R G E Haylock

Public Health England, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (31)97.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66 632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17 957 were due to solid cancers. Study answer and limitations Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. What this study adds The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated with protracted radiation exposures can help strengthen the foundation for radiation protection standards. Funding, competing interests, data sharing Support from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan; Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire; AREVA; Electricité de France; US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; US Department of Energy; and Public Health England. Data are maintained and kept at the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · BMJ: British medical journal

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence and mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) was studied in an extended cohort of 22,377 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association during 1948 - 1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (1 Gray) were calculated based on maximum likelihood using AMFIT module of the EPICURE software. Dose estimates used in analyses were provided by an updated 'Mayak Worker Dosimetry System - 2008'. A significant increasing linear trend in IHD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays was observed after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from internal radiation (ERR/Gy = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.17). The pure quadratic model provided a better fit of the data than the linear one. No significant association of IHD mortality with total dose from external gamma-rays after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from internal alpha-radiation was observed in the study cohort (ERR/Gy = 0.06 (95% CI: <0, 0.15)). A significant increasing linear trend was observed in IHD mortality with total absorbed dose from internal alpha-radiation to the liver after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from external gamma-rays in both the whole cohort (ERR/Gy = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.58)) and the subcohort of workers exposed at alpha-dose < 1.0 Gy (ERR/Gy = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.34, 2.15)). No association of IHD incidence with total dose from internal alpha-radiation to the liver was found in the whole cohort after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and external gamma-dose (ERR/Gy = 0.02, 95% CI: n/a, 0.10). Statistically significant dose-effect was revealed in the subcohort of workers exposed to internal alpha-radiation at dose to the liver < 1.0 Gy (ERR/Gy = 0.44 95% CI; 0.09, 0.85). This study provides strong evidence of ischemic heart disease incidence and mortality association with external gamma-ray exposure and some evidence of ischemic heart disease incidence and mortality association with internal alpha-radiation exposure. Advances in knowledge: It is the first time when the validity of internal radiation dose estimate was shown to affect the risk of ischemic heart disease incidence.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The British journal of radiology

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is much uncertainty about the risks of leukaemia and lymphoma after repeated or protracted low-dose radiation exposure typical of occupational, environmental, and diagnostic medical settings. We quantified associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposures and leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma mortality among radiation-monitored adults employed in France, the UK, and the USA. Methods We assembled a cohort of 308 297 radiation-monitored workers employed for at least 1 year by the Atomic Energy Commission, AREVA Nuclear Cycle, or the National Electricity Company in France, the Departments of Energy and Defence in the USA, and nuclear industry employers included in the National Registry for Radiation Workers in the UK. The cohort was followed up for a total of 8·22 million person-years. We ascertained deaths caused by leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. We used Poisson regression to quantify associations between estimated red bone marrow absorbed dose and leukaemia and lymphoma mortality. Findings Doses were accrued at very low rates (mean 1·1 mGy per year, SD 2·6). The excess relative risk of leukaemia mortality (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia) was 2·96 per Gy (90% CI 1·17–5·21; lagged 2 years), most notably because of an association between radiation dose and mortality from chronic myeloid leukaemia (excess relative risk per Gy 10·45, 90% CI 4·48–19·65). Interpretation This study provides strong evidence of positive associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposure and leukaemia.