M S Favero

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Druid Hills, GA, United States

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Publications (143)669.96 Total impact


  • No preview · Chapter · Jan 2010
  • Source
    Charles G Roberts · Harriet B Chan-Myers · Martin S Favero
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    ABSTRACT: Ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), a high-level disinfectant alternative to glutaraldehyde, was tested for efficacy against human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) using surrogate animal viruses. HBV and HCV are the most prevalent human bloodborne viruses but have not yet been propagated in the laboratory. The surrogate viruses, duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), were used to assess the virucidal efficacy of OPA on HBV and HCV, respectively. After a timed exposure to the test disinfectant, the surrogate virus dried on a hard surface was neutralized and assayed to detect viable viruses using appropriate cell lines. A greater than 4-log(10) reduction in virus titer was demonstrated using dilute OPA solutions against dried DHBV and BVDV after 5 minutes of exposure at 20 degrees C. OPA was shown to be efficacious against surrogate viruses for human hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. This is the first time that OPA efficacy has been demonstrated for HBV and HCV.
    Preview · Article · May 2008 · American journal of infection control
  • Martin S Favero · Walter W Bond
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of chemical germicidesDefinitionsFactors that influence germicidal activityInactivation of hepatitis virusesSterilization, disinfection and housekeeping in the laboratoryConclusions
    No preview · Chapter · Oct 2007
  • Linda A. Moyer · Miriam J. Alter · Martin S. Favero

    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Seminars in Dialysis
  • Martin S. Favero · Miriam J. Alter

    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Seminars in Dialysis
  • Peter C. Zhu · Charles G. Roberts · Martin S. Favero
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    ABSTRACT: ortho-Phthalaldehyde (OPA) has become the preferred choice over glutaraldehyde for use as a high-level disinfectant for hospital instrument processing. Its superior antimicrobial performance is not well understood. To explain the exceptional microbicidal activity, a multi-step mechanism combining medium or solvent-induced molecular switching between the lipophilic dialdehyde OPA and the amphiphilic non-aldehyde form, 1,3-phthalandiol, is proposed based on chemical and spectral studies. In this model, OPA is a hydrophobe (the dialdehyde in “open” position) and 1,3- phthalandiol (in “locked” position), is a hydrophile. The amount of each which is present depends on the medium (or solvent) being employed. OPA exists as the dialdehyde in lipophilic media (or solvents) and becomes 1,3-phthalandiol in hydrophilic media (or solvents). These two forms can switch back and forth depending on the medium or solvent being used. The following mechanistic aspects of this model are discussed: (1) the medium-induced molecular switching between OPA and 1,3-phthalandiol and cell-wall penetration via this mechanism; (2) an OPA equilibrium moving in-andout of the bacterial cell aided by a gradient driving force in combination with the molecular switching mechanism which assists significant penetration of OPA into the bacteria cells; (3) the formation of significant amounts of amphiphilic 1,3- phthalandiol from OPA explains the moderate water solubility of OPA, low volatility, and suggests that a different biocidal mechanism operates versus that of glutaraldehyde, and (4) the SAM (self-assembled monolayer) hypothesis, which explains the first-step-attack of OPA on bacteria cell-walls via 1,3-phthalandiol. These observations may explain the superior bactericidal efficacy of OPA against glutaraldehyde-resistant mycobacteria.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Current Organic Chemistry
  • J. Tokars · M.J. Alter · M.J. Arduino · M.S. Favero

    No preview · Article · Jan 2005
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    M.S. Favero
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of action for chemical germicides and antibiotics for inactivating microorganisms are significantly different and methods for determining resistance by microorganisms to these agents are also different. Chemical germicides usually have multiple targets and the mechanisms for inactivation and resistance are not measured in absolute terms but rather in the rapidity with which they reduce levels of microorganisms. The term tolerance is much more suited for germicides than the term resistance. The mechanism of resistance to chemical germicides is often dependent on the concentration of the germicide. At high concentrations multiple cellular and metabolic targets are involved, and at low concentrations fewer cellular targets. In contrast antibiotics usually have a singular cellular or metabolic target and resistance implies the ability of the microorganism to grow in the presence of the antibiotic, and in a clinical sense, to initiate or continue infection in the presence of the antibiotic. When methods used to assess resistance to antibiotics are applied to chemical germicides, inappropriate interpretations can be made regarding the ability of microorganisms to develop resistance to antibiotics as a result of developing resistance to chemical germicides. The use of chemical germicides in health-care institutions and especially the home setting has increased in recent years. Although there may be an overuse of germicides in these settings the consequence is a cost issue and not one that involves the development of antibiotic resistant microorganisms.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Symposium series (Society for Applied Microbiology)
  • Martin S. Favero

    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Seminars in Dialysis
  • Martin S. Favero

    No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
  • Martin S. Favero

    No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Seminars in Dialysis
  • Article: CJD update.
    L M Sehulster · M S Favero · W W Bond

