrary, it resulted in increased cytotoxicity not associated with an increase in ROS production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Toxicology in Vitro
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    ABSTRACT: Fusarium graminearum not only reduces yield and seed quality but also constitutes a risk to public or animal health owing to its ability to contaminate grains with mycotoxins. Resistance problems are emerging and control strategies based on new targets are needed. Polyamines have a key role in growth, development and differentiation. In this work, the possibility of using polyamine metabolism as a target to control F. graminearum has been assessed. It was found that putrescine induces mycotoxin production, correlating with an over expression of TRI5 and TRI6 genes. In addition, a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TPO4 involved in putrescine excretion was up-regulated as putrescine concentration increased while DUR3 and SAM3 homologues, involved in putrescine uptake, were down-regulated. When 2.5 mM D, l-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) was added to the medium, DON production decreased from 3.2 to 0.06 ng/mm(2) of colony and growth was lowered by up to 70 per cent. However, exogenous putrescine could overcome DFMO effects. Five polyamine transport inhibitors were also tested against F. graminearum. AMXT-1505 was able to completely inhibit in vitro growth and DON production. Additionally, AMXT-1505 blocked F. graminearum growth in inoculated wheat spikes reducing DON mycotoxin contamination from 76.87 μg/g to 0.62 μg/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Food Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of two exposure times per day (6 and 16 h) of UV-A or UV-B radiation, combined with dark and dark plus light incubation periods during 7-21 d on fungal growth and mycotoxins production of Aspergillus species were studied. Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus parasiticus were inoculated on grape and pistachio media under diurnal and nocturnal temperatures choosing light photoperiod according to harvest conditions of these crops in Spain. Ultraviolet irradiation had a significant effect on A. carbonarius and A. parasiticus colony size (diameter, biomass dry weight, and colony density) and mycotoxin accumulation, although intraspecies differences were observed. Inhibition of A. carbonarius fungal growth decreased when exposure time was reduced from 16 h to 6 h, but this was not always true for ochratoxin A (OTA) production. OTA reduction was higher under UV-A than UV-B radiation and the reduction increased along time conversely to the aflatoxins (AFs). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the main toxin produced by A. parasiticus except in the UV-B light irradiated colonies which showed a higher percentage of AFG than AFB. Morphological changes were observed in colonies grown under UV-B light. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Fungal Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The contamination of food commodities by fungal toxins has attracted great interest because many of these mycotoxins are responsible for different diseases, including cancer and other chronic illnesses. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin naturally present in food, and long-term exposure to food contaminated with low levels of OTA has been associated with renal cancer. In the present study, the cytotoxicity, cytostaticity, and genotoxicity of OTA (0.075-15 µM) in human lymphocytes were evaluated. A comet assay, a modified comet assay (DNA repair assay), which uses N-hydroxyurea (NHU) to detect non-repaired lesions produced by OTA, and a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay were used. Treatments with OTA were not cytotoxic, but OTA caused a cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes at a concentration of 15 µM. OTA (0.075-5 µM) produced a slight increase in the percentage of DNA in the comets and a delay in the DNA repair capacity of the lymphocytes. Micronucleus (MN) induction was observed at OTA concentrations of 1.5 and 5 µM. Our results indicate that OTA induces DNA stable damage at low doses that are neither cytotoxic nor cytostatic, and OTA delays the DNA repair kinetics. These findings indicate that OTA affects two pivotal events in the carcinogenesis pathway.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Food and Chemical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotcodn produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species with immunosuppressive, teratogenic, and carcinogenic properties. It has been determined that wine is the second largest source of OTA (10% of total OTA intake) in the European diet and that its presence, even in small doses, can be a problem in terms of long-term toxicity. In this paper, we evaluated the bioaccessibility of OTA in a spiked red wine sample under human fasting conditions using an in vitro dynamic digestion model that includes a continuous-flow dialysis system to simulate intestinal passage. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first examining the bioaccessibility of OTA in wine. A liquid-liquid method was used to extract the OTA and ochratoxin alpha (OT alpha) from gastrointestinal juices, and the extracts were analysed by HPLC with a fluorescence detector. The bioaccessibility of OTA from the spiked red wine (1.0, 2.0 and 4 mu g/l) was high in the gastric compartment (102.8, 128.3 and 122.3%, respectively), whereas in the simulated intestine, it did not exceed 26%, and the amount of OTA that crossed the dialysis membrane was very low (<3.3%). The amount of OT alpha in gastric chyme ranged from 5.1 to 19.1% of the spiked OTA, whereas in the intestinal compartment it did not exceed 5%. In conclusion, in the in vitro system assayed, OTA exhibited a high bioaccessibility in the simulated stomach, but it decreased after the intestinal digestion and passage through the dialysis membrane.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · World Mycotoxin Journal
