[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular function and diversity are orchestrated by complex interactions of fundamental biomolecules including DNA, RNA and proteins. Technological advances in genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics and proteomics have enabled massively parallel and unbiased measurements. Such high-throughput technologies have been extensively used to carry out broad, unbiased studies, particularly in the context of human diseases. Nevertheless, a unified analysis of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome and proteome of a single human cell type to obtain a coherent view of the complex interplay between various biomolecules has not yet been undertaken. Here, we report the first multi-omic analysis of human primary naïve CD4+ T cells isolated from a single individual.
Integrating multi-omics datasets allowed us to investigate genome-wide methylation and its effect on mRNA/protein expression patterns, extent of RNA editing under normal physiological conditions and allele specific expression in naïve CD4+ T cells. In addition, we carried out a multi-omic comparative analysis of naïve with primary resting memory CD4+ T cells to identify molecular changes underlying T cell differentiation. This analysis provided mechanistic insights into how several molecules involved in T cell receptor signaling are regulated at the DNA, RNA and protein levels. Phosphoproteomics revealed downstream signaling events that regulate these two cellular states. Availability of multi-omics data from an identical genetic background also allowed us to employ novel proteogenomics approaches to identify individual-specific variants and putative novel protein coding regions in the human genome.
We utilized multiple high-throughput technologies to derive a comprehensive profile of two primary human cell types, naïve CD4+ T cells and memory CD4+ T cells, from a single donor. Through vertical as well as horizontal integration of whole genome sequencing, methylation arrays, RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq, proteomics, and phosphoproteomics, we derived an integrated and comparative map of these two closely related immune cells and identified potential molecular effectors of immune cell differentiation following antigen encounter.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Systems Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belongs to a relatively new family of cytokines that has garnered attention as the signature cytokine of Th17 cells. This cytokine family consists of 6 ligands, which bind to 5 receptor subtypes and induce downstream signaling. Although the receptors are ubiquitously expressed, cellular responses to ligands vary across tissues. The cytokine family is associated with various autoimmune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and psoriasis in addition to being implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. In addition, this family plays a role in host defense against bacterial and fungal infections. The signaling mechanisms of the IL-17 family of proinflammatory cytokines are not well explored. In this study, we present a resource of literature-annotated reactions induced by IL-17. The reactions are catalogued under 5 categories, namely; molecular association, catalysis, transport, activation/inhibition and gene regulation. A total of 93 molecules and 122 reactions have been annotated. The IL-17 pathway is freely available through NetPath, a resource of signal transduction pathways previously developed by our group.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary tasks upon completion of whole genome sequencing of any organism. In this study, we used an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic strategy to validate and improve the existing zebrafish genome annotation. We undertook high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling of ten adult organs, whole adult fish body and two developmental stages of zebrafish (SAT line) in addition to transcriptomic profiling of six organs. More than 7,000 proteins were identified from proteomic analyses and ~69,000 high confidence transcripts were assembled from the RNA-Seq data. Approximately 15% of the transcripts mapped to intergenic regions, the majority of which are likely long non-coding RNAs. These high quality transcriptomic and proteomic data were used to manually re-annotate the zebrafish genome. We report identification of 157 novel protein-coding genes. In addition, our data led to modification of existing gene structures which include novel exons, change in exon coordinates, change in frame of translation, translation in annotated UTRs and joining of genes. Finally, we discovered four instances of genome assembly errors that were supported by both proteomic and transcriptomic data. Our study shows how an integrative analysis of the transcriptome and the proteome can extend our understanding of even well-annotated genomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Anopheles gambiae has a well-adapted system for host localization, feeding, and mating behavior, which are all governed by neuronal processes in the brain. However, there are no published reports characterizing the brain proteome to elucidate neuronal signaling mechanisms in the vector. To this end, a large-scale mapping of the brain proteome of An. gambiae was carried out using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, revealing a repertoire of >1800 proteins, of which 15% could not be assigned any function. A large proportion of the identified proteins were predicted to be involved in diverse biological processes including metabolism, transport, protein synthesis, and olfaction. This study also led to the identification of 10 GPCR classes of proteins, which could govern sensory pathways in mosquitoes. Proteins involved in metabolic and neural processes, chromatin modeling, and synaptic vesicle transport associated with neuronal transmission were predominantly expressed in the brain. Proteogenomic analysis expanded our findings with the identification of 15 novel genes and 71 cases of gene refinements, a subset of which were validated by RT-PCR and sequencing. Overall, our study offers valuable insights into the brain physiology of the vector that could possibly open avenues for intervention strategies for malaria in the future.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Omics A Journal of Integrative Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The availability of human genome sequence has transformed biomedical research over the past decade. However, an equivalent map for the human proteome with direct measurements of proteins and peptides does not exist yet. Here we present a draft map of the human proteome using high-resolution Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. In-depth proteomic profiling of 30 histologically normal human samples, including 17 adult tissues, 7 fetal tissues and 6 purified primary haematopoietic cells, resulted in identification of proteins encoded by 17,294 genes accounting for approximately 84% of the total annotated protein-coding genes in humans. A unique and comprehensive strategy for proteogenomic analysis enabled us to discover a number of novel protein-coding regions, which includes translated pseudogenes, non-coding RNAs and upstream open reading frames. This large human proteome catalogue (available as an interactive web-based resource at http://www.humanproteomemap.org) will complement available human genome and transcriptome data to accelerate biomedical research in health and disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To optimize the combination of ionizing radiation and cellular immunotherapy using a preclinical autochthonous model of prostate cancer.