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of lung cancer mortality up to 75 years of age due to radon exposure has been estimated for both male and female continuing, ex- and never-smokers, based on various radon risk models and exposure scenarios. We used risk models derived from (i) the BEIR VI analysis of cohorts of radon-exposed miners, (ii) cohort and nested case-control analyses of a European cohort of uranium miners and (iii) the joint analysis of European residential radon case-control studies. Estimates of the lifetime lung cancer risk due to radon varied between these models by just over a factor of 2 and risk estimates based on models from analyses of European uranium miners exposed at comparatively low rates and of people exposed to radon in homes were broadly compatible. For a given smoking category, there was not much difference in lifetime lung cancer risk between males and females. The estimated lifetime risk of radon-induced lung cancer for exposure to a concentration of 200 Bq m(-3) was in the range 2.98-6.55% for male continuing smokers and 0.19-0.42% for male never-smokers, depending on the model used and assuming a multiplicative relationship for the joint effect of radon and smoking. Stopping smoking at age 50 years decreases the lifetime risk due to radon by around a half relative to continuing smoking, but the risk for ex-smokers remains about a factor of 5-7 higher than that for never-smokers. Under a sub-multiplicative model for the joint effect of radon and smoking, the lifetime risk of radon-induced lung cancer was still estimated to be substantially higher for continuing smokers than for never smokers. Radon mitigation-used to reduce radon concentrations at homes-can also have a substantial impact on lung cancer risk, even for persons in their 50 s; for each of continuing smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers, radon mitigation at age 50 would lower the lifetime risk of radon-induced lung cancer by about one-third. To maximise risk reductions, smokers in high-radon homes should both stop smoking and remediate their homes.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Radiological Protection
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    ABSTRACT: In the framework of the International Nuclear Workers Study conducted in France, the UK and the U.S. (INWORKS), updated and expanded methods were developed to convert recorded doses of ionizing radiation to estimates of organ doses or individual personal dose equivalent [Hp(10)] for a total number of 308,297 workers, including 40,035 women. This approach accounts for differences in dosimeter response to predominant workplace energy and geometry of exposure and for the recently published ICRP report on dose coefficients for men and women separately. The overall mean annual individual personal dose equivalent, including zero doses, is 1.73 mSv [median = 0.42; interquartile range (IQR): 0.07, 1.59]. Associated individual organ doses were estimated. INWORKS includes workers who had potential for exposure to neutrons. Therefore, we analyzed neutron dosimetry data to identify workers potentially exposed to neutrons. We created a time-varying indicator for each worker, classifying them according to whether they had a positive recorded neutron dose and if so, whether their neutron dose ever exceeded 10% of their total external penetrating radiation dose. The number of workers flagged as being exposed to neutrons was 13% for the full cohort, with 15% of the cohort in France, 12% of the cohort in the UK and 14% in the U.S. We also used available information on in vivo and bioassay monitoring to identify workers with known depositions or suspected internal contaminations. As a result of this work, information is now available that will allow various types of sensitivity analyses.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Radiation Research
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence and mortality from cerebrovascular disease (CVD) [International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD-9) codes: 430-438] was studied in a cohort of 22,377 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. The cohort size was increased by 19% and follow-up extended by 3 years over the previous analysis. Radiation doses were estimated using an updated dosimetry system: Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008). For the first time, in an analysis of this cohort, quantitative smoking data were used. Workers of the study cohort were exposed occupationally to prolonged external gamma rays and internal alpha particles. The mean (±standard deviation) total dose from external gamma rays was 0.54 ± 0.76 Gy (95% percentile 2.21 Gy) for males and 0.44 ± 0.65 Gy (95% percentile 1.87 Gy) for females. The mean plutonium body burden in the 31% of workers monitored for internal exposure was 1.32 ± 4.87 kBq (95% percentile 4.71 kBq) for males and 2.21 ± 13.24 kBq (95% percentile 4.56 kBq) for females. The mean total absorbed alpha-particles dose to the liver from incorporated plutonium was 0.23 ± 0.77 Gy (95% percentile 0.89 Gy) in males and 0.44 ± 2.11 Gy (95% percentile 1.25 Gy) in females. After adjusting for nonradiation factors (gender, age, calendar period, employment period, facility, smoking, alcohol consumption), there were significantly increasing trends in CVD incidence associated with total absorbed dose from external gamma rays and total absorbed dose to the liver from internal alpha-particle radiation exposure. Excess relative risks per Gy (ERR/Gy) were 0.46 (95% CI 0.37, 0.57) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.16, 0.42), respectively, based on a linear dose-response model. Adjustments for additional factors (hypertension, body mass index, duration of