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Publications (15)

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    Mila Ghosh · Puja Sakhuja · Shivendra Singh · Anil K Agarwal
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: The inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene and activation of the proto-oncogene are key steps in the development of human cancer. p53 and beta-catenin are examples of such genes, respectively. In the present study, our aim was to determine the role of these genes in the carcinogenesis of the gallbladder by immunohistochemistry. Patients and Methods: Sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of surgically resected specimens of gallbladder cancer (GBC) (80 cases), chronic cholecystitis (60 cases), and control gallbladders (10 cases) were stained with the monoclonal antibody p53, and polyclonal antibody beta-catenin. Results were scored semiquantitatively and statistical analysis performed. p53 expression was scored as percentage of the nuclei stained. Beta-catenin expression was scored as type of expression–membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear staining. Beta-catenin expression was correlated with tumor invasiveness, differentiation, and stage. Results: Over-expression of p53 was seen in 56.25% of GBC cases and was not seen in chronic cholecystitis or in control gallbladders. p53 expression in gallbladder cancer was significantly higher than in inflammatory or control gallbladders (P < 0.0001). p53 expression increased with increasing tumor grade (P = 0.039). Beta-catenin nuclear expression was seen in 75% cases of gallbladder cancer and in no case of chronic cholecystitis and control gallbladder. Beta-catenin nuclear expression increased with tumor depth invasiveness, and grade (P = 0.028 and P = 0.0152, respectively). Conclusion: p53 and beta-catenin nuclear expression is significantly higher in GBC. p53 expression correlates with increasing tumor grade while beta-catenin nuclear expression correlates with tumor grade and depth of invasion, thus suggesting a role for these genes in tumor progression of GBC.
    Full-text available · Article · Mar 2013 · Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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    Anil K Agarwal · Raja Kalayarasan · Shivendra Singh · [...] · Puja Sakhuja
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally, a gallbladder removed for presumed benign disease has been sent for histopathological examination (HPE), but this practice has been the subject of controversy. This study was undertaken to compare patients in whom gallbladder cancer (GBC) was diagnosed after cholecystectomy on HPE with GBC patients in whom the gallbladder was not sent for HPE and who therefore presented late with symptoms. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for 170 GBC patients diagnosed after cholecystectomy was conducted. All patients presented to one centre during 2000-2011. These patients were divided into two groups based on the availability of histopathology reports: Group A included patients who presented early with HPE reports (n = 93), and Group B comprised patients who presented late with symptoms and without HPE reports (n = 77). The median time to presentation in Group A was significantly lower than in Group B (29 days vs. 152 days; P < 0.001). Signs or symptoms suggestive of recurrence (pain, jaundice or gastric outlet obstruction) were present in four (4.3%) patients in Group A and all (100%) patients in Group B (P < 0.001). Patients deemed operable on preoperative evaluation included all (100%) patients in Group A and 38 (49.4%) patients in Group B (P < 0.0001). The overall resectability rate (69.9% vs. 7.8%) and median survival (54 months vs. 10 months) were significantly higher in Group A compared with Group B (P < 0.0001). Patients in whom a cholecystectomy specimen was sent for HPE presented early, had a better R0 resection rate and longer overall survival. Hence, routine HPE of all cholecystectomy specimens should be performed.
    Full-text available · Article · Apr 2012 · HPB
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypersplenism is commonly seen in patients with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH). While a splenectomy alone can effectively relieve the hypersplenism, it does not address the underlying portal hypertension. The present study was undertaken to analyze the impact of shunt and non-shunt operations on the resolution of hypersplenism in patients with NCPH. The relationship of symptomatic hypersplenism, severe hypersplenism and number of peripheral cell line defects to the severity of portal hypertension and outcome was also assessed. A retrospective analysis of NCPH patients with hypersplenism managed surgically between 1999 and 2009 at our center was done. Of 252 patients with NCPH, 64 (45 with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction and 19 with non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis) had hypersplenism and constituted the study group. Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad InStat. Categorical and continuous variables were compared using the chi-square test, ANOVA, and Student's t test. The Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare non-parametric variables. The mean age of patients in the study group was 21.81+/-6.1 years. Hypersplenism was symptomatic in 70.3% with an incidence of spontaneous bleeding at 26.5%, recurrent anemia at 34.4%, and recurrent infection at 29.7%. The mean duration of surgery was 4.16+/-1.9 hours, intraoperative blood loss was 457+/-126 (50-2000) mL, and postoperative hospital stay 5.5+/-1.9 days. Following surgery, normalization of hypersplenism occurred in all patients. On long-term follow-up, none of the patients developed hepatic encephalopathy and 4 had a variceal re-bleeding (2 after a splenectomy alone, 1 each after an esophago-gastric devascularization and proximal splenorenal shunt). Patients with severe hypersplenism and those with defects in all three peripheral blood cell lineages were older, had a longer duration of symptoms, and a higher incidence of variceal bleeding and postoperative morbidity. In addition, patients with triple cell line defects had elevated portal pressure (P=0.001), portal biliopathy (P=0.02), portal gastropathy (P=0.005) and intraoperative blood loss (P=0.001). Hypersplenism is effectively relieved by both shunt and non-shunt operations. A proximal splenorenal shunt not only relieves hypersplenism but also effectively addresses the potential complications of underlying portal hypertension and can be safely performed with good long-term outcome. Patients with hypersplenism who have defects in all three blood cell lineages have significantly elevated portal pressures and are at increased risk of complications of variceal bleeding, portal biliopathy and gastropathy.
