Helen Liapis

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States

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Publications (111)430.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Despite recent insights into prostate cancer (PCa)-associated genetic changes, full understanding of prostate tumorigenesis remains elusive owing to complexity of interactions among various cell types and soluble factors present in prostate tissue. We found the upregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) in human PCa and cultured PCa cells, but not in normal prostates and non-tumorigenic prostate cells. To understand the role of NFATc1 in prostate tumorigenesis in situ, we temporally and spatially controlled the activation of NFATc1 in mouse prostate and showed that such activation resulted in prostatic adenocarcinoma with features similar to those seen in human PCa. Our results indicate that the activation of a single transcription factor, NFATc1 in prostatic luminal epithelium to PCa can affect expression of diverse factors in both cells harboring the genetic changes and in neighboring cells through microenvironmental alterations. In addition to the activation of oncogenes c-MYC and STAT3 in tumor cells, a number of cytokines and growth factors, such as IL1β, IL6 and SPP1 (osteopontin, a key biomarker for PCa), were upregulated in NFATc1-induced PCa, establishing a tumorigenic microenvironment involving both NFATc1 positive and negative cells for prostate tumorigenesis. To further characterize interactions between genes involved in prostate tumorigenesis, we generated mice with both NFATc1 activation and Pten inactivation in prostate. We showed that NFATc1 activation led to acceleration of Pten null-driven prostate tumorigenesis by overcoming the PTEN loss-induced cellular senescence through inhibition of p21 activation. This study provides direct in vivo evidence of an oncogenic role of NFATc1 in prostate tumorigenesis and reveals multiple functions of NFATc1 in activating oncogenes, in inducing proinflammatory cytokines, in oncogene addiction, and in overcoming cellular senescence, which suggests calcineurin-NFAT signaling as a potential target in preventing PCa.Oncogene advance online publication, 19 October 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.389.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Oncogene
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    Ying Maggie Chen · Helen Liapis
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances show that human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a primary podocytopathy caused by podocyte-specific gene mutations including NPHS1, NPHS2, WT-1, LAMB2, CD2AP, TRPC6, ACTN4 and INF2. This review focuses on genes discovered in the investigation of complex FSGS pathomechanisms that may have implications for the current FSGS classification scheme. It also recounts recent recommendations for clinical management of FSGS based on translational studies and clinical trials. The advent of next-generation sequencing promises to provide nephrologists with rapid and novel approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of FSGS. A stratified and targeted approach based on the underlying molecular defects is evolving.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · BMC Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital urinary tract obstruction is a leading cause of renal maldevelopment and pediatric kidney disease. Nonetheless, few groups have examined its molecular pathogenesis in humans. We evaluated the role of BMP-7, a protein required for renal injury repair and nephrogenesis, in disease progression in patients with obstructive uropathy. Whole kidney and cell specific BMP-7 expression was examined in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction and in patients with congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Findings were correlated with molecular markers of renal injury and clinical parameters. Unilateral ureteral obstruction led to a dramatic decrease in BMP-7 expression in the proximal and distal tubules before the onset of significant loss of renal architecture and fibrosis, suggesting that this is a critical molecular event that drives early stage disease progression. Loss of BMP-7 expression then extended to the collecting ducts and glomeruli in end stage kidney disease. When translating these findings to patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction, global loss of BMP-7 expression correlated with a decreased number of nephrons, loss of renal architecture, severe renal fibrosis and loss of kidney function. Given that BMP-7 has a critical role in renal injury repair and nephrogenesis, these findings show that cell specific changes in BMP-7 expression contribute to the onset of irreversible renal injury and impaired kidney development secondary to congenital urinary tract obstruction. Accordingly therapies that target these cell populations to restore BMP-7 activity may limit disease progression in patients with obstructive uropathy. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Journal of urology
