David G Addiss

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (165)1205.56 Total impact

  • David G Addiss
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    ABSTRACT: Although the importance of spirituality is increasingly recognized in clinical medicine, spirituality is rarely mentioned in the practice, literature, or training programs of global health. To understand the role of spirituality in global health practice and identify factors that influence and limit its expression, I initiated conversations and informal interviews with more than 300 global health leaders, students, and practitioners during 2010-2014. Four spiritual themes or challenges emerged: compassion at a distance; dichotomous thinking; conspiracy of silence; and compulsion to save the world. Practitioners expressed strong interest in bringing spirituality more fully into global health discourse, which could help the field realize its potential.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Bioethics Quarterly
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007-2012. Methodology: Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Principal findings: Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. Conclusions and significance: To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630) in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1-4 years, 5-12 years, and women 15-49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32%) of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71), but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44) or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08). PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24), 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24), and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27) for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97) but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45) or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33). Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures. Conclusions: We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation, and hygiene. Our results suggest that coupling deworming with sanitation and flooring interventions may yield more sustained reductions in STH prevalence.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
  • Eric C. Strunz · Parminder S. Suchdev · David G. Addiss
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) represent two widely prevalent and often overlapping global health problems. Approximately 75% of countries with moderate or severe VAD are coendemic for STH. We reviewed the literature on the complex relationship between STH and VAD. Treatment for STH significantly increases provitamin A (e.g., β-carotene) levels but is associated with minimal increases in preformed vitamin A (retinol). Interpretation of the data is complicated by variations in STH infection intensity and limitations of vitamin A biomarkers. Despite these challenges, increased coordination of STH and VAD interventions represents an important public health opportunity.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Trends in Parasitology
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    Meredith E Stocks · Matthew C Freeman · David G Addiss
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphedema of the leg and its advanced form, known as elephantiasis, are significant causes of disability and morbidity in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), with an estimated 14 million persons affected worldwide. The twin goals of the World Health Organization’s Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis include interrupting transmission of the parasitic worms that cause LF and providing care to persons who suffer from its clinical manifestations, including lymphedema—so-called morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP). Scaling up of MMDP has been slow, in part because of a lack of consensus about the effectiveness of recommended hygiene-based interventions for clinical lymphedema.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL) are often the first clinical sign of lymphatic filariasis (LF). They are often accompanied by swelling of the affected limb, inflammation, fever, and general malaise and lead to the progression of lymphedema. Although ADL episodes have been studied for a century or more, questions still remain as to their etiology. We quantified antibody levels to pathogens that potentially contribute to ADL episodes during and after an episode among lymphedema patients in Léogâne, Haiti. We estimated the proportion of ADL episodes hypothesized to be attributed to specific pathogens.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Limiting the environmental transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), which infect 1.5 billion people worldwide, will require sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective methods to detect and quantify STHs in the environment. We review the state-of-the-art of STH quantification in soil, biosolids, water, produce, and vegetation with regard to four major methodological issues: environmental sampling; recovery of STHs from environmental matrices; quantification of recovered STHs; and viability assessment of STH ova. We conclude that methods for sampling and recovering STHs require substantial advances to provide reliable measurements for STH control. Recent innovations in the use of automated image identification and developments in molecular genetic assays offer considerable promise for improving quantification and viability assessment.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Trends in Parasitology
  • David G Addiss
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    ABSTRACT: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) affects more than one billion people worldwide. WHO aims to control STH as a public health problem by providing periodic anthelminthic treatment to ≥75% of all at-risk children. Tracking progress toward this 2020 goal relies on accurate reporting of drug coverage. For STH, this is difficult because an unknown-but substantial-proportion of deworming occurs outside nationally-administered STH control programs, so-called 'unprogrammed deworming.' Further, coordination of intersectoral efforts needed to administer drugs to different risk groups-and to report coverage to WHO-is inadequate. This paper describes these challenges and offers suggestions to overcome them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    David G Addiss