    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
  • Roger L. Anderson · Janice H. Carr · Walter W. Bond · Martin S. Favero
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the susceptibilities of vancomycin-resistant and -sensitive enterococci (VRE and VSE) to various concentrations of commonly used, commercial, hospital-grade disinfectants. A microbial suspension test using inocula of 10(8) cells per mL in a disinfectant test dilution was used to determine inactivation kinetics of the test strains. In each test, 1-mL aliquots were removed from the cell-disinfectant mixtures at 15 and 30 seconds and then at 1-minute intervals for 5 minutes and neutralized. Appropriate serial dilutions were plated on agar medium for enumeration of survivors. VRE and VSE challenge inocula (in the absence of any additional protein or serum challenge) were below the limit of detection (5 colony-forming units/mL) after 15 seconds' exposure to the manufacturers' suggested use-dilutions of quaternary ammonium, phenolic, or iodophor germicidal detergents. In subsequent tests, when the disinfectants were diluted far beyond-the recommended use-dilutions (extended dilution), no differences were demonstrated between the susceptibilities of VRE and VSE. VRE and VSE are sensitive to a spectrum of commonly used environmental disinfectants and have parallel inactivation rates when challenged with extended dilutions of these products. Our findings did not demonstrate a relationship between antibiotic and germicide resistance. Routine disinfection and housekeeping protocols presently used in hospitals need not be altered due to concerns about the potential for environmentally mediated transmission of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1997 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Dialysis centers in the United States were surveyed in 1994 regarding a number of hemodialysis associated diseases and practices. A total of 2,449 centers, representing 206,884 patients and 50,314 staff members, responded. In 1994, 99% of centers used bicarbonate dialysate as the primary method of dialysis, 45% used high flux dialysis, and 75% reused dialyzers. Hepatitis B vaccine had been administered to 31% of patients and to 80% of staff members. Acute infection with hepatitis B virus occurred in 0.1% of patients and was more likely to be reported by centers with lower proportions of patients vaccinated against hepatitis B virus and those not using a separate room and dialysis machine to treat hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients. The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus was 10.5% among patients and 1.9% among staff members and varied according to geographic region. Pyrogenic reactions in the absence of septicemia were reported by 22% of centers and were most highly associated with dialyzer reuse. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was reported to be present in 1.5% of patients; 37% of centers provided hemodialysis to one or more patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · ASAIO Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To determine trends in a number of hemodialysis associated diseases and practices, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with the Health Care Financing Administration, performed a mail survey of 2,304 chronic hemodialysis centers in the United States in 1993. By the end of 1993, at least three doses of hepatitis B vaccine were administered to 29% of patients and 76% of staff at responding centers. Hepatitis B surface antigen was present at low frequency in patients (incidence = 0.1%, prevalence = 1.2%) and staff members (incidence = 0.2%, prevalence = 0.3%). The 1993 incidence of hepatitis B virus infection among patients was higher at centers that accepted hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients but did not use a separate room and dialysis machine for treatment of these patients, government and profit (versus nonprofit) centers, and centers in four End Stage Renal Disease Networks. The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus was 9.7% among patients and 1.6% among staff members. Pyrogenic reactions in the absence of septicemia were reported by 21% of centers and associated with use of high flux dialysis. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was known to be present in 1.5% of patients; 34% of centers reported providing hemodialysis to one or more human immunodeficiency virus infected patients.
    No preview · Article · May 1996 · ASAIO Journal
  • J H Carr · R L Anderson · M S Favero
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, fixation of attached glycocalyx on the interior surfaces of polyvinyl chloride distribution pipe remnants was compared with and without ruthenium red/osmium tetroxide and, in the final preparatory phase, with chemical dehydration and critical point drying. SEM examination of interior surface of the polyvinyl chloride pipe showed varying concentrations of adherent bacteria, depending on the preparatory technique used. It was concluded that using a combination of ruthenium red/osmium tetroxide and critical point drying is the optimum method for visually demonstrating aging biofilm on the interior surface of contaminated polyvinyl chloride pipe.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1996 · The Journal of applied bacteriology
  • M J Alter · M S Favero · J K Miller · L A Moyer · L A Bland
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control surveyed 1,630 chronic hemodialysis centers in the United States in 1987 in conjunction with the annual facility survey done by the Health Care Financing Administration. Information was obtained on the following diseases and practices: 1) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients and staff members; 2) infection control procedures for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients; 3) frequency of HBsAg serologic screening; 4) use of hepatitis B vaccine; 5) non-A, non-B hepatitis in patients and staff members; 6) pyrogenic reactions and septicemia; 7) dialysis dementia; 8) new dialyzer syndrome; 9) high flux dialysis; 10) reuse of dialyzers, dialyzer caps, bloodlines, transducer filters; 11) cleaning and disinfection procedures; and 12) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The response rate to a mailed questionnaire was 91%. These 1,486 centers represented 97,225 patients and 27,123 staff members. During the last 12 years, the incidence of HBV infection decreased from 3.0% to 0.2% among patients and from 2.6% to 0.1% among staff members. Over the same time, the prevalence of HBsAg-positivity declined from 7.8% to 1.7% among patients and from 0.9% to 0.4% among staff members. Hepatitis B vaccine was given by 88% of