Frank L Greenway

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States

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Publications (236)1252.54 Total impact

  • Candida J Rebello · Carol E O'Neil · Frank L Greenway
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    ABSTRACT: This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Nutrition Reviews
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    Jeffrey H. Burton · William D. Johnson · Frank L. Greenway

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmacology & Pharmacy
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic studies have identified a glutamate-ammonia ligase gene (GLUL) polymorphism associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to determine whether GLUL rs10911021 is associated prospectively with adjudicated cardiovascular composite end points among overweight/obese individuals with T2D and whether a lifestyle intervention resulting in weight loss could diminish this association. Look AHEAD is a randomized, controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), including weight loss and physical activity, relative to diabetes support and education, on cardiovascular outcomes. Look AHEAD participants included in this report were 3,845 overweight/obese individuals with T2D who provided consent for genetic analyses. Over a median of 9.6 years of follow-up, the risk (C) allele for GLUL rs10911021 was significantly associated with the primary composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for angina among individuals with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline using additive genetic models (hazard ratio 1.17(95% CI 1.01-1.36]; P = 0.032). Results appeared more consistent in recessive models and among individuals with no known history of CVD at baseline; ILI did not alter these associations. These results extend the association of GLUL rs10911021 to incident CVD morbidity and mortality in the setting of T2D.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes
  • Candida J Rebello · Jeffrey Burton · Mark Heiman · Frank L Greenway
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a gastrointestinal microbiome modulator (GIMM) containing inulin, β-glucan, blueberry anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols on metabolic parameters, fecal markers of gut microbiota, and satiety. Design and methods: Thirty overweight or obese individuals aged 18 to 70years, were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Participants consumed the test product or placebo daily for four weeks. Stool samples were collected and blood was drawn at baseline and week four for assessments of gut microbiota, satiety hormones, glucose control, and lipid measures. Subjective satiety was assessed weekly. Linear models were used to compare differences from baseline to week four. Results: GIMM consumption improved blood glucose tolerance (p=0.008), and increased satiety (p=0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in insulin sensitivity, fecal markers of gut microbiota, plasma satiety hormones, or serum lipid concentrations between the groups. However, plasma satiety hormones and fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations increased in the test group compared to the placebo. Conclusions: GIMM consumption for four weeks, increases satiety, and improves glucose tolerance possibly through insulin-independent pathways.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of diabetes and its complications
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    ABSTRACT: Prowashonupana barley (PWB) is high in β-glucan with moderate content of resistant starch. PWB reduced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) in wild type Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, N2), and in sir-2.1 or daf-16 null mutants, and sustained a surrogate marker of lifespan, pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR), in N2, sir-2.1, daf-16, or daf-16/daf-2 mutants. Hyperglycaemia (2% glucose) reversed or reduced the PWB effect on IFD in N2 or daf-16/daf-2 mutants with a sustained PPR. mRNA expression of cpt-1, cpt-2, ckr-1, and gcy-8 were dose-dependently reduced in N2 or daf-16 mutants, elevated in daf-16/daf-2 mutants with reduction in cpt-1, and unchanged in sir-2.1 mutants. mRNA expressions were increased by hyperglycaemia in N2 or daf-16/daf-2 mutants, while reduced in sir-2.1 or daf-16 mutants. The effects of PWB in the C. elegans model appeared to be primarily mediated via sir-2.1, daf-16, and daf-16/. daf-2. These data suggest that PWB and β-glucans may benefit hyperglycaemia-impaired lipid metabolism.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Functional Foods