employment, smoking index and total absorbed dose to the liver from internal exposure during the analysis of external exposure and vice versa) had little effect on the results. The categorical analyses showed that CVD incidence was significantly higher among workers with total absorbed external gamma-ray doses greater than 0.1 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses and that CVD incidence was also significantly higher among workers with total absorbed internal alpha-particle doses to the liver from incorporated plutonium greater than 0.01 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses. The results of the categorical analyses of CVD incidence were in good agreement with a linear dose response for external gamma-ray doses but for internal alpha-particle doses the picture was less clear. For the first time an excess risk of CVD mortality was seen in workers whose livers were exposed to internal alpha-particle doses greater than 0.1 Gy compared to those workers who were exposed to doses of less than 0.01 Gy. A significant increasing trend for CVD mortality with internal alpha-particle dose was revealed in the subcohort of workers exposed at doses <1.0 Gy after having adjusted for nonradiation factors, ERR/Gy = 0.84 (95% CI, 0.09, 1.92). These updated results provide good evidence for a linear trend in risk of CVD incidence with external gamma-ray dose. The trend for CVD incidence with internal alpha-particle dose is less clear due to the impact of issues concerning the use of dose estimates based on below the limit of detection bioassay measurements.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Radiation Research
  • Michael Gillies · Richard Haylock
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate cancer mortality and incidence risk associated with external radiation exposure in the BNFL cohort of nuclear workers and to determine if these risks are modified by potential for internal exposure. The cohort comprised 64 956 individuals who were employed at the four study sites between 1946 and 2002, followed up to 2005. External radiation exposures as measured by personal dosimeters (generally 'film badges') were available for 42 431 individuals classified as 'radiation workers'. Poisson regression models were used to investigate cancer mortality and incidence in relation to cumulative external radiation exposure using relative risk models. The cohort showed the expected 'healthy worker' effect. This analysis found an increased risk of all cancers associated with external occupational radiation exposure (ERR/Gy = 0.34 90% CI: 0.07; 0.64), with significant excess risks observed for all solid cancers (ERR/Gy = 0.29 90% CI: 0.02; 0.59) and leukaemia excluding CLL (ERR/Gy = 2.60 90% CI: 0.28; 7.01). The overall cancer risk estimates are consistent with values used by national and international bodies in setting radiation protection standards. The slopes of the dose response relationships for all cancer mortality and incidence were found to be significantly less steep for workers exposed to both external radiation and potentially to internal radiation (ERR/Gy = 0.09 90% CI: -0.17; 0.39) when compared to those workers only exposed to external radiation (ERR/Gy = 1.14 90% CI: 0.49; 1.89). Analyses of individual cancer types indicate that this overall result is mainly driven by that for digestive cancers and in particular cancers of the oesophagus. Categorical analyses also revealed that the difference in the dose response relationship between the two groups is only apparent for those exposed to cumulative external doses in excess of 200 mGy. Such differences have also been observed for non-cancer mortality outcomes in this cohort. Further work is required to explain these differences; for example, whether they may result from confounding by internal organ dose or lifestyle factors associated with socio-economic status.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Radiological Protection
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    ABSTRACT: The new Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008) was published in 2013 and supersedes the Doses-2005 dosimetry system for Mayak Production Association (PA) workers. It provides revised external and internal dose estimates based on the updated occupational history data. Using MWDS-2008, a cohort of 18,856 workers first employed at one of the main Mayak PA plants during 1948-1972 and followed up to 2005 was identified. Incidence and mortality risks from ischemic heart disease (IHD) (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 codes 410-414) and from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) (ICD-9 codes 430-438) were examined in this cohort and compared with previously published risk estimates in the same cohort based on the Doses-2005 dosimetry system. Significant associations were observed between doses from external gamma-rays and IHD and CVD incidence and also between internal doses from alpha-radiation and IHD mortality and CVD incidence. The estimates of excess relative risk (ERR)/Gy were consistent with those estimates from the previous studies based on Doses-2005 system apart from the relationship between CVD incidence and internal liver dose where the ERR/Gy based on MWDS-2008 was just over three times higher than the corresponding estimate based on Doses-2005 system. Adjustment for smoking status did not show any effect on the estimates of risk from internal alpha-particle exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Biophysik