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (rFSGS) in renal transplant recipients (RTR) is difficult to predict and treat. Early rFSGS is likely from circulating factors and preformed antibodies. We present the case of a 23-year-old white man who presented with rFSGS and acute renal failure, requiring dialysis 9-months after a 1-haplotype matched living-related transplant. We retrospectively analyzed serum samples from various clinical stages for rFSGS biomarkers: serum glomerular albumin permeability (Palb), soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum level with suPAR-β3 integrin signaling on human podocytes, and angiotensin II type I receptor-antibody (AT1R-Ab) titer. All biomarkers were abnormal at 1-year pre-transplant prior to initiation of dialysis and at the time of transplant. After initiation of hemodialysis, β3 integrin activity on human podocytes, in response to patient serum, as well as AT1R-Ab were further elevated. At the time of biopsy-proven recurrence, all biomarkers were abnormally high. One week after therapy with aborted plasmapheresis (secondary to intolerance), and high dose steroids, the Palb and suPAR-β3 integrin activity remained significantly positive. After 12-weeks of treatment with high-dose steroids, rituximab, and galactose, the patient remained hemodialysis-dependent. Three-months after his initial presentation, we commenced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, Acthar(®) Gel), 80 units subcutaneously twice weekly. Four-weeks later, he was able to discontinue dialysis. After 8-months of maintenance ACTH therapy, his serum creatinine stabilized at 1.79 mg/dL with <1 g of proteinuria. ACTH therapy was associated with improvement in renal function within 4 weeks. The use of rFSGS biomarkers may aid in predicting development of rFSGS.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A case of primary intrathyroidal paraganglioma is re-ported, and the light microscopic and immunohisto-chemical findings are described. Primary paragan-gliomas of the thyroid region are extremely uncommon and are therefore often confused clinically and histo-pathologically with more common intrathyroidal mass lesions. The diagnostic difficulties are underscored by the present case, which was misdiagnosed twice, firstly as a medullary thyroid carcinoma and secondly as a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry may be very helpful in arriving at the correct diagnosis. The case was further complicated by a second neck mass contralateral to the original thyroid nodule, which was interpreted as consistent with metastasis. The sec-ond lesions was proved angiographically and histologi-cally to be a carotid body paraganglioma.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: The search for new therapies providing cardiorenal protection in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has led to treatments that combine conventional renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system inhibitors with other drugs that exhibit potential in disease management. Methods: In rats made uremic by renal ablation, we examined the effects of addition of the endothelin-A receptor antagonist atrasentan to a previously examined combination of enalapril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and paricalcitol (vitamin D receptor activator) on cardiac and renal parameters. The effects of the individual and combined drugs were examined after a 3-month treatment. Results: A decrease in systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine and proteinuria, and improvement of renal histology in uremic rats were attributed to enalapril and/or paricalcitol treatment; atrasentan alone had no effect. In heart tissue, individual treatment with the drugs blunted the increase in cardiomyocyte size, and combined treatment additively decreased cardiomyocyte size to normal levels. Perivascular fibrosis was blunted in uremic control rats with atrasentan or enalapril treatment. Conclusions: We found distinct cardiac and renal effects of atrasentan. Combination treatment with atrasentan, enalapril and paricalcitol provided positive effects on cardiac remodeling in uremic rats, whereas combination treatment did not offer further protective effects on blood pressure, proteinuria or renal histology.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
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    ABSTRACT: Vasculitides includes a heterogeneous group of disorders with the common histologic findings of vascular wall inflammation. Systemic or localized disease (e.g., renal vasculitis) has serious consequences. The incidence of isolated gynecologic vasculitis diagnosed on pathology specimens and its significance is little known. We performed a 20 year retrospective review including 53 cases with vasculitis diagnosis affecting the female genital tract identified in pathology reports. None had prior symptoms or were diagnosed with generalized vasculitis, while one patient had prior diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Most patients presented with abnormal bleeding and were treated for conditions unrelated to vasculitis. The different types of vasculitis were: predominantly lymphocytic (nonspecific) 30 cases, necrotizing 17 cases and granulomatous 6 cases. Only 2 patients had additional serologic tests. None of the patients with isolated gynecologic vasculitis received corticosteroids or additional treatment related to the vasculitis. None of the patients developed systemic vasculitis at follow-up (2 month to 19.5 years; mean, 5.5 years). Isolated gynecologic vasculitis diagnosed on pathology slides is rarely associated with systemic vasculitis. Potential isolated gynecologic vasculitis causes include: previous surgical interventions and vascular inflammation secondary to local neoplasm. In almost all cases, clinicians did not perform a thorough laboratory analysis to exclude systemic vasculitis and therapy was not required in any case, suggesting minimal clinical significance.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
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    Kevin E Meyers · Helen Liapis · Mohamed G Atta
