[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To delineate microstructural changes in transected white matter tracts after corpus callosotomy in relation to seizure recurrence using tract-based spatial statistics of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-TBSS).
We retrospectively included 12 total corpus callosotomy patients who had undergone serial pre- and postoperative DTI studies. The first postoperative DTI was performed within 6 months after callosotomy. The second postoperative DTI was performed in five patients with seizure recurrence (symptomatic group) and in seven patients without seizure recurrence (asymptomatic group) after 1 year following surgery. Group comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) with age- and sex-matched controls were performed in a whole brain voxel-wise manner using DTI-TBSS.
The first postoperative DTI-TBSS showed a significant FA decrease in the entire corpus callosum in all patients. The second postoperative DTI-TBSS showed that a significant FA decrease remained in the entire corpus callosum in the asymptomatic group. However, in the symptomatic group, no significant decrease of FA was observed in some parts of the posterior body and splenium of the corpus callosum, although there was still a significant FA decrease in the genu of the corpus callosum.
Using DTI-TBSS analysis, we characterized and visualized microstructural white matter changes over time in relation to seizure recurrence in callosotomy patients, suggesting that reorganization of some transected white matter tracts may be related to seizure recurrence. DTI-TBSS analysis can provide reliable and useful information about the state of white matter bundles affected by corpus callosotomy in a noninvasive manner.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Child s Nervous System
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2009, the first outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) or herpangina (HP) caused by enterovirus 71 occurred in the Republic of Korea. This study inquired into risk factors associated with complications of HFMD or HP. A retrospective medical records review was conducted on HFMD or HP patients for whom etiologic viruses had been verified in 2009. One hundred sixty-eight patients were examined for this investigation. Eighty patients were without complications while 88 were accompanied by complications, and 2 had expired. Enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4a was the most prevalent in number with 67 cases (54.9%). In the univariate analysis, the disease patterns of HFMD rather than HP, fever longer than 4 days, peak body temperature over 39℃, vomiting, headache, neurologic signs, serum glucose over 100 mg/dL, and having an enterovirus 71 as a causative virus were significant risk factors of the complications. After multiple logistic analysis, headache (Odds ratio [OR], 10.75; P < 0.001) and neurologic signs (OR, 42.76; P < 0.001) were found to be the most significant factors. Early detection and proper management of patients with aforementioned risk factors would be necessary in order to attain a better clinical outcome.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Korean medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and role of ketogenic parenteral nutrition in patients with intractable childhood epilepsy. The ketogenic parenteral nutrition was given to 10 patients who were unable to absorb nutrients through the intestinal tract because of various gastrointestinal disorders and required complete bowel rest. This nutrition consisted of conventional intravenous fat emulsion (20% Lipision) plus dextrose and amino acid (6% Trophamine) hyperalimentation in a 4:1 (or 3:1) lipid to non-lipid ratio, infused during the bowel rest. If the ketogenic parenteral nutrition allowed normal daily functioning or resolved the underlying problems, we soon changed it to the enteral ketogenic diet (KD). The mean (±SD) duration of the ketogenic parenteral nutrition was 4.1 (±1.5) days. Although a brief span of several days, all patients could maintain ketosis and the efficacy of the previous enteral KD during the ketogenic parenteral nutrition. Complications included elevated aspartate aminotransferase and/or alanine aminotransferase in one patient. Amylase and lipase increased in one patient. Serum triglyceride level increased to the level of 1885 mg/dl in one patient, but normalized in one week after discontinuation of the ketogenic parenteral nutrition and resuming of the enteral KD. Nine patients (90%) remained on the enteral KD after the ketogenic parenteral nutrition (the mean follow-up period was 9 months), including 2 patients who successfully completed the diet with seizure free state. Only one patient discontinued the ketogenic parenteral nutrition because of persistent increase of the amylase and lipase levels. The ketogenic parenteral nutrition proved to be a relatively safe short-term method of continuing KD to maintain ketosis for seizure control, while patients were unable to absorb nutrients through their intestinal tract.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Brain & development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pre-surgical evaluation of pediatric epilepsy, the combined use of multiple imaging modalities for precise localization of the epileptogenic focus is a worthwhile endeavor. Advanced neuroimaging by high field Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor images, and MR spectroscopy have the potential to identify subtle lesions. (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography provide visualization of metabolic alterations of the brain in the ictal and interictal states. These techniques may have localizing value for patients which exhibit normal MRI scans. Functional MRI is helpful for non-invasively identifying areas of eloquent cortex. These advances are improving our ability to noninvasively detect epileptogenic foci which have gone undetected in the past and whose accurate localization is crucial for a favorable outcome following surgical resection.
Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Korean Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy and long-term outcome of the ketogenic diet in patients with intractable childhood epilepsy as a result of focal malformation of cortical development.
A retrospective analysis evaluated seizure outcomes of 47 patients who had intractable epilepsy from (and) surgically remediable focal malformation of cortical development and were first treated with the classic ketogenic diet, involving the 4:1 lipid/nonlipid ratio. The long-term prognosis of 21 patients, who became seizure-free 3 months after the ketogenic diet, was followed up with that of 22 patients who eventually underwent epilepsy surgery.