    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Lancet Infectious Diseases
  • Sören L Becker · Thomas Fürst · David G Addiss · Jürg Utzinger
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    ABSTRACT: Concerted efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis worldwide have registered success; multiple rounds of mass drug administration have led to the interruption of transmission in many previously endemic areas. However, the management of patients with established clinical disease (e.g., lymphoedema, hydrocoele and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis) has not been addressed sufficiently. Two recent studies from Malawi underscore the need for accurate epidemiological and clinical data, and comprehensive morbidity assessments across various domains of daily life. Addressing these issues will guide the implementation of programmes to improve access to treatment and disability prevention for affected individuals in Malawi and beyond. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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    ABSTRACT: Programs for control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are increasingly evaluating national mass drug administration (MDA) interventions. However, "unprogrammed deworming" (receipt of deworming drugs outside of nationally-run STH control programs) occurs frequently. Failure to account for these activities may compromise evaluations of MDA effectiveness. We used a cross-sectional study design to evaluate STH infection and unprogrammed deworming among infants (aged 6-11 months), preschool-aged children (PSAC, aged 1-4 years), and school-aged children (SAC, aged 5-14 years) in Kibera, Kenya, an informal settlement not currently receiving nationally-run MDA for STH. STH infection was assessed by triplicate Kato-Katz. We asked heads of households with randomly-selected children about past-year receipt and source(s) of deworming drugs. Local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and school staff participating in school-based deworming were interviewed to collect information on drug coverage. Of 679 children (18 infants, 184 PSAC, and 477 SAC) evaluated, 377 (55%) reported receiving at least one unprogrammed deworming treatment during the past year. PSAC primarily received treatments from chemists (48.3%) or healthcare centers (37.7%); SAC most commonly received treatments at school (55.0%). Four NGOs reported past-year deworming activities at 47 of >150 schools attended by children in our study area. Past-year deworming was negatively associated with any-STH infection (34.8% vs 45.4%, p = 0.005). SAC whose most recent deworming medication was sourced from a chemist were more often infected with Trichuris (38.0%) than those who received their most recent treatment from a health center (17.3%) or school (23.1%) (p = 0.05). Unprogrammed deworming was received by more than half of children in our study area, from multiple sources. Both individual-level treatment and unprogrammed preventive chemotherapy may serve an important public health function, particularly in the absence of programmed deworming; however, they may also lead to an overestimation of programmed MDA effectiveness. A standardized, validated tool is needed to assess unprogrammed deworming.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    Katherine Gass · David G Addiss · Matthew C Freeman
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    ABSTRACT: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) – a class of parasites that affect billions of people – can be mitigated using mass drug administration, though reinfection following treatment occurs within a few months. Improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) likely provide sustained benefit, but few rigorous studies have evaluated the specific WASH components most influential in reducing infection. There is a need for alternative analytic approaches to help identify, characterize and further refine the WASH components that are most important to STH reinfection. Traditional epidemiological approaches are not well-suited for assessing the complex and highly correlated relationships commonly seen in WASH.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36-0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39-0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28-3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced odds of hookworm infection (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.18-0.47) and infection with any STH (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.83). Handwashing, both before eating (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26-0.55) and after defecating (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35-0.58), was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides infection. Soap use or availability was significantly associated with lower infection with any STH (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.98), as was handwashing after defecation (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.90). Observational evidence constituted the majority of included literature, which limits any attempt to make causal inferences. Due to underlying heterogeneity across observational studies, the meta-analysis results reflect an average of many potentially distinct effects, not an average of one specific exposure-outcome relationship. WASH access and practices are generally associated with reduced odds of STH infection. Pooled estimates from all meta-analyses, except for two, indicated at least a 33% reduction in odds of infection associated with individual WASH practices or access. Although most WASH interventions for STH have focused on sanitation, access to water and hygiene also appear to significantly reduce odds of infection. Overall quality of evidence was low due to the preponderance of observational studies, though recent randomized controlled trials