- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The level of Factor XII (FXII) is an important phenotype that exhibits a high genetic component and is associated with thrombotic disease. In a genome-wide linkage scan, we demonstrated that the F12 gene represents a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that influences FXII levels. The current study investigated the genetic architecture of the F12 gene to locate polymorphism(s) responsible for the variation of FXII levels. Re-sequencing of the F12 gene in 40 unrelated individuals (selected from the tails of normal distribution of FXII levels) identified 26 polymorphisms which were genotyped in 398 individuals belonging to 21 families from the GAIT Project. By a measured genotype association analysis, eight of 26 SNPs showed significant P-values less than 10-5 (after multiple test correction) with FXII levels. In addition, the Bayesian Quantitative Trait Nucleotide method, which infers those polymorphisms most likely to have a direct influence on the trait under study, provided evidence that only rs1801020 variation accounted for the variance attributed to this QTL. Moreover, we have analyzed the evolutionary processes that produced the variation in F12 gene and concluded that is evolutionarily neutral and that the T allele of the rs1801020 appeared ~100 000 years ago and spread to most human populations rising to high frequencies by genetic drift. Our study provides a template for future genetic studies of human quantitative traits, as we move beyond QTL localization to the polymorphisms responsible for the variation of important biomedical phenotypes. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected] /* */
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Factor XII (FXII) deficiency is a recessive Mendelian trait due to mutations in the F12 gene. There is no bleeding associated with FXII deficiency, but FXII deficiency has been reported to be associated with risk of thrombosis in some studies. We examined the functional effect of two naturally-occurring mutations in two Spanish FXII deficient families: a C/G substitution at position -8, and a C/T substitution at position -13. Both mutations were located on a putative HNF4 binding site of F12 gene promoter. We also analyzed the F12 C46T polymorphism (rs1801020), associated with a decrease in the FXII levels, which also segregated in both families. A fragment containing each one of both -8 and -13 mutations, was cloned 5' of a reporter gene. We compared the in vitro expression of these constructs to the wild type expression. Our analyses confirm that the -8C/G and the -13C/T mutations decreased expression levels, demonstrating that both mutations are involved in the observed FXII deficiency. In addition, electrophoretic shift analyses suggest that they alter the union of nuclear proteins to the promoter. Coinheritance of these mutations with the C46T polymorphism, result in a significant genotype-phenotype correlation. We have identified two naturally-occurring mutations in the F12 promoter that drastically reduce FXII levels. Knowing rare genetic alterations in the F12 gene, together with the C46T common variant, may yield further understanding about the genetic architecture of FXII levels, which may have a role in the risk of thrombosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied 3 Spanish patients with <1% FXII levels. DNA sequencing of the whole F12 gene identified 15 genetic variants. Molecular analyses of F12 mRNA demonstrated that the deficiency was caused by 5281delG in exon 9 of Patient 1 (in the homozygous state) and the 6306delG in exon 12 and another deletion of 23 bp in intron 8 of Patient 2 (both in the heterozygous state). Finally, a G-8C transversion was found in the homozygous state in Patient 3. Based on previous data, including a mouse model, the G-8C might be responsible for the FXII deficiency. None of these variants were present in 40 controls.