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    Daiana Garcia · Antonio J Ramos · Vicente Sanchis · Sonia Marín
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to compare the radial growth rate (μ) and the lag time (λ) for growth of 25 isolates of Penicillium expansum at 1 and 20ºC with those of the mixed inoculum of the 25 isolates. Moreover, the evolution of probability of growth through time was also compared for the single strains and mixed inoculum. Working with a mixed inoculum would require less work, time and consumables than if a range of single strains has to be used in order to represent a given species. Suitable predictive models developed for a given species should represent as much as possible the behavior of all strains belonging to this species. The results suggested, on one hand, that the predictions based on growth parameters calculated on the basis of mixed inocula may not accurately predict the behavior of all possible strains but may represent a percentage of them, and the median/mean values of μ and λ obtained by the 25 strains may be substituted by the value obtained with the mixed inoculum. Moreover, the predictions may be biased, in particular, the predictions of λ which may be underestimated (fail-safe). Moreover, the prediction of time for a given probability of growth through a mixed inoculum may not be accurate for all single inocula, but it may represent 92% and 60% of them at 20 and 1ºC, respectively, and also their overall mean and median values. In conclusion, mixed inoculum could be a good alternative to estimate the mean or median values of high number of isolates, but not to account for those strains with marginal behavior. In particular, estimation of radial growth rate, and time for 0.10 and 0.50 probability of growth using a cocktail inoculum accounted for the estimates of most single isolates tested. For the particular case of probability models, this is an interesting result as for practical applications in the food industry the estimation of t10 or lower probability may be required.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The fate of deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during the breadmaking process was studied. In particular, toxin content was analysed in mixed baking ingredients before kneading, after fermentation and proofing, and finally after baking. Fermentation and proofing were carried out at 30 °C for 1 h, while baking was performed at different temperature levels (from 170 to 210 °C) and baking times from 45 to 135 min, in a full factorial design. DON increased from unkneaded mix to fermented dough, and decreased due to baking; this trend depended on the initial concentration of DON in the flour. The level in the bread was significantly lower than in the initial mix of ingredients. In contrast, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G) content increased both during kneading and fermentation, and also during baking. Moreover, the results confirmed the high stability of OTA as no significant change in its content could be observed as a result of the breadmaking process. As conclusion, the design of bakery product processes may help to control DON in final products, because although quite stable, its levels can be reduced to some extent. However, high levels of DON-3-G were released during baking, and this point should be further investigated. Mycotoxins have been always considered as stable compounds; however, in depth knowledge of the processing steps that may lead to some reduction (although limited) and those which can stimulate their release from conjugated forms, will definitely help in their control in finished foodstuffs.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Food Control
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    N Bellí · A J Ramos · V Sanchis · S Marín

    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014
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    A Vidal · S Marín · H Morales · A.J. Ramos · V Sanchis
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by fungal species which can contaminate, alone or simultaneously, cereal-based products such as bread. Due to the increasing interest in the beneficial effects of dietary bran, bran bread has attained high consumption. Usually, the higher mycotoxin concentrations in cereals are found in the external layers of the grain (bran), leading to higher concentration of DON and OTA in breads with added bran. Moreover, the use of sourdough in breadmaking is increasing, but no studies about its effect in the mycotoxins content exist. The objective of this study was to determine the variation of concentration of these mycotoxins during the breadmaking process including the following factors: two initial mycotoxin concentrations in the initial mix of ingredients, four different bran contents, and use of sourdough. OTA was confirmed to be quite stable during the breadmaking process, regardless of the assayed factors. DON concentration during breadmaking was not significantly affected by bran content of bread. However, it was significantly affected by kneading and fermentation steps in different way depending on sourdough use and flour contamination level: if DON reduction occurs during fermentation, this leads to a safer situation, but the possible increase in DON should be considered with care, as it can compensate the expected dilution effect by recipe. Finally, the results on deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), although preliminar, suggest an increase of this toxin during fermentation, but mainly during baking.