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence of chronic bronchitis has been studied in a cohort of 12,210 workers first employed at one of the main plants of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to 31 December 2005. Information on external gamma doses is available for virtually all of these workers; in contrast, plutonium body burden was measured only for 30% of workers. During the follow-up period in the study cohort 1,175 incident cases of chronic bronchitis were verified. The analyses of nonradiation factors revealed that the underlying risk of chronic bronchitis incidence increased with increasing attained age and was higher among smokers compared with never-smokers as would be expected. The most interesting finding in relationship to nonradiation factors was a sharp increase in the baseline chronic bronchitis risk before 1960. The cause of this is not clear but a number of factors may play a role. Based on the follow-up data after 1960, the analysis showed a statistically significant linear dose response relationship with cumulative external gamma-ray dose (ERR/Gy = 0.14, 95% CI 0.01, 0.32). Based on the same subset but with an additional restriction to members with cumulative internal lung dose below 1 Gy, a statistically significant linear dose response relationship with internal alpha-radiation lung dose from incorporated plutonium was found (ERR/Gy = 2.70, 95% CI 1.20, 4.87). In both cases, adjustment was made for nonradiation factors, including smoking and either internal or external dose as appropriate. At present there are no similar incidence studies with which to compare results. However, the most recent data from the atomic bomb survivor cohort (the Life Span Study) showed statistically significant excess mortality risk for respiratory diseases of 22% per Gy and this value is within the confidence bounds of the point estimate of the risk from this study in relation to external dose.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Radiation Research
  • Colin R. Muirhead · Richard G. E. Haylock

    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Biophysik
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    C R Muirhead · R Haylock
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    ABSTRACT: The BJC is owned by Cancer Research UK, a charity dedicated to understanding the causes, prevention and treatment of cancer and to making sure that the best new treatments reach patients in the clinic as quickly as possible. The journal reflects these aims. It was founded more than fifty years ago and, from the start, its far-sighted mission was to encourage communication of the very best cancer research from laboratories and clinics in all countries. The breadth of its coverage, its editorial independence and it consistent high standards, have made BJC one of the world's premier general cancer journals. Its increasing popularity is reflected by a steadily rising impact factor.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · British Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Following an earlier study of incidence and mortality of ischemic heart disease (IHD) published in 2010, a second analysis has been conducted based on an extended cohort and five additional years of follow-up. The cohort includes 18,763 workers, of whom 25% were females, first employed at the Mayak PA in 1948-1972 and followed up to the end of 2005. Some of these workers were exposed to external gamma rays only, and others were exposed to a mixture of external gamma-rays and internal alpha-particle radiation. A total of 6,134 cases and 2,629 deaths from IHD were identified in the study cohort. A statistically significant increasing trend was found with total external gamma-ray dose in IHD incidence (ERR/Gy 0.099; 95% CI: 0.045-0.153) after adjusting for non-radiation factors. This value reduced slightly when adjusting for internal liver dose. There was no statistically significant increase trend for internal liver dose in IHD incidence. These findings were consistent with an earlier study. New findings in IHD incidence revealed a statistically significant decrease in IHD incidence among workers exposed to external gamma-rays doses of 0.2-0.5 Gy in relation to the external doses below 0.2 Gy. This decreased risk is heavily influenced by female workers. This finding has never been reported in other studies, and the results should be treated with caution. The findings for IHD mortality are similar to those results in the earlier analysis; there was no statistically significant trend with external gamma-ray dose or for internal liver dose after adjustment for external dose. The risk estimates obtained from these analyses of IHD incidence and mortality in relation to external gamma-rays in the cohort of Mayak workers are generally compatible with those from other large occupational radiation worker studies and the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Health physics