    Article · Apr 2012 · Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STUDY BACKGROUND: Hydatid disease of the liver is endemic in India and is a common health problem. Although various treatment options have been described ranging from pharmacotherapy to radiological interventions and surgical procedures (both conservative and radical), the best treatment option in an individual case continues to be debated. We did a retrospective analysis of patients with hydatid disease of the liver who were managed at our centre between January 2000 and December 2009. All cysts were classified as per the Gharbi's classification. The various treatment options used to treat hydatid cysts of the liver included percutaneous aspiration, injection and reaspiration (PAIR) or PAIR with drainage (PAIR-D) and surgery (both conservative and radical). The immediate and long-term outcomes following such management were analysed. During the study period, 128 patients with hydatid cyst of the liver were managed with PAIR/PAIR-D (n = 52), radical/excisional surgery (n = 61) and conservative surgery (n = 33). In ten patients, the PAIR procedure was abandoned due to either bile or pultaceous material aspirated after the initial puncture and these patients subsequently underwent surgical management. The PAIR was unsuccessful in eight of the 42 patients in whom it was attempted and these subsequently underwent surgery. The mean intraoperative blood loss and the duration of surgery were comparable in patients who underwent either conservative or radical surgery (p = 0.35 and 0.19, respectively). Postoperative bile leaks and cavity abscesses were significantly higher in patients who underwent conservative surgery (p = 0.032 and p  = 0.001, respectively). Five patients (one following a radical operation and four following a conservative surgery, p = 0.05) developed recurrence in a mean follow-up period of 28 months and these were managed medically. Several treatment options are available for the management of hydatid disease of the liver and the treatment modality chosen should be tailored to the individual patient. While percutaneous drainage (with PAIR/PAIR-D) is reserved for more favourable cases of type I and II cysts, the others are best managed surgically. Complete excision (cystopericstectomy or resection) of the hydatid cyst is the preferred approach and 61 of the 94 patients who were managed surgically were suitable for it. Although excisional surgery minimizes the risk of long-term recurrence and cavity-related complications, it may be hazardous in cysts located close to major biliovascular channels. In these cases (considering that it is benign disease), a drainage operation is preferable. Both conservative and radical surgery can be safely performed laparoscopically.
    Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • Source
    Anil Kumar Agarwal · Dharamanjai Sharma · Shivendra Singh · [...] · Girish SP
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Portal biliopathy (PBP) denotes intra- and extrahepatic biliary duct abnormalities that occur as a result of portal hypertension and is commonly seen in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). The management of symptomatic PBP is still controversial. Prospectively collected data for surgically managed PBP patients from 1996 to 2007 were retrospectively analysed for presentation, clinical features, imaging and the results of surgery. All patients were assessed with a view to performing decompressive shunt surgery as a first-stage procedure and biliary drainage as a second stage-procedure if required, based on evaluation at 6 weeks after shunt surgery. A total of 39 patients (27 males, mean age 29.56 years) with symptomatic PBP were managed surgically. Jaundice was the most common symptom. Two patients in whom shunt surgery was unsuitable underwent a biliary drainage procedure. A total of 37 patients required a proximal splenorenal shunt as first-stage surgery. Of these, only 13 patients required second-stage surgery. Biliary drainage procedures (hepaticojejunostomy [n= 11], choledochoduodenostomy [n= 1]) were performed in 12 patients with dominant strictures and choledocholithiasis. One patient had successful endoscopic clearance of common bile duct (CBD) stones after first-stage surgery and required only cholecystectomy as a second-stage procedure. The average perioperative blood product transfusion requirement in second-stage surgery was 0.9 units and postoperative complications were minimal with no mortality. Over a mean follow-up of 32.2 months, all patients were asymptomatic. Decompressive shunt surgery alone relieved biliary obstruction in 24 of 37 patients (64.9%) and facilitated a safe second-stage biliary decompressive procedure in the remaining 13 patients (35.1%). Decompressive shunt surgery alone relieves biliary obstruction in the majority of patients with symptomatic PBP and facilitates endoscopic or surgical management in patients who require second-stage management of biliary obstruction.
