[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases in non-phagocytic cells has recently been suggested to participate in the regulation of cellular functions. Due to the role of ROS in control of cellular functions, precise and accurate detection of ROS is of essential importance. However, various methodological approaches currently used for ROS determination vary in sensitivity, specificity, as well as in requirements for specialized equipment. In this study, human lung epithelial cell line A549 was screened for expression of NADPH oxidases NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, NOX5, DUOX1 and DUOX2 by quantitative RT-PCR. Fluorometric, colorimetric, and chemiluminometric methods were applied to determine ROS production. A549 cells were found to significantly express NOX1, NOX2, DUOX1 and DUOX2. ROS production by A549 cells was detected with fluorometric probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein- diacetate, dihydroethidium, and amplex red or colorimetric probe nitrobluetetrazolium. The production of ROS detected by these probes was partially reduced by NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. The inhibitory effect of diphenyleneiodonium was the most significant regarding amplex red detection of phorbol myristate acetateactivated ROS production. In contrast to other probes, neither cytochrome c colorimetric determination nor luminol- and L-012-amplified chemiluminescence, regardless of the addition of horseradish peroxidase, exerted sufficient sensitivity to detect ROS production by A549. The results revealed differences among methods used for ROS formation measurement by human lung epithelial cell line A549 and highlighted the sensitivity of fluorometric determination for this purpose.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of non-modified and oxidatively modified calf skin collagen type I on platelet aggregation and the oxidative burst of phagocytes were examined in the framework of a general hypothesis that collagen, platelets and phagocytes cooperate to modulate the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the extent of oxidative stress.
Calf skin collagen type I was subjected to oxidative modification by hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radical. Thermal denaturation of collagen was performed in a spectrophotometer equipped with a temperature gradient device. The aggregation of isolated human platelets obtained after differential centrifugation was measured using a dual-channel aggregometer. The production of reactive oxygen species by human whole blood phagocytes was evaluated by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence.
Oxidative modification of collagen samples was characterized by a decrease in denaturation transition temperature. Oxidatively modified samples showed a modified SDS-PAGE pattern, evidencing a significant destruction of the collagen. All oxidatively modified collagen samples, independent of the oxidation treatment applied, lost their platelet-aggregating and phagocyte oxidative burst-inducing activity.
The results suggest that reactive oxygen species were able to modify collagen. On the other hand, oxidatively modified collagen lost its activating properties towards platelets and phagocytes.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Neuro endocrinology letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) leads to attenuation of cartilage growth. The members of the STAT family of transcription factors are believed to participate in FGFR3 signaling in cartilage, however the molecular mechanism of this action is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a chronic FGF stimulus leads to accumulation of STAT1, 3, 5 and 6, evident in both in vitro chondrocyte model and murine limb explant cultures. Despite the accumulation, both endogenous and cytokine-induced activation of STAT1 and STAT3 is impaired by FGF, as demonstrated by imaging of active STAT nuclear translocation and analyses of STAT activatory phosphorylation and transcriptional activation. Further, we demonstrate that FGF induces expression of CIS, SOCS1 and SOCS3 inhibitors of gp130, a common receptor for the IL6-family of cytokines. Since cytokine-gp130 signaling represents an important positive regulator of cartilage, its inhibition may contribute to the growth-inhibitory effect of FGFR3 in cartilage.
Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Cellular Signalling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past several years, the C-natriuretic peptide (CNP) has emerged as an important regulator of cartilage homeostasis and endochondral bone growth. In mice, genetic ablation of CNP or its cognate receptor NPRB results in marked dwarfism. When a downstream component of CNP signaling, protein kinase-G II (PKGII), is removed from cartilage, the mice have disturbed chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix production. In contrast, activating mutations in PKGII as well as overexpression of CNP result in significant skeletal overgrowth in mice, demonstrating the positive role of CNP signaling in regulation of mammalian chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix production. This is further supported by the existence of a human dwarfism, acromesomelic dysplasia Maroteaux-type (MIM #602875) that is caused by loss-of-function of NPRB. In comparison with other signaling systems, the molecular basis of CNP signaling in cartilage remains largely unknown, thus leaving many important questions open for future investigation. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the mechanism of CNP signaling in cartilage, areas for future investigation and its potential therapeutic uses.