[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homozygous mutations in SLC4A4, encoding the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter NBCe1, have been known to cause proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) and ocular abnormalities. In this study, we report two sisters with pRTA, ocular abnormalities, and hemiplegic migraine. Genetic analysis ruled out pathological mutations in the known genes for familial hemiplegic migraine, but identified a homozygous 65-bp deletion (Delta65bp) in the C terminus of NBCe1, corresponding to the codon change S982NfsX4. Several heterozygous members of this family also presented glaucoma and migraine with or without aura. Despite the normal electrogenic activity in Xenopus oocytes, the Delta65bp mutant showed almost no transport activity due to a predominant cytosolic retention in mammalian cells. Furthermore, coexpression experiments uncovered a dominant negative effect of the mutant through hetero-oligomer formation with wild-type NBCe1. Among other pRTA pedigrees with different NBCe1 mutations, we identified four additional homozygous patients with migraine. The immunohistological and functional analyses of these mutants demonstrate that the near total loss of NBCe1 activity in astrocytes can cause migraine potentially through dysregulation of synaptic pH.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are responsible for extracellular signaling in the central nervous system. However, the relationship between the overall structure of the protein and its function has yet to be resolved. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an important technique that allows nano-scale imaging in liquid. In the present work we have succeeded in imaging by AFM of the external features of the most common iGluR, AMPA-R (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor), in a physiological environment.
Homomeric GluR3 receptors were over-expressed in insect cells, purified and reconstituted into lipid membranes. AFM images were obtained in a buffer from membranes immobilized on a mica substrate.
Using Au nanoparticle-conjugated antibodies, we show that proteins reconstitute predominantly with the N-terminal domain uppermost on the membrane. A tetrameric receptor structure is clearly observed, but it displays considerable heterogeneity, and the dimensions differ considerably from cryo-electron microscopy measurements.
Our results indicate that the extracellular domains of AMPA-R are highly flexible in a physiological environment.
AFM allows us to observe the protein surface structure, suggesting the possibility of visualizing real time conformational changes of a functioning protein. This knowledge may be useful for neuroscience as well as in pharmaceutical applications.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biosynthesis of N-glycans varies significantly among tissues and is strictly regulated spatially and temporally within the tissue. The strict molecular mechanisms that are responsible for control of N-glycan synthesis remain largely unknown. We developed complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) macroarray system and analyzed gene expression levels of more than 140 glycosyltransferases and glycosidases in the cerebral cortex from developing and adult mice. We also analyzed the relative amounts of major N-glycans present in the cerebral cortex and examined how the synthesis of N-glycans might be regulated through the expression of these genes. We demonstrated that the content of N-linked oligosaccharides dramatically changed during the course of brain development. Some of these changes could not be explained by alterations in the expression of the corresponding genes. For example, the amount of core fucosylated sugar chains in the early embryonic brain and the expression level of fucosyltransferase VIII, the only gene known to be responsible for core fucosylation, did not change proportionately. This result suggests that post-transcriptional regulation of this gene plays an important role in regulating its enzymatic activity. On the other hand, the amount of beta1,3-galactose residue-containing sugar chains increased postnatally following an increase in the level of beta1,3-galactosyltransferase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Furthermore, the amount of sugar chains with an outer fucose residue, containing LewisX-BA-2, correlated well with the expression of fusocyltransferase IX mRNA. These findings add to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of N-glycan biosynthesis in the cerebral cortex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors (IP(3)Rs) are IP(3)-gated Ca(2+) channels that are located on intracellular Ca(2+) stores. We previously identified an IP(3)R binding protein, termed IP(3)R binding protein released with IP(3) (IRBIT). Because IRBIT is released from IP(3)R by physiological concentrations of IP(3), we hypothesized that IRBIT is a signaling molecule that is released from IP(3)R and regulates downstream target molecules in response to the production of IP(3). Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify the target molecules of IRBIT, and we succeeded in identifying Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter 1 (NBC1) as an IRBIT binding protein. Of the two major splicing variants of NBC1, pancreas-type NBC1 (pNBC1) and kidney-type NBC1 (kNBC1), IRBIT was found to bind specifically to pNBC1 and not to bind to kNBC1. IRBIT binds to the N-terminal pNBC1-specific domain, and its binding depends on the phosphorylation of multiple serine residues of IRBIT. Also, an electrophysiological analysis in Xenopus oocytes revealed that pNBC1 requires coexpression of IRBIT to manifest substantial activity comparable with that of kNBC1, which displays substantial activity independently of IRBIT. These results strongly suggest that pNBC1 is the target molecule of IRBIT and that IRBIT has an important role in pH regulation through pNBC1. Also, our findings raise the possibility that the regulation through IRBIT enables NBC1 variants to have different physiological roles.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Glycan structures on the surface of cancer cells have diverse structures and play significant roles in metastatic process. However, little is known about their roles in organ-selective metastasis. Our study revealed that an alpha1,6-fucosylated biantennary N-glycan structure designated A2G2F is characteristic of lungs, with far more abundant expression in normal human and murine lungs than in other organs. In this study, we further examined the role of A2G2F in pulmonary metastasis. We stained metastatic cancers by alpha1,6-fucose-specific Lens culinaris agglutinin lectin and revealed that pulmonary metastatic nodules more abundantly expressed alpha1,6-fucosylated N-glycans than hepatic metastatic nodules from common primary cancers. The most specific alpha1,6-fucosylated N-glycan structure in pulmonary metastatic cancer was identified to be A2G2F. Using a B16 melanoma cell metastasis model, we showed that A2G2F-rich B16 cells formed more pulmonary metastatic nodules than A2G2F-poor cells. Our results suggest that A2G2F plays a critical role in pulmonary metastasis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor (IP(3)R) acts as a ligand-gated channel that mediates neuronal signals by releasing Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of tetrameric IP(3)R has been demonstrated by using electron microscopy (EM) with static specimens; however, the dynamic aspects of the IP(3)R structure have never been visualized in a native environment. Here we attempt to measure the surface topography of IP(3)R in solution using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM revealed large protrusions extending approximately 4.3 nm above a flat membrane prepared from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells overexpressing mouse type 1 IP(3)R (Sf9-IP(3)R1). The average diameter of the large protrusions was approximately 32 nm. A specific antibody against a cytosolic epitope close to the IP(3)-binding site enabled us to gold-label the Sf9-IP(3)R1 membrane as confirmed by EM. AFM images of the gold-labeled membrane revealed 7.7-nm high protrusions with a diameter of approximately 30 nm, which should be IP(3)R1-antibody complexes. Authentic IP(3)R1 immuno-purified from mouse cerebella had approximately the same dimensions as those of the IP(3)R-like protrusions on the membrane. Altogether, these results suggest that the large protrusions on the Sf9-IP(3)R1 membrane correspond to the cytosolic domain of IP(3)R1. Our study provides the first 3D representation of individual IP(3)R1 particles in an aqueous solution.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Neuroscience Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have isolated and characterized N-linked oligo-saccharides that are significantly increased in glioblastoma tissue and cell lines. The structures of N-linked oligosaccharides present in 3 human normal brain tissues, 15 patients with glio-blastoma and 3 glioma cell lines were analyzed by partially automated technique for the isolation and fluorescent labeling of N-linked sugar chains from glycoproteins. Characterization of the sugar chains was achieved with the use of a combination of HPLC columns and a highly sensitive fluorescence detector at femtomole levels. By collecting peaks which accounted for 0.1% or more, sixteen different oligosaccharide structures were characterized from glioblastoma tissue and cell lines. The 16 oligosaccharide structures accounted for 48.9% of the total N-linked oligosaccharides present in glioblastoma tissue. The major components of total oligosaccharides were similar to those of normal brain tissue. The amount of a biantennary bigalactosylated structure with one core fucosylation (A2G2F) was present in increased levels in glioblastoma tissue (mean = 2.90%) and glioma cell lines (mean = 5.60%), while being less than 0.1% in normal brain tissue. Expression of highly branched tetra-antennary N-glycans that are usually detected in lungs or hepatocellular cancer was not observed. Tissue glioma cells and cultured cells also displayed strong LCA-lectin binding, which binds to sugar chains with core fucose (including A2G2F), while normal brain tissue did not. Moreover, LCA lectin inhibited proliferation of glioma cells through induction of apoptosis. A2G2F on glioma specimens may provide a novel marker and target for the diagnosis and treatment of glioblastoma, respectively.