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    ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery is effective in reducing body weight and obesity-related comorbidities. This study examined differences in the short-term effect of Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on the hedonic rating of food. Predominantly black women with complicated obesity and a BMI>50g/m(2) completed a validated food preference questionnaire before and 1-3 months following surgery. Analysis of preference scores indicated that the preference for fat decreased with both surgeries. VSG also decreased the preference for sugar. Further studies are needed to evaluate long term effects of surgery on food preferences and to elucidate physiological mechanisms.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Diabetologie und Stoffwechsel
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    ABSTRACT: Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat and help adherence to calorie restriction. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 2 oat-based breakfast cereals on appetite, satiety, and food intake. Forty-eight healthy individuals, 18 years of age or older, were enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric servings of either oatmeal or an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) in random order at least a week apart. Visual analogue scales measuring appetite and satiety were completed before breakfast and throughout the morning. Lunch was served 4 hours after breakfast. The physicochemical properties of oat soluble fiber (β-glucan) were determined. Appetite and satiety responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Food intake and β-glucan properties were analyzed using t tests. Oatmeal increased fullness (p = 0.001) and reduced hunger (p = 0.005), desire to eat (p = 0.001), and prospective intake (p = 0.006) more than the RTEC. Energy intake at lunch was lower after eating oatmeal compared to the RTEC (p = 0.012). Oatmeal had higher viscosity (p = 0.03), β-glucan content, molecular weight (p < 0.001), and radius of gyration (p < 0.001) than the RTEC. Oatmeal suppresses appetite, increases satiety, and reduces energy intake compared to the RTEC. The physicochemical properties of β-glucan and sufficient hydration of oats are important factors affecting satiety and subsequent energy intake.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Caffeine and ephedrine was an effective combination therapy for weight loss until ephedrine was removed from the market due to safety concerns. This study investigated the combination of caffeine and albuterol as a possibly safer alternative to ephedrine. In a series of experiments using cultured adipocytes, rat models, and humans, the effects of caffeine and albuterol on lipolysis, metabolic rate, food intake, and body composition were evaluated. Both caffeine and albuterol enhanced lipolysis in cultured adipocytes. Acute treatment of humans with caffeine and/or albuterol increased resting metabolic rate. Longer-term studies of rats revealed a trend for increased metabolic rate with albuterol treatment. There was increased lean mass gain concurrent with decreased fat mass gain with caffeine/albuterol treatment that was greater than albuterol treatment alone. In rats, albuterol with caffeine produced significantly greater increases in lean body mass and reductions in fat mass without changes in food intake after 4-8 weeks of treatment. Since caffeine and albuterol are approved for the treatment of asthma in children and adolescents at the doses tested and change body composition without changing food intake, this combination may deserve further exploration for use in treating pediatric obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Obesity
  • C J Rebello · C E ONeil · F L Greenway
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolic controls of eating are embedded in a neural system that permits an interaction with the environment. The result is an integrated adaptive response that coordinates the internal milieu with the prevailing environment. Securing adequate amounts of fat and optimizing its storage and use has an evolutionary basis. By generating neuronal and endocrine feedback signals, behavior and metabolism could then adapt to fluctuations in food availability. However, in modern society, foods that appeal to the palate are neither in shortage nor are they difficult to procure. These foods can activate brain reward circuitry beyond their evolved 'survival advantage' limits. Many foods high in fat invoke an undeniably pleasurable sensation and could excessively stimulate the brain's reward pathways leading to overeating. However, the high appeal and potential for being eaten in excess notwithstanding, fat has the added distinction of inducing powerful signals in the gut that are transduced to the brain and result in the regulation of appetite. Fatty acids are sensed by G-protein coupled receptors on enteroendocrine cells which triggers the