    Full-text available · Article · Jan 2011 · HPB
  • Shivendra Singh · Laxman Singh Kheria · Sunil Puri · [...] · Anil K Agarwal
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Choledochal cysts in adults are more commonly associated with complications such as cystolithiasis, recurrent cholangitis, portal hypertension and malignancy, than in the pediatric age group. We report a case of adult choledochal cyst with long-term complication of large stone cast and portal hypertension due to secondary biliary cirrhosis. A 50-year-old patient presented with obstructive jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly. On investigation, she was diagnosed as having a choledochal cyst with large stone cast and portal hypertension. Single stage resection of the choledochal cyst with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was done by meticulous dissection and ligation of collaterals. Single stage resection of a choledochal cyst is possible in spite of associated portal hypertension, if the portal vein is patent.
    Article · Dec 2009 · Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT
  • Source
    Shivendra Singh · Anil K Agarwal
    Full-text available · Article · Oct 2009 · Annals of surgery
  • Anil K Agarwal · K Raj Kumar · Shaleen Agarwal · Shivendra Singh
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Splenic vein thrombosis leading to sinistral portal hypertension and variceal bleeding is a complication of chronic pancreatitis. The management of these patients without variceal bleeding remains controversial. A total of 157 patients with chronic pancreatitis were managed consecutively in our center between January 1996 and December 2005. Thirty-four patients with chronic pancreatitis were diagnosed to have splenic vein thrombosis. The incidence of splenic vein thrombosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis was 22%. Fifteen percent of patients with chronic pancreatitis and splenic vein thrombosis presented with gastroesophageal variceal bleeding. Nine patients underwent splenectomy along with pancreatic procedures and 21 patients underwent pancreatic procedures only. Adding splenectomy to the pancreatic procedure did not lead to increased morbidity or mortality. Splenectomy should be added to the pancreatic procedure in patients who have evidence of portal hypertension on preoperative evaluation, especially if gastric varices are found.
    Article · Sep 2008 · American journal of surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Around 60% to 80% of patients with periampullary carcinoma are unresectable either due to distant metastasis or local vascular invasion. With the advancement of endoscopic interventional procedures, the role of surgical bypass has diminished. However, surgical bypass is still appropriate in patients with unresectable disease discovered at the time of surgery. This study was conducted to assess the results of palliative surgical bypass for patients with unresectable periampullary carcinoma at our hospital, a tertiary referral center of Northern India. The study group comprised 204 patients who had undergone surgical bypass for advanced periampullary carcinoma over the last 15 years. Between January 1990 and December 2004, 204 patients (128 males, 76 females) consisting of 179 patients with carcinoma of head of the pancreas, 14 patients with ampullary carcinoma, 8 patients with lower end cholangiocarcinoma and 3 patients with duodenal carcinoma underwent surgical bypass. Their average age was 51 years (range 20-78 years). Both biliary and gastric bypasses were done in 158 (77.45%), biliary bypass alone in 37 (18.13%), and gastric bypass alone in 9 (4.32%). Biliary bypass was done by Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, and gastric bypass by retrocolic gastrojejunostomy. The overall postoperative mortality and morbidity were 0.98% and 26.9%, respectively. The patients who died had undergone previously endoscopic intervention. Complications included wound infection in 12.25% of the patients, bile leak in 5.12%, delayed gastric emptying in 5.38%, ascitic leak from drains in 8.8%, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 1.96%. The incidences of wound infection and bile leak both were significantly higher in patients who had had preoperative biliary stenting. None of the patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy+retrocolic gastrojejunostomy required any intervention later in their life. Surgical bypass is a safe procedure with negligible mortality and minimal morbidity. It has not lost its relevance and is an appropriate treatment in patients deemed unresectable on peroperative assessment.
    Article · Jun 2008 · Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT
  • Anil K Agarwal · Vishal Gupta · Shivendra Singh · [...] · Puja Sakhuja
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Portal hypertension (PHT) is seen in 15% to 20% of patients with postcholecystectomy benign biliary stricture (BBS). Preliminary portosystemic shunt (PSS) has been recommended to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with direct stricture repair. Single-center experience of primary repair without preceding PSS in patients of BBS with PHT and a patent portal vein is presented. A retrospective study of 13 patients with postcholecystectomy BBS with PHT managed between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2006. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed in 11 patients. There was no major morbidity or mortality with minor complications seen in 3 patients. The median duration of surgery was 3.5 hours with a median blood loss of 300 mL. All patients were asymptomatic at a median follow-up of 17 months. Hepaticojejunostomy can be performed safely without prior portal decompression in patients with postcholecystectomy BBS complicated by PHT but with a patent portal vein.