the centers. By the end of 1987, 14% of susceptible patients and 49% of susceptible staff members had received all three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. From 1982 to 1987, as a result of receiving vaccine, the prevalence of antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) increased from 12% to 18% among patients and from 18% to 50% among staff. The incidence of non-A, non-B hepatitis in 1987 was reported to be 1.2% among patients and 0.2% among staff members. Fourteen percent of the centers reported pyrogenic reactions among their patients, and 46% reported septicemia in the absence of pyrogenic reactions. Pyrogenic reactions were significantly more likely to be reported by centers that practiced high flux dialysis. The reported incidence of dialysis dementia among hemodialysis patients was 0.2%, with a case fatality rate of 29%. Among patients developing dialysis dementia, the case fatality rate was higher in those centers that used deionization (DI) without reverse osmosis (RO) (47%) compared with centers that used RO (28%) (not significant, p greater than 0.05). In 1987, 64% of centers reported that they reused disposable dialyzers. These centers treated 70% of the dialysis patient population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · ASAIO transactions / American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
  • M J Arduino · L A Bland · S K McAllister · M S Favero
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    ABSTRACT: Simulated dialysis of whole blood was used to determine whether membrane factors (biocompatibility), endotoxin (ET) membrane diffusion, or transmembrane monocyte-ET interactions would stimulate tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) release. Whole blood containing EDTA and aprotinin was recirculated in the blood compartment of hollow fiber dialyzers containing either regenerated cellulose or polysulfone membranes. ET-free and ET-spiked dialysate were recirculated consecutively in the dialysate compartment for 30 min each. Blood and dialysate samples were collected at to and after each 30 min of simulated dialysis for determination of TNF alpha and ET concentrations. TNF alpha was not detected in any blood samples collected after simulated dialysis with regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes and ET-free or ET-spiked dialysate. However, blood ET concentrations, as determined by the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, increased in RC dialyzers after each 30 min of simulated dialysis even with ET-free dialysate. Since TNF alpha was not detected in these blood samples, the material detected by the LAL assay probably was not ET but an LAL-reactive material. After simulated dialysis with polysulfone dialyzers and ET-free dialysate, TNF alpha and ET were not detected in blood samples. ET also was not detected in blood samples after dialysis with ET-spiked dialysate. However, TNF alpha was detected in 7 of 13 (54%) of the blood samples following the 500 ng/ml of ET dialysate spike. TNF alpha release during simulated dialysis with polysulfone membranes and ET-contaminated dialysate may be due to transmembrane stimulation of circulating mononuclear cells and not diffusion of ET across the membrane.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1995 · Artificial Organs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Simulated dialysis of whole blood was used to determine whether membrane factors (biocompatibility), endotoxin (ET) membrane diffusion, or transmembrane monocyte–ET interactions would stimulate tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) release. Whole blood containing EDTA and aprotinin was recirculated in the blood compartment of hollow fiber dialyzers containing either regenerated cellulose or polysulfone membranes. ET–free and ET–spiked dialysate were recirculated consecutively in the dialysate compartment for 30 min each. Blood and dialysate samples were collected at to and after each 30 min of simulated dialysis for determination of TNFa and ET concentrations. TNFa was not detected in any blood samples collected after simulated dialysis with regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes and ET–free or ET–spiked dialysate. However, blood ET concentrations, as determined by the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, increased in RC dialyzers after each 30 min of simulated dialysis even with ET–free dialysate. Since TNFa was not detected in these blood samples, the material detected by the LAL assay probably was not ET but an LAL–reactive material. After simulated dialysis with polysulfone dialyzers and ET–free dialysate, TNFa and ET were not detected in blood samples. ET also was not detected in blood samples after dialysis with ET–spiked dialysate. However, TNFa was detected in 7 of 13 (54%) of the blood samples following the 500 ng/ml of ET dialysate spike. TNFα release during simulated dialysis with polysulfone membranes and ET–contaminated dialysate may be due to transmembrane stimulation of circulating mononuclear cells and not diffusion of ET across the membrane.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1995 · Artificial Organs
  • E E Mast · RA Goodman · W W Bond · M S Favero · D P Drotman
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    ABSTRACT: Publicity about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in athletes has focused attention on the potential for transmission of blood-borne pathogens during sports and athletic competitions. Existing information suggests that the potential risk for such transmission is extremely low and that the principal risks athletes have for acquiring HIV and hepatitis B virus are related to off-the-field activities. Therefore, efforts to prevent transmission of blood-borne pathogens among athletes should emphasize prevention in off-the-field settings. We summarize technical and other information about this issue, and provide recommendations for the education of sports participants, for infection control in athletic settings, and for training of coaches and officials.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · Annals of internal medicine

Publication Stats

4k Citations
669.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984-2007
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Druid Hills, GA, United States
  • 1996
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1992
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1981
    • University of Michigan
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1975
    • Rochester Institute of Technology
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 1974
    • United States Bureau of Reclamation
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States