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    ABSTRACT: A 13-year-old girl presented with proteinuria and acute kidney failure. She was born at full term via cesarean delivery (due to nuchal cord), but there were no other prenatal or perinatal complications. In early childhood the patient had two hospitalizations at ages 4.5 and 9 years, respectively, the latter for pneumonia. She had no history of symptoms of kidney disease. She came to the hospital at age 12 years for routine bilateral molar extractions. She was treated with oral antibiotics and discharged after the procedure without complications. At age 13 years, 10 months after the molar extraction, she was seen by a pediatrician because of puffiness and increased BP. She had had respiratory symptoms 2 weeks before presentation. The pediatrician prescribed furosemide and amlodipine. A few days later, the patient returned to the pediatrician's office because of hand, ankle, and facial swelling and malaise. The pediatrician recommended hospitalization and the patient was admitted at this time.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
  • Joseph P. Gaut · Masato Hoshi · Sanjay Jain · Helen Liapis
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular crescents are typically inflammatory and associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Their pathogenesis involves glomerular basement membrane rupture due to circulating or intrinsic factors. Crescents associated with diabetic glomerulosclerosis are rarely reported. Furthermore, the nature of cells forming crescents in diabetes is unknown. To investigate the nature of crescents in diabetes, we examined renal biopsies from diabetic patients with nodular glomerulosclerosis and crescents (n = 2), diabetes without crescents (n = 5), nondiabetic renal biopsies (n = 3), and crescentic glomerulonephritis with inflammatory crescents (n = 5). Electron microscopy and confocal immunofluorescence analysis with antibodies against nephrin (a podocyte marker) and claudin 1 (parietal epithelial cell marker) were performed. Diabetic glomeruli with crescents contained a mixture of crescentic cells expressing either claudin 1 (11 ± 1.4 cells/glomerulus) or nephrin (5.5 ± 3.0 cells/glomerulus). Rare crescentic cells coexpressed nephrin and claudin 1 (2.5 ± 1.6 cells/glomerulus). In contrast, inflammatory crescents were almost exclusively composed of claudin 1–positive cells (25 ± 5.3 cells/glomerulus). Cells coexpressing claudin 1 and nephrin were absent in inflammatory crescents and all cases without crescents. Electron microscopy showed podocyte bridge formation between the glomerular basement membrane and parietal basement membrane but no glomerular basement membrane rupture as in inflammatory crescents. Crescents in diabetes may occur in diabetes in the absence of a secondary etiology and are composed of a mixture of parietal epithelial cells and visceral podocytes. Cells coexpressing parietal epithelial and podocyte markers suggest that parietal epithelial cells may transdifferentiate into podocytes in response to severe glomerular injury.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Human pathology
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of severe systemic loxoscelism in a previously healthy young man. This was associated with a Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia, striking leukomid reaction, renal failure, respiratory failure and cardiovascular collapse. This is the first documented case of a renal biopsy in a patient with renal failure after envenomation by the brown recluse spider. Associated systemic toxicity usually resolves but requires prompt recognition and supportive care in an intensive care setting. We also discuss the potential mechanism by which the venom of this small spider can lead to multiorgan failure and possibly death.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We applied customized targeted next-generation exome sequencing (NGS) to determine if mutations in genes associated with renal malformations, Alport syndrome (AS) or nephrotic syndrome are a potential cause of renal abnormalities in patients with equivocal or atypical presentation. We first sequenced 4,041 exons representing 292 kidney disease genes in a Caucasian woman with a history of congenital vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), recurrent urinary tract infections and hydronephrosis who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria at the age of 45. Her biopsy was remarkable for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), a potential complication of longstanding VUR. She had no family history of renal disease. Her proteinuria improved initially, however, several years later she presented with worsening proteinuria and microhematuria. NGS analysis revealed two deleterious COL4A3 mutations, one novel and the other previously reported in AS, and a novel deleterious SALL2 mutation, a gene linked to renal malformations. Pedigree analysis confirmed that COL4A3 mutations were nonallelic and compound heterozygous. The genomic results in conjunction with subsequent abnormal electron microscopy, Collagen IV minor chain immunohistochemistry and progressive sensorineural hearing loss confirmed AS. We then modified our NGS approach to enable more efficient discovery of variants associated with AS or a subset of FSGS by multiplexing targeted exome sequencing of 19 genes associated with AS or FSGS in 14 patients. Using this approach, we found novel or known COL4A3 or COL4A5 mutations in a subset of patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected AS, APOL1 variants associated with FSGS in African Americans and novel mutations in genes associated with nephrotic syndrome. These studies demonstrate the successful application of targeted capture-based exome sequencing to simultaneously evaluate genetic variations in many genes in patients with complex renal phenotypes and provide insights into etiology of conditions with equivocal clinical and pathologic presentations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The role of hyperphosphatemia in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism, cardiovascular disease, and progression of renal failure is widely known. Here we studied effects of dietary phosphate restriction on mortality and vascular calcification in