No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligosaccharides with biantennae and bisecting N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) residues attached to the mannose in the beta1-4 trimannosyl core (BA2) are enriched in the brain and considered brain-type sugar chains. We investigated the significance of the interplay between galactosyltransferase I (GalTase I) and BA2 formation in a brain-derived cell line, CG4. Increased GalTase expression in different glial- and neuronal-derived cell lines was accompanied by decreased or undetectable levels of BA2, depending on the level of GalTase expression. Forceful expression of GalTase I in CG4 cells expressing high levels of BA2 and low GalTase activity significantly reduced BA2 levels. In addition, a sixfold increase in an abnormal sugar chain A1(6)G1Fo and a moderate increase in A2G2Fo(6)F were evident. The increased levels of A1(6)G1Fo indicate a diversion or abrogation of the N-linked sugar chain biosynthetic pathway from normal. The accumulation of A1(6)G1Fo and increased A2G2Fo(6)F levels were accompanied by decreased levels of the high mannose-type sugar chains, M5A, M6B, M8A, and M9A. Increased GalTase I expression also led to stunted growth and abnormal morphology of CG4 cells, with increased mortality. Even moderate overexpression of GalTase I thus disrupts the normal biosynthetic pathway of N-linked sugar chains, and high overexpression is fatal to CG4 cells.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular force measurements quantified the impact of polysialylation on the adhesive properties both of membrane-bound neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and of other proteins on the same membrane. These results show quantitatively that NCAM polysialylation increases the range and magnitude of intermembrane repulsion. The repulsion is sufficient to overwhelm both homophilic NCAM and cadherin attraction at physiological ionic strength, and it abrogates the protein-mediated intermembrane adhesion. The steric repulsion is ionic strength dependent and decreases substantially at high monovalent salt concentrations with a concomitant increase in the intermembrane attraction. The magnitude of the repulsion also depends on the amount of polysialic acid (PSA) on the membranes, and the PSA-dependent attenuation of cadherin adhesion increases with increasing PSA-NCAM:cadherin ratios. These findings agree qualitatively with independent reports based on cell adhesion studies and reveal the likely molecular mechanism by which NCAM polysialylation regulates cell adhesion and intermembrane space.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracellular regions of adhesion proteins of the Ig superfamily comprise multiple, tandemly arranged domains. We used directforce measurements to investigate how this modular architecture contributes to the adhesive interactions of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a representative of this protein class. The extracellular region of NCAM comprises five immunoglobulin and two fibronectin domains. Previous investigations generated different models for the mechanism of homophilic adhesion that each use different domains. We use force measurements to demonstrate that NCAM binds in two spatially distinct configurations. Igdomain deletion mutants identified the domains responsible for each of the adhesive bonds. The measurements also confirmed the existence of a flexible hinge that alters the orientation of the adhesive complexes and the intermembrane distance. These results suggest that a combination of multiple bound states and internal molecular flexibility allows for sequentially synergistic bond formation and the ability to accommodate differences in intercellular space.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanism of homophilic adhesion between neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) was investigated by direct force measurements. The force-distance profiles demonstrated that multiple domains are involved in adhesion. In addition, the effect of polysialylation on the interprotein forces provided insights into the molecular mechanism by which posttranslational modification regulates NCAM function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracts from dopamine (DA)-depleted striatal tissue (lesion extract) and from intact striatal tissue (intact extract) were prepared, and trophic activities in these extracts were evaluated using survival and neurite extension of DAergic neurons as indices. Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in extracts were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The lesion extract exhibited a stronger trophic activity on survival and neurite extension of DAergic neurons than intact extract. In lesion extract, bFGF was slightly and GDNF was significantly increased, while BDNF and NT-3 were the same level in each extract. The peak increase of bFGF and GDNF was during 2 to 3 weeks after DA depletion. Trophic activity of extract was strongly attenuated after immunoprecipitation of GDNF and partly attenuated after immunoprecipitation of bFGF. In parallel immunohistological study, no significant variations were found for striatal microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2)- nor OX-41-immunoreactive cells, while the number of strongly labeled glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive cells were increased in DA-depleted striatum, suggesting reactive gliosis. Data suggest that bFGF is a minor, while GDNF is a major component of trophic activity for DAergic neurons in DA-depleted striatum, and increased bFGF and GDNF levels may be mediated partly by reactive gliosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polysialylation of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) evolved in vertebrates to carry out biological functions related to changes in cell position and morphology. Many of these effects involve the attenuation of cell interactions that are not mediated through NCAM's own adhesion properties. A proposed mechanism for this global effect on cell interaction is the steric inhibition of membrane-membrane apposition based solely on polysialic acid (PSA) biophysical properties. However, it remains possible that the intrinsic binding or signaling properties of the NCAM polypeptide are also involved. To help resolve this issue, this study uses a quantitative cell detachment assay together with cells engineered to display different adhesion receptors together with a variety of polysialylated NCAM polypeptide isoforms and functional domain deletion mutations. The results obtained indicate that regulation by PSA occurs with adhesion receptors as diverse as an IgCAM, a cadherin and an integrin, and does not require NCAM functional domains other than those minimally required for polysialylation. These findings are most consistent with the cell apposition mechanism for PSA action, as this model predicts that the inhibitory effects of PSA-NCAM on cell adhesion should be independent of the nature of the adhesion system and of any intrinsic binding or signaling properties of the NCAM polypeptide itself.