Transgenic mice expressing a model antigen under a prostate-specific promoter were treated using a platform that integrates cone-beam CT imaging with 3-dimensional conformal therapy. Using this technology we investigated the immunologic and therapeutic effects of combining ionizing radiation with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer in mice bearing autochthonous prostate tumors.
The combination of ionizing radiation and immunotherapy resulted in a significant decrease in pathologic tumor grade and gross tumor bulk that was not evident with either single-modality therapy. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy resulted in improved overall survival in a preventive metastasis model and in the setting of established micrometastases. Mechanistically, combined therapy resulted in an increase of the ratio of effector-to-regulatory T cells for both CD4 and CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Our preclinical model establishes a potential role for the use of combined radiation-immunotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer, which warrants further exploration in a clinical setting.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The FDA recently approved an anti-CTLA-4 antibody (Iplimumab) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This decision was based on Phase III results, which demonstrate that blocking this immune checkpoint provides a survival advantage in patients with advanced disease. As a single agent, ipilimumab is also being clinically evaluated in advanced (metastatic, castrate-resistant) prostate cancer and two randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III studies have recently completed accrual.
We used a well-described genetically engineered mouse (GEM), autochronous prostate cancer model (Pro-TRAMP) to explore the relative sequencing and dosing of anti-CTLA-4 antibody when combined with a cell-based, GM-CSF-secreting vaccine (GVAX).
Our results show that combined treatment results in a dramatic increase in effector CD8 T cells in the prostate gland, and enhanced tumor-antigen directed lytic function. These effects are maximized when CTLA-4 blockade is applied after, but not before, vaccination. Additional experiments, using models of metastatic disease, show that incorporation of low-dose cyclophosphamide into this combined treatment regimen results in an additional pre-clinical benefit.
Together these studies define a combination regimen using anti-CTLA-4/GVAX immunotherapy and low-dose chemotherapy for potential translation to a clinical trial setting.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Translational Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue microarrays have become a valuable tool for high-throughput analysis using immunohistochemical labeling. However, the large majority of biochemical studies are carried out in cell lines to further characterize candidate biomarkers or therapeutic targets with subsequent studies in animals or using primary tissues. Thus, cell line-based microarrays could be a useful screening tool in some situations. Here, we constructed a cell microarray (CMA) containing a panel of 40 pancreatic cancer cell lines available from American Type Culture Collection in addition to those locally available at Johns Hopkins. As proof of principle, we performed immunocytochemical labeling of an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM), a molecule generally expressed in the epithelium, on this pancreatic cancer CMA. In addition, selected molecules that have been previously shown to be differentially expressed in pancreatic cancer in the literature were validated. For example, we observed strong labeling of CA19-9 antigen, a prognostic and predictive marker for pancreatic cancer. We also carried out a bioinformatics analysis of a literature curated catalog of pancreatic cancer biomarkers developed previously by our group and identified two candidate biomarkers, HLA class I and transmembrane protease, serine 4 (TMPRSS4), and examined their expression in the cell lines represented on the pancreatic cancer CMAs. Our results demonstrate the utility of CMAs as a useful resource for rapid screening of molecules of interest and suggest that CMAs can become a universal standard platform in cancer research.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD8 T-cell response to prostate and other cancers is often functionally diminished or absent. This may occur via deletion of tumor-specific T cells, through acquisition of an anergic phenotype, or via active suppression mediated by another population of cells.