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) has been studied in a cohort of 12210 workers first employed at one of the main plants (reactors, radiochemical or plutonium) of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to the end of 2000. Information on external gamma doses is available for virtually all (99.9%) of these workers; the mean (+/- one standard deviation) total gamma dose was 0.91 +/- 0.95 Gy (99% percentile 3.9 Gy) for men and 0.65 +/- 0.75 Gy (99% percentile 2.99 Gy) for women. Plutonium body burden was measured only for 30.0% of workers. Amongst those monitored, the mean (+/- standard deviation) cumulative liver dose from plutonium alpha exposure was 0.40 +/- 1.15 Gy (99% percentile 5.88 Gy) for men and 0.81 +/- 4.60 Gy (99% percentile 15.95 Gy) for women 4418 cases (first diagnosis) of CVD were identified in the studied cohort. A statistically significant increasing trend in CVD incidence with total external gamma dose was revealed after adjustment for non-radiation factors and internal exposure from incorporated plutonium-239. Excess relative risk per Gy was 0.464 (95% confidence interval 0.360-0.567). Incidence of CVD was statistically significantly higher for the workers chronically exposed to external gamma rays at a dose above 1.0 Gy A statistically significant increasing trend in CVD incidence with internal liver dose from plutonium alpha exposure was observed after adjustment for non-radiation factors and external exposure. ERR per Gy was 0.155 (95% confidence interval 0.075-0.235). CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with a plutonium liver dose above 0.1 Gy, although the trend estimates differed between workers at different plants. The incidence risk estimates for external radiation are generally compatible with estimates from the study of Chernobyl clean-up workers, although the incidence data point to higher risk estimates compared to those from the Japanese A-bomb survivors.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk
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    ABSTRACT: Results of the risk analysis of mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the cohort of Mayak nuclear workers (18763 individuals) first employed in 1948-1972, with follow-up to 31.12.2005, were summarized. The mortality risk of IHD in the cohort of Mayak workers depended on the non-radiation factors such as gender, age, calendar period, smoking, alcohol consumption, arterial hypertension, body mass index. There was no statistically significant relationship between mortality from 1HD and total external dose. The risk of mortality from IHD was significantly higher for workers exposed to the total absorbed dose to liver > 0.025 Gy from internal alpha-radiation. There was a significantly increasing trend (ERR/Gy) of the IHD mortality with the total absorbed dose to liver from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium. However, there was a decreasing trend of ERR/Gy with restriction of the follow-up to Ozyorsk and adjustment for the external dose.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence and mortality from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) (430-438 ICD-9 codes) have been studied in a cohort of 18,763 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) in 1948-1972 and followed up to the end of 2005. Some of the workers were exposed to external gamma-rays only while others were exposed to a mixture of external gamma-rays and internal alpha-particle radiation due to incorporated (239)Pu. After adjusting for non-radiation factors, there were significantly increasing trends in CVD incidence with total absorbed dose from external gamma-rays and total absorbed dose to liver from internal alpha radiation. The CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with total absorbed external gamma-ray doses greater than 0.20 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses; the data were consistent with a linear trend in risk with external dose. The CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with total absorbed internal alpha-radiation doses to liver from incorporated (239)Pu greater than 0.025 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses. There was no statistically significant trend in CVD mortality risk with either external gamma-ray dose or internal alpha-radiation dose to liver. The risk estimates obtained are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies, although the incidence data point to higher risk estimates compared to those from the Japanese A-bomb survivors. Further studies of the unique cohort of Mayak workers chronically exposed to external and internal radiation will allow improving the reliability and validating the radiation safety standards for occupational and public exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Biophysik
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of and mortality from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been studied in a cohort of 12,210 workers first employed at one of the main plants of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to 31 December 2000. Information on external γ-ray doses is available for virtually all of these workers (99.9%); the mean total γ-ray dose (± SD) was 0.91 ± 0.95 Gy (99th percentile 3.9 Gy) for men and 0.65 ± 0.75 Gy (99th percentile 2.99 Gy) for women. In contrast, plutonium body burden was measured only for 30.0% of workers; among those monitored, the mean cumulative liver dose from plutonium α-particle exposure (± SD) was 0.40 ± 1.15 Gy (99th percentile 5.88 Gy) for men and 0.81 ± 4.60 Gy (99th percentile 15.95 Gy) for women. A total of 4418 cases of CVD, including 665 