No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structures of N-linked oligosaccharides present in human sera from 12 healthy volunteers and from 14 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were analyzed by our recently developed partially automated systematic method. Thirty different structures of oligosaccharides were deduced, and these accounted for 84.1% of the total N-linked oligosaccharides present in human sera. All of the quantified oligosaccharide levels in healthy human sera were within twice the standard deviation. The amount of a triantennary trigalactosylated structure with one outer arm fucosylation (A3G3Fo) was found to be markedly increased in NSCLC patients in comparison to that in healthy volunteers (p < 0.01). No significant positive correlation with other clinical data was found. Serum A3G3Fo levels can thus be a novel marker for the diagnosis of NSCLC.
Full-text · Article · May 2001 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polysialic acid (PSA) is a carbohydrate attached mainly to the neural cell adhesion molecule. Because PSA is composed of a linear homopolymer of alpha-2-8-linked sialic acid residues and has a large negative charge, the presence of PSA attenuates the adhesive property of neural cell adhesion molecule and increases cellular motility. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that PSA and STX, a polysialyltransferase, were associated with tumor progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (F. Tanaka et al., Cancer Res., 60: 3072-3080, 2000). Therefore, in the present study, to assess the prognostic significance of PSA in resected NSCLC, a total of 236 patients who underwent complete resection for pathological (p)-stage I-IIIa disease were reviewed retrospectively. PSA was expressed in 44 of 236 (18.6%) patients, and the expression was correlated with p-stage disease. For all p-stage patients, 5-year survival rates for those with PSA-positive and PSA-negative tumors were 52.1% and 71.3%, respectively, demonstrating a significantly worse prognosis for the PSA-positive patients (P = 0.012). Analysis for only p-stage I patients also demonstrated a significantly worse prognosis for the PSA-positive patients; 5-year survival rates of the PSA-positive and the PSA-negative patients were 45.1% and 83.5%, respectively, (P < 0.001). In addition, there proved to be no difference in the postoperative survival among p-stage I, II, and IIIa patients when PSA expression was positive. Multivariate analysis confirmed that PSA expression was an independent factor to predict poor prognosis in resected NSCLC. These results suggested that PSA could be an important clinical marker and that preoperative induction and/or postoperative adjuvant therapies should be performed for PSA-positive NSCLC, even if the disease is classified as p-stage I.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have analyzed oligosaccharide chains in brain microsomes of rats fed an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-deficient (safflower oil group; S group) or -rich (perilla oil group; P group) diet before and after brightness-discrimination learning tasks. The amount of concanavalin A-binding sites (mainly mannoside) of the brain microsomes was found to be significantly less in the S group than the P group before the learning task. Detailed analysis of glycoprotein glycans demonstrated that high mannose type oligosaccharides were dominant in brain microsomes before the learning task in both dietary groups, whereas multiantennary complex-type oligosaccharides became dominant after the learning task and especially a tetra-antennary glycan, that had a core structure of the glycan of neural cell adhesion molecule, was more increased in the S-group than the P group. When polysialylated glycans were analyzed on serotonin-conjugated HPLC column, the glycans in the S-group microsomes before the learning task contained larger amount of higher affinity-polysialylated glycans to serotonin column than those in the P-group, and also contained larger amount of phosphoglycans that showed also high affinity to serotonin column than the P-group. Removal of mannoside from microsomes by alpha-mannosidase-treatment changed the membrane surface physical property, especially permittivity, as revealed by analysis of the interaction with 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate. These results suggest that high mannose content and several multiantennary glycans including polysialylated and phospho-glycans were changed by dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency and learning task in rat brain microsomal glycoproteins and that these changes may affect membrane functions through changes of membrane surface physical properties and reactivity against serotonin.
No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Journal of Neuroscience Research