We used a double transgenic model in which mice express CD8 T cells specific for a prostate/prostate cancer antigen to study the response of CD8 T cells to evolving autochronous prostate tumors in TRAMP mice. CD8 T cells were analyzed for functionality by measuring IFN-γ production via flow cytometry and via an in vivo CTL killing assay. In addition, pathological scoring of the prostates of the double transgenic mice was compared to scoring of tumor burden prostates of ProTRAMP mice.
Tumor-specific CD8 T cells were not grossly deleted in these animals, but evidenced a clearly non-functional phenotype. Interestingly, full lytic function was rapidly recovered upon removal from tumor-bearing mice.
These data indicate a role for continuous antigen exposure in the maintenance of tumor-specific CD8 T-cell tolerance to prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helios, an Ikaros family transcription factor, is preferentially expressed at the mRNA and protein level in regulatory T cells. Helios expression previously appeared to be restricted to thymic-derived Treg. Consistent with recent data, we show here that Helios expression is inducible in vitro under certain conditions. To understand phenotypic and functional differences between Helios(+) and Helios(-) Treg, we profiled cell-surface markers of FoxP3(+) Treg using unmanipulated splenocytes. We found that CD103 and GITR are expressed at high levels on a subset of Helios(+) Treg and that a Helios(+) Treg population could be significantly enriched by FACS sorting using these two markers. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed increased TGF-β message in Helios(+) Treg, consistent with the possibility that this population possesses enhanced regulatory potential. In tumor-bearing mice, we found that Helios(+) Treg were relatively over-represented in the tumor-mass, and BrdU studies showed that, in vivo, Helios(+) Treg proliferated more than Helios(-) Treg. We hypothesized that Helios-enriched Treg might exert increased suppressive effects. Using in vitro suppression assays, we show that Treg function correlates with the absolute number of Helios(+) cells in culture. Taken together, these data show that Helios(+) Treg represent a functional subset with associated CD103 and GITR expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dicer is a ribonuclease whose major role is to generate mature microRNAs, although additional functions have been proposed. Deletion of Dicer leads to embryonic lethality in mice. To study the role of Dicer in adults, we generated mice in which administration of tamoxifen induces deletion of Dicer. Surprisingly, disruption of Dicer in adult mice induced lipid accumulation in the small intestine. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we carried out miRNA, mRNA, and proteomic profiling of the small intestine. The proteomic analysis was done using mice metabolically labeled with heavy lysine (SILAC mice) for an in vivo readout. We identified 646 proteins, of which 80 were up-regulated >2-fold and 75 were down-regulated. Consistent with the accumulation of lipids, Dicer disruption caused a marked decrease of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase 5, fatty acid binding protein, and very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, among others. We validated these results using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) experiments by targeting proteotypic peptides. Our data reveal a previously unappreciated role of Dicer in lipid metabolism. These studies demonstrate that a systems biology approach by integrating mouse models, metabolic labeling, gene expression profiling, and quantitative proteomics can be a powerful tool for understanding complex biological systems.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that plays diverse roles in the regulation of immune responses. TSLP requires a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of IL-7 receptor α subunit and its unique TSLP receptor (gene symbol CRLF2) to transmit signals in cells. Abnormal TSLP signaling (e.g. overexpression of TSLP or its unique receptor TSLPR) contributes to the development of a number of diseases including asthma and leukemia. However, a detailed understanding of the signaling pathways activated by TSLP remains elusive. In this study, we performed a global quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the TSLP signaling network using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture. By employing titanium dioxide in addition to antiphosphotyrosine antibodies as enrichment methods, we identified 4164 phosphopeptides on 1670 phosphoproteins. Using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-based quantitation, we determined that the phosphorylation status of 226 proteins was modulated by TSLP stimulation. Our analysis identified activation of several members of the Src and Tec families of kinases including Btk, Lyn, and Tec by TSLP for the first time. In addition, we report TSLP-induced phosphorylation of protein phosphatases such as Ptpn6 (SHP-1) and Ptpn11 (Shp2), which has also not been reported previously. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that Shp2 binds to the adapter protein Gab2 in a TSLP-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of an inducible protein complex in TSLP signaling. A kinase inhibitor screen revealed that pharmacological inhibition of PI-3 kinase, Jak family kinases, Src family kinases or Btk suppressed TSLP-dependent cellular proliferation making them candidate therapeutic targets in diseases resulting from aberrant TSLP signaling. Our study is the first phosphoproteomic analysis of the TSLP signaling pathway that greatly expands our understanding of TSLP signaling and provides novel therapeutic targets for TSLP/TSLPR-associated diseases in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multinucleated cells are relatively resistant to classic apoptosis, and the factors initiating cell death and damage in myositis are not well defined. We hypothesized that nonimmune autophagic cell death may play a role in muscle fiber damage. Recent reports indicate that TRAIL may induce both NF-κB activation and autophagic cell death in other systems. We undertook this study to investigate the role of TRAIL in cell death and pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo, using myositis muscle tissues from humans and mice.