cases of stroke, and 753 deaths from CVD, including 404 deaths from stroke, were identified in the study cohort. Having adjusted for non-radiation factors, there were statistically significant increasing trends in CVD incidence but not mortality with both total external γ-ray dose and internal liver dose. Much of the evidence for increased incidence in relation to external dose arose for workers with cumulative doses above 1 Gy. Although the dose response is consistent with linearity, the statistical power to detect non-linearity at external doses below 1 Gy was low. CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with a plutonium liver dose above 0.1 Gy. There was a statistically significant increasing trend in incidence with increasing internal dose, even after adjusting for external dose, although the trend estimates differed between workers at different plants. The risk estimates for external radiation are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies, although the incidence data point to higher risk estimates compared to those from the Japanese A-bomb survivors.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Radiation Research
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular diseases have been studied in a cohort of 12,210 workers first employed at one of the main plants of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to 31 December 2000. Information on external gamma-ray doses is available for virtually all of these workers (99.9%); the mean total gamma-ray dose (+/-SD) was 0.91 +/- 0.95 Gy (99% percentile 3.9 Gy) for men and 0.65 +/- 0.75 Gy (99% percentile 2.99 Gy) for women. In contrast, plutonium body burden was measured for only 30.0% of workers; among those monitored, the mean cumulative liver dose from plutonium alpha exposure (+/- SD) was 0.40 +/- 1.15 Gy (99% percentile 5.88 Gy) for men and 0.81 +/- 4.60 Gy (99% percentile 15.95 Gy) for women. A total of 3751 cases of ischemic heart disease (IHD), including 683 cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and 1495 IHD deaths, including 338 AMI deaths, were identified in the study cohort during the follow-up period. Having adjusted for non-radiation factors, there were statistically significant increasing trends with both total external gamma-ray dose and internal liver dose in IHD incidence. The trend with internal dose was weaker and was not statistically significant after adjusting for external dose, whereas the external dose trend was little changed after adjusting for internal dose. The trend with external dose in IHD mortality was not statistically significantly greater than zero but was consistent with the corresponding trend in IHD incidence. The estimated trend in IHD mortality with internal dose was lower and was not statistically significant once adjustment was made for external dose. There was a statistically significantly increasing trend in AMI incidence but not AMI incidence with external dose. The risk estimates for IHD in relation to external radiation are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies and the Japanese A-bomb survivors.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Radiation Research
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    ABSTRACT: This report from HPA Radiation Protection Division reflects understanding and evaluation of the current scientific evidence as presented and referenced in this document. ABSTRACT Mortality and cancer incidence have been studied in a cohort of about 175,000 persons on the National Registry for Radiation Workers (NRRW) who were followed until the end of 2001. This analysis is based on a larger cohort and nine years' further follow-up compared with the 2 nd NRRW analysis, and includes cancer registration data for the first time. As in previous NRRW analyses, total mortality and mortality from major causes were less than would be expected based on rates for England and Wales; the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for all causes was 81, whilst the SMR for all malignant neoplasms was 84. This "healthy worker effect" was still present after adjustment for social class. The only cause for which mortality was statistically significantly greater than expected from national rates was pleural cancer, probably reflecting exposure to asbestos. Within the cohort, there was borderline evidence of an increasing trend in total mortality with increasing external radiation dose. Much of the evidence for this trend related to cancer. Mortality and incidence from both leukaemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia and the grouping of all malignant neoplasms other than leukaemia increased to a statistically significant extent with increasing dose. The corresponding central estimates of the trend in risk with dose were similar to those for the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, whilst the 90% confidence intervals for the NRRW trends excluded values more than about 2-3 times greater than the A-bomb risk estimates as well as values of zero or less. Whilst there was some evidence of an increasing trend with dose in mortality from all circulatory diseases combined, the irregular pattern in risk with dose and similarities with the corresponding pattern for lung cancer suggest that this finding may, at least in part, be due to confounding by smoking.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009