Three months after diet initiation, 29 (61.7%) patients showed a reduction in seizure frequency of >50%, including 21 (44.7%) who became seizure-free. Of the 21 patients with complete seizure control at 3 months, 16 (76.2%) successfully completed the diet for 2 years without relapse, and 10 (47.6%) have remained seizure-free after cessation of the diet (mean follow-up for 3 years and 10 months), including 1 patient who remained seizure-free with additional medication after a relapse. Of the 22 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery, a seizure-free outcome was obtained for 13 (59.1%).
The ketogenic diet should be considered to be an additional option even in patients with focal malformation of cortical development, and long-term seizure-free outcome can be expected for patients who become seizure-free 3 months after the diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the cause of gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance of a ketogenic diet (KD) using an endoscopic investigation, and to examine the relationship between endoscopic lesions and dietary tolerance. Thirty-five patients were enrolled in this study and underwent gastrofiberscopy prior to initiation of the KD. We observed the relationship between abnormal endoscopic findings and prior use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and symptoms of GI disturbance. We treated patients with GI symptoms, and observed whether the KD was subsequently better tolerated. Of the 35 patients enrolled, 20 patients (57%) had abnormal endoscopic findings: ten cases of erosive gastritis, four of duodenitis, three of hemorrhagic gastritis, two of esophagitis, and one case of duodenal ulcer. The incidence of abnormal endoscopic lesions was 78% in the polypharmacy group (14/35) and 81% in steroid consumers (16/35). Symptoms of GI disturbance, such as nausea, vomiting, unusual irritability, cramping abdominal pain, and diet refusal for over a day, were observed in 17 (85%) of those patients with abnormal endoscopic lesions and in five (33%) patients without such lesions. Steroids and polypharmacy with more than three AEDs were factors associated with abnormal endoscopic lesions (p < 0.05). After active management with GI medications, GI symptoms subsided, and in all cases except one, patients were able to continue the KD treatment. In conclusion, symptoms of GI disturbance were frequently associated with abnormal endoscopic findings prior to initiation of the KD. Active management with GI medications increased the tolerability of the KD in patients treated with multiple AEDs and steroids.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Brain and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measles virus infection may progress to a chronic obstructive process including bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). This study investigates pulmonary cellular profiles and interleukin (IL)-8 levels in patients with BO following the measles.
BAL fluid was obtained from 12 children with BO who had a history of measles pneumonia during an outbreak in 2000 and 2001. BAL cell counts and differentials were compared to control patients as well as BAL IL-8 levels, which were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical staining of BAL cells and three open-lung biopsy specimens were also analyzed for T-cell surface markers CD3, CD4, and CD8.
BAL cellular profiles were characterized by a significantly increased percentage of neutrophils in the measles BO group (median, 16.0%) compared to the control group (2.3%) [p < 0.01]. BAL IL-8 levels were also markedly increased in the measles BO group (mean +/- SD, 418.6 +/- 286.0 pg/mL) compared to the control group (92.8 +/- 126.7 pg/mL) [p < 0.01]. BAL IL-8 levels correlated significantly with neutrophil percentages in both the measles BO group (r = 0.86, p = 0.000) and the control group (r = 0.79, p = 0.007). The lymphocyte subsets were characterized by a significantly increased number of CD8+ cells, resulting in a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio in the BAL and the biopsy specimens.
These results suggest that pulmonary neutrophils and IL-8, along with CD8+ T lymphocytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of BO after measles virus infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early surgery for catastrophic epilepsy may prevent developmental deterioration and minimize functional deficit resulting from the surgical procedure. We report two patients who had infantile spasms and underwent surgery for epilepsy in early infancy (younger than 6 months old). Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical dysplasia in both patients. One patient underwent lesionectomy in the right perirolandic area at 49 weeks conceptional age (CA) and the other infant underwent left temporo-occipital disconnection at 45 weeks CA. Both showed Engel classification I and catch-up developmental progress. However, with the second patient, we were concerned about the high volume transfusion relative to her body weight during the extensive disconnection because of the patient's small blood volume. We discuss the benefits and potential risks of surgical treatment for intractable epilepsy in early infancy.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Brain and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chyluria is the passage of milky urine due to the leakage of lymph into the urinary tract. Chyluria occurs predominantly in adults and is rare in children. We present an unusual case in which a child with proteinuria, hematuria and milky urine was subsequently diagnosed with non-parasitic chyluria. Retrograde cystogram confirmed a lymphatico-calyceal communication. This case showed spontaneous remission. The etiology of this case was not exactly known; however, the prognosis of non-parasitic chyluria (or idiopathic chyluria) is usually very good and the treatment is mostly conservative.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Korean Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare, acute and life-threatening cutaneous drug reaction. TEN is characterized by the sudden onset of extensive necrosis in the epidermis and frequent mucous membrane involvement. The pathogenesis has not yet been elucidated. In addition, no particular treatment for TEN has been established. We report a case of TEN in a 14-year-old-boy, which might have been caused by steroids with enalapril treatment for membranous nephropathy. He recovered after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
Preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Korean Journal of Pediatrics