release of peptides involved in appetite regulation. Lipid sensing may also occur through the fatty acid translocase, CD-36, on enterocytes. Additionally, fat can activate dopaminergic systems affecting reward, to promote an inhibition over eating. Prolonging the presence of fats in the gastrointestinal lumen permits the activation of signaling mechanisms. Thylakoids, found within the chloroplasts of plants, are flattened disc-like membranous vesicles in which the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur. By interacting with lipids and delaying fat digestion, thylakoid membranes promote the release of peptides involved in appetite regulation and may influence the reward system. This review explores gut lipid sensing and signaling in the context of appetite regulation. The effects of thylakoid membranes on eating behavior are also reviewed.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 31 July 2015. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.142.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International journal of obesity (2005)
  • R L Kolotkin · S Chen · P Klassen · K Gilder · F L Greenway
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    ABSTRACT: Weight loss is associated with improved quality of life in some, but not all, weight loss trials. We evaluated changes at 56 weeks in quality of life, measured by the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) questionnaire, in a pooled analysis of patient-level data from four randomized controlled Phase 3 studies of naltrexone/bupropion (NB32 or Contrave®). The total number of subjects was 3362 (NB32 = 2043; placebo = 1319; mean body mass index = 36.3 kg m(2) ; mean age = 46). Improvements in IWQOL-Lite Total Score were greater in subjects treated with NB32 (11.9 points [SE 0.3]) vs. placebo (8.2 points [SE 0.3]; P < 0.001), corresponding to weight reductions of 7.0% (SE 0.2) and 2.3% (SE 0.2), respectively. Greater improvements were also observed for NB32 vs. placebo on all five subscale scores of the IWQOL-Lite. Fifty per cent of NB32-treated subjects achieved clinically meaningful improvements in IWQOL-Lite Total Score vs. 32.3% of placebo-treated subjects (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval; 2.09, 1.79-2.44). Subjects losing the most weight (≥15% of baseline weight) experienced the greatest improvement in IWQOL-Lite Total Score (19.3 points [SE 0.7] for NB32 and 18.7 points [SE 1.3] for placebo; P = 0.624). Improved quality of life was associated with weight reduction and was achieved in more subjects treated with NB32 than placebo. © 2015 World Obesity.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Obesity is a chronic disease with serious health consequences, but weight loss is difficult to maintain through lifestyle intervention alone. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, has been shown to have potential benefit for weight management at a once-daily dose of 3.0 mg, injected subcutaneously. Methods We conducted a 56-week, double-blind trial involving 3731 patients who did not have type 2 diabetes and who had a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of at least 30 or a BMI of at least 27 if they had treated or untreated dyslipidemia or hypertension. We randomly assigned patients in a 2:1 ratio to receive once-daily subcutaneous injections of liraglutide at a dose of 3.0 mg (2487 patients) or placebo (1244 patients); both groups received counseling on lifestyle modification. The coprimary end points were the change in body weight and the proportions of patients losing at least 5% and more than 10% of their initial body weight. Results At baseline, the mean (±SD) age of the patients was 45.1±12.0 years, the mean weight was 106.2±21.4 kg, and the mean BMI was 38.3±6.4; a total of 78.5% of the patients were women and 61.2% had prediabetes. At week 56, patients in the liraglutide group had lost a mean of 8.4±7.3 kg of body weight, and those in the placebo group had lost a mean of 2.8±6.5 kg (a difference of −5.6 kg; 95% confidence interval, −6.0 to −5.1; P<0.001, with last-observation-carried-forward imputation). A total of 63.2% of the patients in the liraglutide group as compared with 27.1% in the placebo group lost at least 5% of their body weight (P<0.001), and 33.1% and 10.6%, respectively, lost more than 10% of their body weight (P<0.001). The most frequently reported adverse events with liraglutide were mild or moderate nausea and diarrhea. Serious events occurred in 6.2% of the patients in the liraglutide group and in 5.0% of the patients in the placebo group. Conclusions In this study, 3.0 mg of liraglutide, as an adjunct to diet and exercise, was associated with reduced body weight and improved metabolic control. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes NN8022-1839 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01272219.)