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from berries from different agroclimatic regions of Spain. Growth characterization (in terms of temperature and water activity requirements) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger was carried out on synthetic grape medium. A. tubingensis and A. niger showed higher maximum temperatures for growth (>45°C versus 40-42°C), and lower minimum aw requirements (0.83aw versus 0.87aw) than A. carbonarius. No differences in growth boundaries due to their geographical origin were found within A. niger aggregate isolates. Conversely, A. carbonarius isolates from the hotter and drier region grew and produced OTA at lower aw than other isolates. However, little genetic diversity in A. carbonarius was observed for the microsatellites tested and the same sequence of β-tubulin gene was observed; therefore intraspecific variability did not correlate with the geographical origin of the isolates or with their ability to produce OTA. Climatic change prediction points to drier and hotter climatic scenarios where A. tubingensis and A. niger could be even more prevalent over A. carbonarius, since they are better adapted to extreme high temperature and drier conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · International journal of food microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The food production and processing value chain is under pressure from all sides—increasing demand driven by a growing and more affluent population; dwindling resources caused by urbanization, land erosion, pollution and competing agriculture such as biofuels; and increasing constraints on production methods driven by consumers and regulators demanding higher quality, reduced chemical use, and most of all environmentally beneficial practices ‘from farm to fork’. This pressure can only be addressed by developing efficient and sustainable agricultural practices that are harmonized throughout the value chain, so that renewable resources can be exploited without damaging the environment. Bridges must, therefore, be built between the diverse areas within the food production and processing value chain, including bridges between different stages of production, between currently unlinked agronomic practices, and between the different levels and areas of research to achieve joined-up thinking within the industry, so that the wider impact of different technologies, practices and materials on productivity and sustainability is understood at the local, regional, national and global scales. In this article, we consider the challenges at different stages and levels of the value chain and how new technologies and strategies could be used to build bridges and achieve more sustainable food/feed production in the future.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Molecular Breeding

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2013
  • A Crespo-Sempere · S Marín · V Sanchis · A.J. Ramos
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    ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, teratogenic and immunotoxic properties which represents a serious risk for human and animal health. Aspergillus carbonarius is considered the main OTA-producing species in grapes and products such as raisins, wine or juices, although it has also been isolated from coffee, cocoa and cereals. Till now not much information is available about regulatory mechanisms of OTA production by A. carbonarius. A better understanding of how environmental factors influence OTA production and which genes are involved in its regulation could help us design new control strategies. In this study, we have evaluated the role of VeA and LaeA transcriptional factors, which have been shown to regulate secondary metabolism in response to light in A. carbonarius. To this aim, veA and laeA genes were deleted in an ochratoxigenic A. carbonarius strain by targeted gene replacement using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Loss of veA and laeA in A. carbonarius yields to an organism with slight differences in vegetative growth but a strong reduction in conidial production. A drastic decrease of OTA production that ranged from 68.5 to 99.4% in ΔveA and ΔlaeA null mutants was also observed, which was correlated with a downregulation of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase involved in OTA biosynthesis. These findings suggest that VeA and LaeA have an important role regulating conidiation and OTA biosynthesis in response to light in A. carbonarius in a similar way to other fungi where functions of VeA and LaeA have been previously described. This is the first report of a transcriptional factor governing the production of OTA by A. carbonarius.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · International journal of food microbiology