uremic rats. Control and uremic rats were fed a high-phosphate diet and at 3 months a portion of rats of each group were killed. Serum phosphate and the calcium phosphate product increased in uremic rats, as did aortic calcium. Of the rats, 56% had positive aortic staining for calcium (von Kossa), RUNX2, and osteopontin. The remaining uremic rats were continued on diets containing high phosphate without and with sevelamer, or low phosphate, and after 3 more months they were killed. Serum phosphate was highest in uremic rats on high phosphate. Serum PTH and FGF-23 were markedly lower in rats on low phosphate. Mortality on high phosphate was 71.4%, with sevelamer reducing this to 37.5% and phosphate restriction to 5.9%. Positive aortic staining for von Kossa, RUNX2, and osteopontin was increased, but phosphate restriction inhibited this. Kidneys from low-phosphate and sevelamer-treated uremic rats had less interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, and inflammation than those of uremic rats on high phosphate. Importantly, kidneys from rats on low phosphate showed improvement over kidneys from high-phosphate rats at 3 months. Left ventricles from rats on low phosphate had less perivascular fibrosis and smaller cardiomyocyte size compared to rats on high phosphate. Thus, intensive phosphate restriction significantly reduces mortality in uremic rats with severe vascular calcification.Kidney International advance online publication, 9 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.213.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Kidney International
  • Helen Liapis · Sanjay Jain

    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
  • Helen Liapis
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Electron microscopy (EM) has been an indispensable tool for kidney research since its inception more than half a century ago. Much of the substantial advances were propelled by the need to find methods to best visualize and analyze the kidney's structure deduced from the fundamental principle that has structure and function intimately related. The result of 3 decades of experimental kidney work between 1950 and 1980 coincided with remarkable advances in nephrology that marked a renaissance era for renal pathology and resulted in the morphologic classification of medical kidney diseases. In the era of genetics and molecular medicine TEM continues to contribute significant clinical and pathogenetic insights in kidney disease. The basic principles as applied to kidney disease experimental models are discussed with emphasis on crescent formation in Col4A3-deficient mice and a mouse model of experimental oxalosis (CaOx).
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Ultrastructural Pathology
  • Joseph P. Gaut · Helen Liapis
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    ABSTRACT: IgA dominant post-infectious glomerulonephritis is a relatively recently described entity that typically presents with acute kidney injury, haematuria and proteinuria. Pathologically, the renal biopsy shows variable light microscopic findings ranging from mesangial hypercellularity to diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis, but characteristic dominant or co-dominant IgA deposits by immunofluorescence, and subepithelial “hump”-shaped electron dense deposits. The majority of cases are associated with Staphylococcal infections. It is the aim of this review to discuss the salient clinical and pathologic features of IgA dominant post-infectious glomerulonephritis based on our own experience and review of the literature. Diagnostic criteria and pathophysiologic disease mechanisms are discussed.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Diagnostic Histopathology
  • Helen Liapis · Joseph P Gaut
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    ABSTRACT: Renal biopsy was introduced in the 1950s. By 1980 the pathologic diagnostic criteria for the majority of medical kidney diseases known today, including pediatric diseases, were established using light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. However, it has become clear that there are limitations in the morphologic evaluation, mainly because a given pattern of injury can be caused by different aetiologies and, conversely, a single aetiology may present with more than one histological pattern. An explosion in kidney disease research in the last 20-30 years has brought new knowledge from bench to bedside rapidly and resulted in new molecular and genetic tools that enhance the diagnostic and prognostic power of the renal biopsy. Genomic technologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in situ hybridization and oligonucleotide microarrays, collectively known as genomics, detect single or multiple genes underscoring the pathologic changes and revealing specific causes of injury that may require different treatment. The aims of this review are to (1) summarize current recommendations for diagnostic renal biopsies encompassing light microscopy, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy; (2) address the limitations of morphology; (3) show current contributions of genomic technologies adjunct to the renal biopsy, and provide examples of how these may transform pathologic interpretation into molecular disease phenotypes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Signaling by the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-RET receptor tyrosine kinase and SPRY1, a RET repressor, is essential for early urinary tract development. Individual or a combination of GDNF, RET and SPRY1 mutant alleles in mice cause renal malformations reminiscent of congenital anomalies of the kidney or urinary tract (CAKUT) in humans and distinct from renal agenesis phenotype in complete GDNF or RET-null mice. We sequenced GDNF, SPRY1 and RET in 122 unrelated living CAKUT patients to discover deleterious