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
  • Sandra Larrivee · Frank L Greenway · William D Johnson
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    ABSTRACT: Restaurant eating while optimizing nutrition and maintaining a healthy weight is challenging. Even when nutritional information is available, consumers often consider only calories. A quick and easy method to rate both caloric density and nutrition is an unmet need. A food rating system created to address that need is assessed in this study. The food rating system categorizes food items into 3 color-coded categories: most healthy (green), medium healthy (yellow), or least healthy (red) based on calorie density and general nutritional quality from national guidelines. Nutritional information was downloaded from 20 popular fast-food chains. Nutritional assessments and the 3 color coded categories were compared using the Wilcoxon and Median tests to demonstrate the significance of nutrition differences. Green foods were significantly lower than yellow foods, which in turn were significantly lower than red foods, for calories and calories from fat, in addition to content of total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrates per 100 g serving weight (all P < .02). The green foods had significantly lower cholesterol than the yellow (P = .0006) and red (P < .0001) foods. Yellow foods had less sugar than red foods (P < .0001). Yellow foods were significantly higher in dietary fiber than red foods (P = .001). The food rating color-coded system identifies food items with superior nutrition, and lower caloric density. The smartphone app, incorporating the system, has the potential to improve nutrition; reduce the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke; and improve public health. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of diabetes science and technology
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to their fermentable dietary fiber and the soluble β-glucan fiber, oats have unique avenanthramides that have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that reduce coronary heart disease in human clinical trials. We hypothesized that oat consumption will increase insulin sensitivity, reduce body fat, and improve health span in Caenorhabditis elegans through a mechanism involving the daf-2 gene, which codes for the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1-like receptor, and that hyperglycemia will attenuate these changes. Caenorhabditis elegans wild type (N2) and the null strains sir-2.1, daf-16, and daf-16/daf-2 were fed Escherichia coli (OP50) and oat flakes (0.5%, 1.0%, or 3%) with and without 2% glucose. Oat feeding decreased intestinal fat deposition in N2, daf-16, or daf-16/daf-2 strains (P < .05); and glucose did not affect intestinal fat deposition response. The N2, daf-16, or sir-2.1 mutant increased the pharyngeal pumping rate (P < .05), a surrogate marker of life span, following oat consumption. Oat consumption increased ckr-1, gcy-8, cpt-1, and cpt-2 mRNA expression in both the N2 and the sir-2.1 mutant, with significantly higher expression in sir-2.1 than in N2 (P < .01). Additional glucose further increased expression 1.5-fold of the 4 genes in N2 (P < .01), decreased the expression of all except cpt-1 in the daf-16 mutant, and reduced mRNA expression of the 4 genes in the daf-16/daf-2 mutant (P < .01). These data suggest that oat consumption reduced fat storage and increased ckr-1, gcy-8, cpt-1, or cpt-2 through the sir-2.1 genetic pathway. Oat consumption may be a beneficial dietary intervention for reducing fat accumulation, augmenting health span, and improving hyperglycemia-impaired lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Nutrition research
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    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · F1000 Research
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    ABSTRACT: By retarding fat digestion, thylakoids, the internal photosynthetic membrane system of green plants, promote the release of satiety hormones. This study examined the effect of consuming a single dose of concentrated extract of thylakoids from spinach on satiety, food intake, lipids, and glucose compared to a placebo. Sixty overweight and obese individuals enrolled in a double-blind randomized crossover study consumed the spinach extract or placebo in random order at least a week apart. Blood was drawn for assessments of lipids and glucose before a standard breakfast meal, followed 4 hours later by a 5 g dose of the extract and a standard lunch. Visual analog scales were administered before lunch and at intervals until an ad libitum pizza dinner served 4 hours later. Two hours after lunch a second blood draw was conducted. Mixed models were used to analyze response changes. Compared to placebo, consuming the spinach extract reduced hunger (p < 0.01) and longing for food over 2 hours (p < 0.01) and increased postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (p < 0.01). There were no differences in plasma lipids and energy intake at dinner, but males showed a trend toward decreased energy intake (p = 0.08). At this dose, the spinach extract containing thylakoids increases satiety over a 2-hour period compared to a placebo. Thylakoid consumption may influence gender-specific food cravings.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of the American College of Nutrition

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,252.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2015
    • Louisiana State University
      • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 1995-2015
    • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      • Nutrient Sensing and Adipocyte Signaling Laboratory
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2014
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2011
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1977
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States