Gene expression profiling was performed in myositis patient and control muscle specimens. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to confirm the gene array findings. We also analyzed TRAIL-induced cell death (apoptosis and autophagy) and NF-κB activation in vitro in cultured cells.
TRAIL was expressed predominantly in myositis muscle fibers, but not in biopsy specimens from normal or other dystrophic-diseased muscle. Autophagy markers were up-regulated in humans with myositis and in mouse models of myositis. TRAIL expression was restricted to regenerating/atrophic areas of muscle fascicles, blood vessels, and infiltrating lymphocytes. TRAIL induced NF-κB activation and IκB degradation in cultured cells that are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis but that undergo autophagic cell death.
Our data demonstrate that TRAIL is expressed in myositis muscle and may mediate both activation of NF-κB and autophagic cell death in myositis. Thus, this nonimmune pathway may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in myositis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anopheles gambiae is a major mosquito vector responsible for malaria transmission, whose genome sequence was reported in 2002. Genome annotation is a continuing effort, and many of the approximately 13,000 genes listed in VectorBase for Anopheles gambiae are predictions that have still not been validated by any other method. To identify protein-coding genes of An. gambiae based on its genomic sequence, we carried out a deep proteomic analysis using high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry for both precursor and fragment ions. Based on peptide evidence, we were able to support or correct more than 6000 gene annotations including 80 novel gene structures and about 500 translational start sites. An additional validation by RT-PCR and cDNA sequencing was successfully performed for 105 selected genes. Our proteogenomic analysis led to the identification of 2682 genome search-specific peptides. Numerous cases of encoded proteins were documented in regions annotated as intergenic, introns, or untranslated regions. Using a database created to contain potential splice sites, we also identified 35 novel splice junctions. This is a first report to annotate the An. gambiae genome using high-accuracy mass spectrometry data as a complementary technology for genome annotation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) is a member of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily that plays a key role in the regulation of differentiation, activation and survival of osteoclasts and also in tumor cell migration and bone metastasis. Osteoclast activation induced by RANKL regulates hematopoietic stem cell mobilization as part of homeostasis and host defense mechanisms thereby linking regulation of hematopoiesis with bone remodeling. Binding of RANKL to its receptor, Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) activates molecules such as NF-kappa B, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and phosphatidyl 3-kinase (PI3K). Although the molecular and cellular roles of these molecules have been reported previously, a systematic cataloging of the molecular events induced by RANKL/RANK interaction has not been attempted. Here, we present a comprehensive reaction map of the RANKL/RANK-signaling pathway based on an extensive manual curation of the published literature. We hope that the curated RANKL/RANK-signaling pathway model would enable new biomedical discoveries, which can provide novel insights into disease processes and development of novel therapeutic interventions.