mutations that cause CAKUT. Novel or rare deleterious mutations in GDNF or RET were found in six unrelated patients. A family with duplicated collecting system had a novel mutation, RET-R831Q, which showed markedly decreased GDNF-dependent MAPK activity. Two patients with RET-G691S polymorphism harbored additional rare non-synonymous variants GDNF-R93W and RET-R982C. The patient with double RET-G691S/R982C genotype had multiple defects including renal dysplasia, megaureters and cryptorchidism. Presence of both mutations was necessary to affect RET activity. Targeted whole-exome and next-generation sequencing revealed a novel deleterious mutation G443D in GFRα1, the co-receptor for RET, in this patient. Pedigree analysis indicated that the GFRα1 mutation was inherited from the unaffected mother and the RET mutations from the unaffected father. Our studies indicate that 5 % of living CAKUT patients harbor deleterious rare variants or novel mutations in GDNF-GFRα1-RET pathway. We provide evidence for the coexistence of deleterious rare and common variants in genes in the same pathway as a cause of CAKUT and discovered novel phenotypes associated with the RET pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Human Genetics

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital renal dysplasia (RD) is a severe form of congenital renal malformation characterized by disruption of normal renal development with cyst formation, reduced or absent nephrons, and impaired renal growth. The authors previously identified that matrilysin (matrix metalloproteinase-7) was overexpressed in a microarray gene expression analysis of human RD compared to normal control kidneys. They now find that active matrilysin gene transcription and protein synthesis occur within dysplastic tubules and epithelial cells lining cysts in human RD by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Similar staining patterns were seen in obstructed kidneys of pouch opossums that show histological features similar to that of human RD. In vitro, matrilysin inhibits formation of branching structures in mIMCD-3 cells stimulated by bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) but does not inhibit hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated branching. BMP-7 signaling is essential for normal kidney development, and overexpression of catalytically active matrilysin in human embryonic kidney 293 cells reduces endogenous BMP-7 protein levels and inhibits phosphorylation of BMP-7 SMAD signaling intermediates. These findings suggest that matrilysin expression in RD may be an injury response that disrupts normal nephrogenesis by impairing BMP-7 signaling.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors ameliorate the progression of renal disease. In combination with vitamin D receptor activators, they provide additional benefits. In the present study, uremic (U) rats were treated as follows: U+vehicle (UC), U+enalapril (UE; 25 mg/l in drinking water), U+paricalcitol (UP; 0.8 μg/kg ip, 3 × wk), or U+enalapril+paricalcitol (UEP). Despite hypertension in UP rats, proteinuria decreased by 32% vs. UC rats. Enalapril alone, or in combination with paricalcitol, further decreased proteinuria (≈70%). Glomerulosclerosis and interstitial infiltration increased in UC rats. Paricalcitol and enalapril inhibited this. The increase in cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) seen in UC rats was significantly decreased by paricalcitol. Enalapril produced a more dramatic reduction in ANP. Renal oxidative stress plays a critical role in inflammation and progression of sclerosis. The marked increase in p22(phox), a subunit of NADPH oxidase, and decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase were inhibited in all treated groups. Cotreatment with both compounds inhibited the uremia-induced increase in proinflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glutathione peroxidase activity better than either compound alone. Glutathione reductase was also increased in UE and UP rats vs. UC. Kidney 4-hydroxynonenal was significantly increased in the UC group compared with the normal group. Combined treatment with both compounds significantly blunted this increase, P < 0.05, while either compound alone had no effect. Additionally, the expression of Mn-SOD was increased and CuZn-SOD decreased by uremia. This was ameliorated in all treatment groups. Cotreatment with enalapril and paricalcitol had an additive effect in increasing CuZn-SOD expression. In conclusion, like enalapril, paricalcitol alone can improve proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and interstitial infiltration and reduce renal oxidative stress. The effects of paricalcitol may be amplified when an ACE inhibitor is added since cotreatment with both compounds seems to have an additive effect on ameliorating uremia-induced changes in iNOS and CuZn-SOD expression, peroxidase activity, and renal histomorphometry.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · AJP Renal Physiology

Publication Stats

3k Citations
430.33 Total Impact Points


  • 1993-2015
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Department of Pathology and Immunology
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2004
    • Good Samaritan Hospital
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2002
    • Evangelismos Hospital
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993-2002
    • Barnes Jewish Hospital
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2001
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • Department of Pain Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • Saint Louis University
      • Department of Pathology
      Сент-Луис, Michigan, United States
  • 1999
    • Athens State University
      Athens, Alabama, United States
  • 1998
    • Washington & Lee University
      Лексингтон, Virginia, United States