[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most common means of mobilizing autologous stem cells is G-CSF alone or combined with cyclophosphamide (CY) to obtain sufficient CD34(+) cells for one to two transplants. There are few prospective, randomized studies investigating mobilization regimens in multiple myeloma (MM), especially after lenalidomide-based induction. We designed this prospective, randomized study to compare low-dose CY 2 g/m(2)+G-CSF (arm A) and G-CSF alone (arm B) after lenalidomide-based up-front induction in MM. Of the 80 initially randomized patients, 69 patients were evaluable, 34 and 35 patients in arms A and B, respectively. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a yield of ⩾3 × 10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells with 1-2 aphereses, which was achieved in 94% and 77% in arms A and B, respectively (P=0.084). The median number of aphereses needed to reach the yield of ⩾3 × 10(6)/kg was lower in arm A than in arm B (1 vs 2, P=0.035). Two patients needed plerixafor in arm A and five patients in arm B (P=0.428). Although CY-based mobilization was more effective, G-CSF alone was successful in a great majority of patients to reach the defined collection target after three cycles of lenalidomide-based induction.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 5 October 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.236.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Bone marrow transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Autologous stem cell transplantation is the standard treatment in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, there is discrepancy over the optimal mobilization regimen. Therefore a randomized study was conducted to compare cellular composition of the collected grafts as well as early hematopoietic and immune recovery in MM patients receiving G-CSF with or without low-dose cyclophosphamide for mobilization of blood grafts after induction with lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone.
Materials (or patients) and methods:
Thirty patients with MM were included into this prospective multicenter study. There were 16 males and 14 females with a median age of 62 years (range 43-70). Fourteen patients were mobilized with cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF (arm A) whereas sixteen patients were mobilized with G-CSF alone (arm B). Melphalan 200 mg/m2 was used as high-dose therapy and patients having graft CD34+ cell counts 3 x 106/kg (measured before freezing) were scheduled to receive G-CSF after the graft infusion. Cryopreserved graft samples were analyzed with a flow cytometry for T and B cells (CD3/CD8/CD45/CD19) as well as for NK cells (CD3/CD16CD56/CD45). Also CD34+ cell subclasses were analyzed (CD34/CD38/CD133/CD45). Complete blood counts were evaluated on day +15 and one month post-transplant and a flow cytometry for blood lymphocyte subsets (T, B, NK) was performed one month after the graft infusion.
The blood grafts in arm A contained significantly higher amounts of CD34+ cells and the grafts of the arm B contained significantly higher proportion of primitive CD34+CD133+CD38- cells and T, NK and B lymphocytes (Table 1). The median amount of infused CD34+ cells was comparable between the arms (3.9 x 106/kg in group A vs. 3.1 x 106/kg in group B, P=0.056). The number of platelets was slightly lower in the group B at d+15 (P=0.094) otherwise the course of early hematological and immune recovery was comparable between the groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of acute myocardial infarction with stem cell transplantation has achieved beneficial effects in many clinical trials. The bone marrow microenvironment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients has never been studied even though myocardial infarction is known to cause an imbalance in the acid-base status of these patients. The aim of this study was to assess if the blood gas levels in the bone marrow of STEMI patients affect the characteristics of the bone marrow cells (BMCs) and, furthermore, do they influence the change in cardiac function after autologous BMC transplantation. The arterial, venous and bone marrow blood gas concentrations were also compared.
Blood gas analysis of the bone marrow aspirate and peripheral blood was performed for 27 STEMI patients receiving autologous stem cell therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention. Cells from the bone marrow aspirate were further cultured and the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation rate was determined by MTT assay and the MSC osteogenic differentiation capacity by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. All the patients underwent a 2D-echocardiography at baseline and 4 months after STEMI.
As expected, the levels of pO(2), pCO(2), base excess and HCO(3) were similar in venous blood and bone marrow. Surprisingly, bone marrow showed significantly lower pH and Na(+) and elevated K(+) levels compared to arterial and venous blood. There was a positive correlation between the bone marrow pCO(2) and HCO(3) levels and MSC osteogenic differentiation capacity. In contrast, bone marrow pCO(2) and HCO(3) levels displayed a negative correlation with the proliferation rate of MSCs. Patients with the HCO(3) level below the median value exhibited a more marked change in LVEF after BMC treatment than patients with HCO(3) level above the median (11.13 ± 8.07% vs. 2.67 ± 11.89%, P = 0.014).
Low bone marrow pCO(2) and HCO(3) levels may represent the optimal environment for BMCs in terms of their efficacy in autologous stem cell therapy in STEMI patients.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Translational Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Beneficial mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI) are largely unknown in humans. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of serial positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI studies to provide insight into the effects of BMCs on the healing process of ischemic myocardial damage. Methods: Nineteen patients with successful primary reteplase thrombolysis (mean 2.4 h after symptoms) for STEMI were randomized for BMC therapy (2.9 × 10(6) CD34+ cells) or placebo after bone marrow aspiration in a double-blind, multi-center study. Three days post-MI, coronary angioplasty, and paclitaxel eluting stent implantation preceded either BMC or placebo therapy. Cardiac PET and MRI studies were performed 7-12 days after therapies and repeated after 6 months, and images were analyzed at a central core laboratory. Results: In BMC-treated patients, there was a decrease in [(11)C]-HED defect size (-4.9 ± 4.0 vs. -1.6 ± 2.2%, p = 0.08) and an increase in [(18)F]-FDG uptake in the infarct area at risk (0.06 ± 0.09 vs. -0.05 ± 0.16, p = 0.07) compared to controls, as well as less left ventricular dilatation (-4.4 ± 13.3 vs. 8.0 ± 16.7 mL/m(2), p = 0.12) at 6 months follow-up. However, BMC treatment was inferior to placebo in terms of changes in rest perfusion in the area at risk (-0.09 ± 0.17 vs. 0.10 ± 0.17, p = 0.03) and infarct size (0.4 ± 4.2 vs. -5.1 ± 5.9 g, p = 0.047), and no effect was observed on ejection fraction (p = 0.37). Conclusion: After the acute phase of STEMI, BMC therapy showed only minor trends of long-term benefit in patients with rapid successful thrombolysis. There was a trend of more decrease in innervation defect size and enhanced glucose metabolism in the infarct-related myocardium and also a trend of less ventricular dilatation in the BMC-treated group compared to placebo. However, no consistently better outcome was observed in the BMC-treated group compared to placebo.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Frontiers in Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short-axis cine MRI image (1 week) in placebo treated patient. Short-axis cine MRI image stack at 1 week from a patient with placebo therapy. Same patient as in Figure 4B end-diastolic volume was 182 mL and ejection fraction 34%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short-axis cine MRI image (6 months) in placebo treated patient. Short axis cine MRI image stack at 6 month from the same patient with placebo therapy as in Online Resource 3. End-diastolic volume was 174 mL and ejection fraction 36%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short-axis cine MRI image (6 months) in BMC-treated patient. Short-axis cine MRI image stack at 6 month from the same patient with BMC therapy as in Online Resource 1. End-diastolic volume was 204 mL and ejection fraction 43%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short-axis cine MRI image (1 week) in BMC-treated patient. Short-axis cine MRI image stack at 1 week time-point from a patient with BMC therapy (same patient as in Figure 4A). End-diastolic volume was 192 mL and ejection fraction 41%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracoronary administration of autologous bone marrow stem cells (BMC) has been shown to result in a subtle improvement of global left ventricular ejection fraction after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but the overall benefits of BMC therapy are still unclear. We studied the influence of intracoronary injections of BMC on levels of natriuretic peptides and inflammatory mediators, which are well established prognostic biomarkers, in patients with STEMI.
In this randomized, double-blind study, consecutive patients with an acute STEMI treated with thrombolysis followed by PCI 2-6 days after STEMI, were randomly assigned to receive either intracoronary BMC or placebo medium into the infarct-related artery. Blood samples were drawn for biochemical determinations.
From baseline to 6 months, there was a significant decrease in the levels of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the whole patient population (P < 0.001 for all). However, no difference was observed between the BMC group (n = 39) and the placebo group (n = 39) in the change of the levels of NT-proANP (median -54 vs. +112 pmol/L), NT-proBNP (-88 vs. -115 pmol/L) or inflammatory markers IL-6 (-3.86 vs. -5.61 pg/mL), hsCRP (-20.29 vs. -22.36 mg/L) and tumor necrosis factor α (-0.12 vs. -0.80 pg/mL) between baseline and 6 months.
Intracoronary BMC therapy does not appear to exert any significant effects on the secretion of natriuretic peptides or inflammatory biomarkers in STEMI patients.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Clinical Research in Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the determinants of functional recovery in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated initially with thrombolysis, followed by percutaneous coronary intervention and intracoronary injection of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMC).
A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study (substudy of FINCELL).
Two tertiary cardiac centres.
78 patients with STEMI randomly assigned to receive either intracoronary BMC (n=39) or placebo (n=39) into the infarct-related artery.
Thrombolysis a few hours after symptom onset, percutaneous coronary intervention and intracoronary injection of BMC 2-6 days later.
Efficacy of the BMC treatment was assessed by measurement of the change of global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from baseline to 6 months after STEMI. Various predefined variables (eg, the levels of certain natriuretic peptides and inflammatory cytokines) were analysed as determinants of improvement of LVEF.
In the BMC group, the most powerful determinant of the change in LVEF was the baseline LVEF (r=-0.58, p<0.001). Patients with baseline LVEF at or below the median (< or = 62.5%) experienced a more marked improvement in LVEF (+12.7 + or - 12.5 %units, p<0.001) than those above the median (-0.8 + or - 6.3 %units, p=0.10). Elevated N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (p<0.001) and N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (p=0.052) levels were also associated with improvement in LVEF in the BMC group but not in the placebo group.
The global LVEF recovers most significantly after intracoronary infusion of BMC in patients with the most severe impairment of LVEF on admission. The baseline levels of natriuretic peptides seem also to be associated with LVEF recovery after BMC treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00363324.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test a hypothesis that interferon-α (IFN) treatment might restore normal immunoglobulin (Ig) production in multiple myeloma (MM), the effect of IFN on Ig isotype (IgG and IgA) production by peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells (MNCs) in MM patients was analyzed by ELISA. IFN at a concentration of 1000 U/ml was found to enhance IgA production by PB MNCs in IgA-MM and had a trend to stimulate IgG production in IgG-MM. The effect of IFN on nonparaprotein Ig isotype production was more variable, with mostly neutral or inhibitory effects being seen in both the MM subtypes. In contrast to the influences observed in MM patients, IFN at the same concentration inhibited both IgG and IgA production by PB MNCs in healthy controls. In studying BM cells, IFN was found to reduce IgA production in IgA-MM, but had a neutral effect on IgG production in IgG-MM. In the controls, the production of both the IgG and the IgA isotypes by BM MNCs was decreased by IFN.
On the basis of these results it seems that the disease itself somehow affects the Ig-producing cells in MM, when measured as different responses of the cells to exogenous IFN in vitro. The results do not support the hypothesis that IFN treatment could restore normal Ig production in MM patients.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · European Journal Of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported a Candida krusei outbreak during which a number of our patients were infected or colonized by several different closely related Candida krusei genotypes. The treatment response in many of our patients was at best modest and the patients remained positive for Candida krusei. We speculated that extended exposure to antifungals in patients with an incomplete treatment response might lead to the
conditions for selection of drug resistance in the multiple Candida krusei clones. Therefore, we followed the in vitro susceptibility of the Candida krusei isolates taken from our patients before and during the antifungal treatment. A total of 28 Candida krusei isolates from 11 patients with prolonged exposure to antifungal medication were analyzed for their in vitro susceptibility to commonly used drugs. We found that MIC50 values of all Candida krusei isolates was 12 µg/ml for fluconazole, 0.19 µg/ml for voriconazole, 1.0 µg/ml for amphotericin B, and 1.0 µg/ml for caspofungin
with the corresponding MIC90 values being 16 µg/ml, 0.5 µg/ml, 2.0µg/ml, and 1.0 µg/ml, respectively. Extended antifungal exposure did not change these
MIC values. We conclude that resistance development in Candida krusei during prolonged antifungal treatment may not be common and the treatment failure of our patients was not likely due to the
development of drug resistance by the etiologic agent.
Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and safety of bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy after thrombolytic therapy of an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Patients with STEMI treated with thrombolysis followed by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) 2-6 days after STEMI were randomly assigned to receive intracoronary BMCs (n = 40) or placebo medium (n = 40), collected and prepared 3-6 h prior PCI and injected into the infarct artery immediately after stenting. Efficacy was assessed by the measurement of global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by left ventricular angiography and 2-D echocardiography, and safety by measuring arrhythmia risk variables and restenosis of the stented vessel by intravascular ultrasound. At 6 months, BMC group had a greater absolute increase of global LVEF than placebo group, measured either by angiography (mean +/- SD increase 7.1 +/- 12.3 vs. 1.2 +/- 11.5%, P = 0.05) or by 2-D echocardiography (mean +/- SD increase 4.0 +/- 11.2 vs. -1.4 +/- 10.2%, P = 0.03). No differences were observed between the groups in the adverse clinical events, arrhythmia risk variables, or the minimal lumen diameter of the stented coronary lesion.
Intracoronary BMC therapy is associated with an improvement of global LVEF and neutral effects on arrhythmia risk profile and restenosis of the stented coronary lesions in patients after thrombolytic therapy of STEMI.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · European Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida krusei infections are associated with high mortality. In order to explore ways to prevent these infections, we investigated potential routes for nosocomial spread and possible clonality of C. krusei in a haematological unit which had experienced an unusually high incidence of cases.
We searched for C. krusei contamination of the hospital environment and determined the level of colonization in patients and health care workers. We also analyzed the possible association between exposure to prophylactic antifungals or chemotherapeutic agents and occurrence of C. krusei. The C. krusei isolates found were genotyped by pulsed-field electrophoresis method in order to determine possible relatedness of the cases.
Twelve patients with invasive C. krusei infection and ten patients with potentially significant infection or mucosal colonization were documented within nine months. We were unable to identify any exogenic source of infection or colonization. Genetic analysis of the isolates showed little evidence of clonal transmission of C. krusei strains between the patients. Instead, each patient was colonized or infected by several different closely related genotypes. No association between medications and occurrence of C. krusei was found.
Little evidence of nosocomial spread of a single C. krusei clone was found. The outbreak may have been controlled by cessation of prophylactic antifungals and by intensifying infection control measures, e.g. hand hygiene and cohorting of the patients, although no clear association with these factors was demonstrated.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · BMC Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis plays an important role in cancer biology. We investigated the expression of caspases 3 and 8 in malignant mesothelioma and malignant mesothelioma cell lines and putative changes in their ultrastructural expression prior and after exposure to epirubicin. Further studies were conducted to compare these changes to the localization and expression of the bcl-2 group of proteins bcl-X, bax and mcl-1, and Fas-Fas ligand in the same cells. In the histological samples, caspase 3 and 8 immunoreactivity was seen in 27/37 (73%) and 16/37 (43%) of the mesotheliomas. The immunostaining was cytoplasmic diffuse, granular, and occasionally nuclear. All six mesothelioma cell lines expressed caspases 3 and 8 by immunoblotting. After exposure to epirubicin the extent of apoptosis was increased in all cell lines investigated, being weakest in the most resistant M38K cell line. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed immunogold labeling for caspases 3 and 8 in the mitochondria with the accumulation of caspase 3 in the apoptotic bodies, while the mitochondrial localization of the bcl-2 proteins appeared to be very stable. Fas receptor could be detected by flow cytometry, whereas the most resistant cell line (M38K) lacked Fas ligand when assessed by RT-PCR. These results suggest the importance of caspase 3 during the apoptotic process of mesothelioma cells and indicate that epirubicin-induced apoptosis is independent of the mitochondrial pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke, the major risk factor for lung cancer, induces an accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These have multiple effects on cell defense, cell proliferation and cell death. Thus, compounds involved in the regulators of redox balance can be hypothesized to play a fundamental role in both carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Here, we have evaluated the expressions of all 6 peroxiredoxins (Prxs I-VI) in lung carcinomas. Prxs represent a protein family with the capability of breaking down hydrogen peroxide; thus, they can participate in cellular antioxidant defense, regulate cell proliferation and increase drug resistance of cultured cells. Altogether 92 cases were investigated by immunohistochemistry, including 32 adenocarcinomas, 45 squamous cell, 9 small cell and 6 other carcinomas. Additionally, 11 cases with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma were studied by Western analysis and/or by RT-PCR. Prxs I, II, IV and VI were particularly elevated in lung carcinomas as assessed by immunohistochemistry and/or RT-PCR. Western analysis revealed that Prxs I and IV were significantly elevated in tumors compared to nonmalignant tissue (p = 0.04 and 0.002, respectively). There were remarkable variations in Prx expression in various tumor subtypes, the most striking being Prx IV expression, which was mainly associated with adenocarcinoma. Elevated Prx VI expression was associated with high-grade squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.03) and Prx II expression, with advanced tumor stage (p = 0.01). Our results suggest that Prxs may have effects on the progression of lung cancer.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutaredoxins (Grx) are thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases with antioxidant capacity and catalytic functions closely associated with glutathione, an antioxidant abundantly present in human lung. The present study investigated the expression of both human glutaredoxins in cultured human lung cells and lung homogenates by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Immunohistochemical studies were conducted with 38 human lung specimens, including healthy lung, parenchymal sarcoidosis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The ultrastructural localization of Grx1 was assessed by immunoelectron microscopy. In addition, cultured airway epithelial cells were exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Both Grx1 and Grx2 could be detected at the mRNA and protein level in cultured human lung cells, but only Grx1 was prominently expressed in lung homogenates and alveolar macrophages. Immunohistochemically, Grx1 was highly concentrated to alveolar macrophages and weakly positive in the bronchial epithelium. Grx1 was ultrastructurally localized to the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and nucleus. The expression of Grx1 decreased in alveolar macrophages of sarcoidosis and allergic alveolitis compared with the case for controls (P < 0.001), and bronchial epithelium of these diseases revealed no Grx1 immunoreactivity. Fibroblast foci and other fibrotic areas in UIP were mainly negative. In A549 cells, Grx1 was down-regulated by TGF-beta, whereas TNF-alpha caused no clear effect. Overall, high expression of Grx1 in alveolar macrophages suggests its importance in the primary defense of human lung. Decreased expression of Grx1 further suggests the impairment of this system both in inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases, consistent with the down-regulation of Grx1 by TGF-beta in vitro.