Database URL: http://www.netpath.org/pathways?path_id=NetPath_21
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Database The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relative upregulation of the Ikaros family transcription factor Helios in natural regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been reported by several groups. However, a role for Helios in regulatory T cells has not yet been described. Here, we show that Helios is upregulated in CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments indicated that Helios binds to the FoxP3 promoter. These data were further corroborated by experiments showing that knocking-down Helios with siRNA oligonucleotides results in down-regulation of FoxP3. Functionally, we found that suppression of Helios message in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells significantly attenuates their suppressive function. Taken together, these data suggest that Helios may play an important role in regulatory T cell function and support the concept that Helios may be a novel target to manipulate Treg activity in a clinical setting.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Molecular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-17-secreting CD8 T cells (Tc17) have been described in several settings, but little is known regarding their functional characteristics. While Tc1 cells produced IFN-gamma and efficiently killed targets, Tc17 cells lacked lytic function in vitro. Interestingly, the small numbers of IFN-gamma-positive or IL-17/IFN-gamma-double-positive cells generated under Tc17 conditions also lacked lytic activity and expressed a similar pattern of cell surface proteins to IL-17-producing cells. As is the case for Th17 (CD4) cells, STAT3 is important for Tc17 polarization, both in vitro and in vivo. Adoptive transfer of highly purified, Ag-specific IL-17-secreting Tc17 cells into Ag-bearing hosts resulted in near complete conversion to an IFN-gamma-secreting phenotype and substantial pulmonary pathology, demonstrating functional plasticity. Tc17 also accumulated to a greater extent than did Tc1 cells, suggesting that adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells cultured in Tc17 conditions may have therapeutic potential for diseases in which IFN-gamma-producing cells are desired.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis by suppressing aberrant or excessive immune responses. The
core genetic program of Tregs and their ability to suppress pathologic immune responses depends on the transcription factor Foxp3. Despite progress in
understanding mechanisms of Foxp3-dependent gene activation, the molecular mechanism of Foxp3-dependent gene repression remains
largely unknown. We identified Eos, a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Ikaros family, as a critical mediator of Foxp3-dependent
gene silencing in Tregs. Eos interacts directly with Foxp3 and induces chromatin modifications that result in gene silencing in Tregs. Silencing of Eos in Tregs abrogates their ability to suppress immune responses and endows them with partial effector function, thus demonstrating the
critical role that Eos plays in Treg programming.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte Activation Gene-3 (LAG-3) is a transmembrane protein that binds MHC class II, enhances regulatory T cell activity, and negatively regulates cellular proliferation, activation, and homeostasis of T cells. Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) also negatively regulates T cell function. LAG-3 and PD-1 are both transiently expressed on CD8 T cells that have been stimulated during acute activation. However, both LAG-3 and PD-1 remain on CD8 T cells at high levels after stimulation within tolerizing environments. Our previous data demonstrated that blockade of either LAG-3 or PD-1 using mAb therapy in combination with vaccination restores the function of tolerized Ag-specific CD8 T cells in models of self and tumor tolerance. It is unclear whether tolerized CD8 T cells coexpress PD-1 and LAG-3 or whether PD-1 and LAG-3 mark functionally distinct populations of CD8 T cells. In this study, we describe three populations of CD8 T cells activated under tolerizing conditions based on LAG-3 and PD-1 staining, each with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics. From a mechanistic perspective, both Ag concentration and proinflammatory signals control the expression of LAG-3 and PD-1 phenotypes on CD8 T cells under activating and tolerizing conditions. These results imply that signaling through the PD-1 and LAG-3 pathways have distinct functional consequences to CD8 T cells under tolerizing conditions and manipulation of both Ag and cytokine signaling can influence CD8 tolerance through LAG-3 and PD-1.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the immune response to prostate cancer, we developed an autochthonous animal model based on the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse in which spontaneously developing tumors express influenza hemagglutinin as a unique, tumor-associated antigen. Our prior studies in these animals showed immunologic tolerance to hemagglutinin, mirroring the clinical situation in patients with cancer who are generally nonresponsive to their disease. We used this physiologically relevant animal model to assess the immunomodulatory effects of cyclophosphamide when administered in combination with an allogeneic, cell-based granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting cancer immunotherapy. Through adoptive transfer of prostate/prostate cancer-specific CD8 T cells as well as through studies of the endogenous T-cell repertoire, we found that cyclophosphamide induced a marked augmentation of the antitumor immune response. This effect was strongly dependent on both the dose and the timing of cyclophosphamide administration. Mechanistic studies showed that immune augmentation by cyclophosphamide was associated with a transient depletion of regulatory T cells in the tumor draining lymph nodes but not in the peripheral circulation. Interestingly, we also noted effects on dendritic cell phenotype; low-dose cyclophosphamide was associated with increased expression of dendritic cell maturation markers. Taken together, these data clarify the dose, timing, and mechanism of action by which immunomodulatory cyclophosphamide can be translated to a clinical setting in a combinatorial cancer treatment strategy.