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Erk MAP kinase pathway contributes to tumor development and thus represents an important therapeutic target. Several inhibitors of the Erk pathway are presently being evaluated in clinical trials for cancer, but show limited efficiency thus warranting discovery of more potent inhibitors. We have developed a novel mammalian cell-based assay that should facilitate the identification of such compounds by screening molecular libraries. In rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells, treatment with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) leads to sustained activation of the Erk pathway, resulting in growth arrest with more than an 80% cell count difference between control and FGF2-treated cells after 72 h of treatment. The extent of both Erk activation and the growth arrest can be precisely modulated by the FGF2 dose. We also demonstrate that FGF2-mediated activation of the Erk pathway is robust and has only a limited sensitivity to the available MEK inhibitors. The assay is rapid, sensitive and easily adapted to high throughput screening. A major advantage of this system is exclusion of toxic compounds as false-positive hits, given the nature of the RCS response to inhibition of the Erk pathway, i.e. growth.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 305 ticks (21 larvae, 243 nymphs, 19 females and 22 males) were collected by flagging of vegetation in suburban woods of Pisarky Park (city of Brno) from July to October 2002. The midgut of each tick was dissected out and transferred individually into BSK-H medium. After cultivation, all specimens were examined by dark-field microscopy (DFM) for the presence of borreliae. Out of 305 tick samples, 45 were (14.8%) DFM positive. The following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) then revealed 37 (12.1%) samples positive for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA. All 37 samples were further analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed 14 strains of B. afzelii (37.8%), 15 strains of B. garinii (40.5%) and 2 strains of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5.4%). Four samples (10.8%) showed a mixed population of these genospecies. Two samples produced atypical RFLP pattern which were detected by sequence analysis as B. valaisiana (5.4%). Isolation attempts resulted in 21 spirochaetal strains (including two stains of B. valaisiana). The results show the diversity of B. burgdorferi s.l. in tick population and refer the risk of infection by pathogenic borreliae in Brno.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Several lines of evidence suggest that cytokines and their receptors are initiators of changes in the activity of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, but their cellular distribution is still very limited or controversial. Therefore, the goal of present study was to investigate immunohistochemical distribution of TNF-α and TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1) proteins in the rat DRG following three types of nerve injury.
2. The unilateral sciatic and spinal nerve ligation as well as the sciatic nerve transection were used to induce changes in the distribution of TNF-α and TNFR1 proteins. The TNF-α and TNFR1 immunofluorescence was assessed in the L4-L5 DRG affected by nerve injury for 1 and 2 weeks, and compared with the contralateral ones and those removed from naive or sham-operated rats. A part of the sections was incubated for simultaneous immunostaining for TNF-α and ED-1. The immunofluorescence brightness was measured by image analysis system (LUCIA-G v4.21) to quantify immunostaining for TNF-α and TNFR1 in the naive, ipsi- and contralateral DRG following nerve injury.
3. The ipsilateral L4-L5 DRG and their contralateral counterparts of the rats operated for nerve injury displayed an increased immunofluorescence (IF) for TNF-α and TNFR1 when compared with DRG harvested from naive or sham-operated rats. The TNFα IF was increased bilaterally in the satellite glial cells (SGC) and contralaterally in the neuronal nuclei following sciatic and spinal nerve ligature. The neuronal bodies and their SGC exhibited bilaterally enhanced IF for TNF-α after sciatic nerve transection for 1 and 2 weeks. In addition, the affected DRG were invaded by ED-1 positive macrophages which displayed simultaneously TNFα IF. The ED-1 positive macrophages were frequently located near the neuronal bodies to occupy a position of the satellites.
4. The sciatic and spinal nerve ligature resulted in an increased TNFR1 IF in the neuronal bodies of both ipsi- and contralateral DRG. The sciatic nerve ligature for 1 week induced a rise in TNFR1 IF in the contralateral DRG neurons and their SGC to a higher level than in the ipsilateral ones. In contrast, the sciatic nerve ligature for 2 weeks caused a similar increase of TNFR1 IF in the neurons and their SGC of both ipsi- and contralateral DRG. The spinal nerve ligature or sciatic nerve transection resulted in an increased TNFR1 IF located at the surface of the ipsilateral DRG neurons, but dispersed IF in the contralateral ones. In addition, the SGC of the contralateral in contrast to ipsilateral DRG displayed a higher TNFR1 IF.
5. Our results suggest more sources of TNF-α protein in the ipsilateral and contralateral DRG following unilateral nerve injury including macrophages, SGC and primary sensory neurons. In addition, the SGC and macrophages, which became to be satellites, are well positioned to regulate activity of the DRG neurons by production of TNF-α molecules. Moreover, the different cellular distribution of TNFR1 in the ipsi- and contralateral DRG may reflect different pathways by which TNF-α effect on the primary sensory neurons can be mediated following nerve injury.
No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From the epidemiological point of view, dogs are very important since they are considered a suitable indicator of the spread of human borreliosis. Serum samples obtained from healthy, asymptomatic military dogs from 12 different areas in the Czech Republic were examined for IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). The total of 399 serum samples were tested by a whole-cell ELISA. Specific antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 26 cases (6.5%). In different localities, the seroprevalence varied from 0.0% to 28.6%. Two local isolated strains Br-75 (Borrelia afzelii) and Br-97 (Borrelia garinii) were used as antigens. A total of 22 (5.5%) were positive for antibodies to Borrelia afzelii and 19 (4.8%) were positive for antibodies to Borrelia garinii. Fifteen cases were positive for both antibodies. A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in younger dogs (1-3 years) than in older ones (p < 0.05). An analysis of seroprevalence by months of sampling showed no significant difference (p > 0.05).
Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · Veterinary Research Communications