have further underscored the benefit of handwashing interventions. Limited use of the Joint Monitoring Program's standardized water and sanitation definitions in the literature restricted efforts to generalize across studies. While further research is warranted to determine the magnitude of benefit from WASH interventions for STH control, these results call for multi-sectoral, integrated intervention packages that are tailored to social-ecological contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · PLoS Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Trachoma is the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed the SAFE strategy in order to eliminate blindness due to trachoma by 2020 through “surgery,” “antibiotics,” “facial cleanliness,” and “environmental improvement.” While the S and A components have been widely implemented, evidence and specific targets are lacking for the F and E components, of which water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are critical elements. Data on the impact of WASH on trachoma are needed to support policy and program recommendations. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and conduct meta-analyses where possible to report the effects of WASH conditions on trachoma and identify research gaps.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS) is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU) after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS also provides an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of these MDAs on STH and to determine the frequency of school-based MDA for STH after community-wide MDA is no longer needed for LF.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of 117 lymphedema patients in a filariasis-endemic area of Haiti during 1995-2008. No difference in lymphedema progression between those who received or did not receive mass drug administration (MDA) was found on measures of foot (P = 0.24), ankle (P = 0.87), or leg (P = 0.46) circumference; leg volume displacement (P = 0.09), lymphedema stage (P = 0.93), or frequency of adenolymphangitis (ADL) episodes (P = 0.57). Rates of ADL per year were greater after initiation of MDA among both groups (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, patients who received MDA reported improvement in four areas of lymphedema-related quality of life (P ≤ 0.01). Decreases in foot and ankle circumference and ADL episodes were observed during the 1995-1998 lymphedema management study (P ≤ 0.01). This study represents the first longitudinal, quantitative, leg-specific analysis examining the clinical effect of diethylcarbamazine on lymphedema progression and ADL episodes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
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    ABSTRACT: Soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) may affect up to 1 billion children globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends regular preventive chemotherapy for at-risk individuals. The WHO Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT) Databank tracks annual treatments reported by national Ministries of Health (MOHs) to evaluate progress to coverage goals. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) deliver STH treatments; the extent to which they are included in MOH reports to the WHO is unclear. The Global NGO Deworming Inventory solicited treatment reports from NGOs to compare with the PCT Databank. In 2010, NGOs delivered 65.4 million STH treatments, which is an estimated 25.1% of the total delivered. Of these treatments, 23.3 million (35.6%) were not reported to the WHO; 22.3 million (95.7%) were from countries that had not submitted STH treatment reports to the WHO. Reporting from NGOs to MOHs and from MOHs to the WHO should be strengthened to ensure that progress to WHO treatment goals is monitored with better completeness and assessed accurately.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
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    ABSTRACT: Improvements of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure and appropriate health-seeking behavior are necessary for achieving sustained control, elimination, or eradication of many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Indeed, the global strategies to fight NTDs include provision of WASH, but few programs have specific WASH targets and approaches. Collaboration between disease control programs and stakeholders in WASH is a critical next step. A group of stakeholders from the NTD control, child health, and WASH sectors convened in late 2012 to discuss opportunities for, and barriers to, collaboration. The group agreed on a common vision, namely "Disease-free communities that have adequate and equitable access to water and sanitation, and that practice good hygiene." Four key areas of collaboration were identified, including (i) advocacy, policy, and communication; (ii) capacity building and training; (iii) mapping, data collection, and monitoring; and (iv) research. We discuss strategic opportunities and ways forward for enhanced collaboration between the WASH and the NTD sectors.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,205.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004-2015
    • Emory University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1990-2011
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria
      • • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      • • Office of Information Services
      • • Division of Bacterial Diseases
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
    • Ayub Medical College
      Abbottābād, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • 1997-2008
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Georgia
      • Department of Cellular Biology
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 1999
    • Federal University of Pernambuco
      • Hospital das Clinicas
      Arrecife, Pernambuco, Brazil
  • 1998
    • University of South Florida
      • Department of Community and Family Health
      Tampa, FL, United States
  • 1996
    • Zoo Atlanta
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1991
    • Infectious Diseases Society Of America
      Arlington, Virginia, United States