    Article · May 2008 · American journal of surgery
  • Anil K Agarwal · Sanjoy Mandal · Shivendra Singh · [...] · Sunil Puri
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the resectability and the long-term survival in patients of gallbladder cancer with duodenal involvement. Duodenal infiltration in patients of carcinoma gallbladder is generally regarded as a sign of advanced disease and an indicator of unresectable disease. A total of 252 patients of gallbladder cancer (GBC) who underwent surgery over a 5-year period were studied for duodenal involvement. Patients with duodenal infiltration on per-operative assessment were analyzed for resectability, postoperative morbidity, mortality and disease free survival. Forty-three patients were detected to have duodenal infiltration on per-operative assessment out of which 17 had unresectable disease (39.54%), whereas the remaining 26 patients underwent R0 resection (61.9%). Of these, nine underwent distal gastrectomy with resection of the first part of the duodenum (34.62%), 16 underwent duodenal sleeve resection (61.54%), and in one patient pancreatoduodenectomy (HPD) (3.85%) was performed. With regard to the extent of liver resection, two underwent extended right hepatectomy, whereas the remaining 24 underwent segment IVB and V resection. Bile duct and adjacent viscera were resected when involved. Of the resected patients, eight underwent bile duct excision, seven had colonic resection, and three had vascular resection and reconstruction. The postoperative morbidity and mortality was 15 (34.9%) and three (6.97%), respectively, in the resected group of patients. The overall actual survival in the resected group was a mean of 15.87 months, median of 14 months (range 3 to 56 months). Duodenal infiltration is neither an indicator of unresectability nor an indication to perform Hepato-pancreatoduodenectomy (HPD). In most of these patients, an oncologically adequate R0 resection can be performed with either a duodenal sleeve resection or distal gastrectomy with resection of the first part of the duodenum.
    Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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    Rajkumar Krishnasamy · Shaleen Agarwal · Shivendra Singh · [...] · Anil K Agarwal
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of pancreatic ductal intraepithelial neoplasia in patients with chronic pancreatitis is a risk factor for development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A case of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma associated with pancreatic ductal intraepithelial neoplasia was diagnosed in the setting of chronic pancreatitis. Distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy was performed with a diagnosis of pancreatic body carcinoma. Histopathological examination suggested adenocarcinoma associated with pancreatic ductal intraepithelial neoplasia. The tumor was detected in the remaining head of the pancreas, for which a total pancreatectomy was done. When a patient with pancreatic ductal intraepithelial neoplasia associated with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in the setting of chronic pancreatitis is at an increased risk of recurrence in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma, total pancreatectomy may be feasible.
    Full-text available · Article · Nov 2007 · Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT
  • Anil K Agarwal · Sanjoy Mandal · Shivendra Singh · [...] · Rajeev Uppal
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of biliary obstruction in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) is generally viewed as an indicator of advanced disease, inoperability and poor prognosis. Data was collected from patients with GBC with obstructive jaundice who underwent resection during the period January 2001 to October 2003. Systematic analysis of prospective data was undertaken; patients were analyzed for resectability, post-operative morbidity, mortality and disease-free survival. During this period 14 patients with GBC with biliary obstruction underwent resection with curative intent. In these jaundiced patients, the resectability rate was 27.45% (14 of 51). In the jaundiced group the mortality was 7.14% the morbidity rate 50%, the mean disease free survival was 23.46 months (median 26 months and range of 2 to 62 months). Seven patients (50%) survived more than two years. Biliary obstruction in gall bladder cancer is not sine qua non of inoperability and resection results in meaningful prolongation of survival.
    Article · Nov 2007 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    Shivendra Singh · Rajesh Bhojwani · Satpal Singh · [...] · A K Agarwal
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes an interesting and unusual case of carcinoma gallbladder with skull metastasis.
    Full-text available · Article · Feb 2007 · HPB
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 14-year-old male presented with abdominal pain, diarrhoea and a sensation of something prolapsing through the anus during defecation, and was found to have diffuse colonic polyposis. There was no evidence of mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation and family history was negative, suggesting a diagnosis of non-familial juvenile polyposis. Histological analysis of multiple endoscopic biopsies showed features typical of juvenile or retention type (hamartomatous) lesions: dilated cystic glands lined by mucocus-secreting epithelium and prominent, inflamed and congested lamina propria. However, admixed with these features, focal areas of atypical adenomatous changes were recognized. Even the intervening normal-looking colonic mucosa showed some dysplastic changes. These findings indicate that hamartomatous and atypical adenomatous epithelial changes can co exist in non-familial juvenile polyposis and the latter may confer a risk of malignant transformation in this otherwise non-neoplastic disease.
    Article · Oct 2004 · Tropical gastroenterology: official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation