Mao-Tsun Lin

Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (149)444.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The impact of ascorbate on oxidative stress-related diseases is moderate because of its limited oral bioavailability and rapid clearance. However, recent evidence of the clinical benefit of parenteral vitamin C administration has emerged, especially in critical care. Heatstroke is defined as a form of excessive hyperthermia associated with a systemic inflammatory response that results in multiple organ dysfunctions in which central nervous system disorders such as delirium, convulsions, and coma are predominant. The thermoregulatory, immune, coagulation and tissue injury responses of heatstroke closely resemble those observed during sepsis and are likely mediated by similar cellular mechanisms. This study was performed by using the characteristic high lethality rate and sepsis-mimic systemic inflammatory response of a murine model of heat stroke to test our hypothesis that supra-physiological doses of ascorbate may have therapeutic use in critical care. We demonstrated that parenteral administration of ascorbate abrogated the lethality and thermoregulatory dysfunction in murine model of heat stroke by attenuating heat stroke- induced accelerated systemic inflammatory, coagulation responses and the resultant multiple organ injury, especially in hypothalamus. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis and notion that supra-physiological doses of ascorbate may have therapeutic use in critical care.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: β-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated neuronal apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to investigate whether astragalosides (AST) could inhibit Aβ-induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Amyloid β-protein fragment 25-35 (Aβ25-35) was administered to cerebral lateral ventricle of rats to make the AD models in vivo. AST was able to attenuate both cortical cell degeneration and memory deficits in the AD rats. AST also inhibited Aβ25-35-induced cytotoxicity (e.g., decreased cell viability); apoptosis (e.g., increased caspase-3 expression, increased DNA fragmentation, and Tau hyperphosphorylation); synaptotoxicity (e.g., increased loss of both a dendritic marker, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and synaptic proteins, synaptophysins); and mitochondrial dysfunction (e.g., increased mitochondrial membrane potential) in cultured primary rat cortical cells. The beneficial effect of AST in reducing Aβ-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction in cortical cells were blocked by inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent protein kinase B (PKB, as known as AKT) activation with LY294002. In addition, inhibition of extracellular protein kinase (ERK) with U0126 shared with the AST the same beneficial effects in reducing Aβ-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the cortical PI3K/AKT and MAPK (or ERK) pathways as appealing therapeutic targets in treating AD, and AST may have a positive impact on AD treatment via modulation of both PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Molecular Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Exercise preconditioning has been widely accepted as a being of safe and effective preventive measure for stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether exercise preconditioning improves outcomes of ischemic stroke by promoting neuronal and glial expressing of heat shock protein (HSP) 20. Method: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (288 in number) were used to investigate the contribution of HSP20-containing neurons and HSP20-containing glial cells in the exercise-mediated neuroprotection in the stroke condition using middle cerebral artery occlusion. Result: Exercise preconditioning, in addition to increasing the numbers of both the HSP20-containg neurons (88±8 vs 43±4; n=8 each group; P<0.05) and the HSP20-containg astrocytes (102±10 vs 56±5; n=8; P<0.05) significantly attenuated stroke-induced brain infarct (140±9 mm3 vs 341±20 mm3; n=8 per group; P<0.01), neuronal apoptosis (20±5 vs 87±7; n=8 per group; n=8; P<0.01), glial apoptosis (29±5 vs 101±4; n=8; P<0.01), and neurological deficits (6.6±0.3 vs 11.7±0.8; n=8 per group; P<0.01). Reducing the numbers of both HSP20-containing neurons and HSP20-contaiing glia by intracerebral injection of pSUPER small interfering RNAί expressing HSP20 significantly reversed the beneficial effects of exercise preconditioning in attenuating stroke-induced cerebral infarct, neuronal and glial apoptosis, and neurological deficits. Conclusions: The numbers of both the HSP20-containing neurons and the HSP20-containing glia inversely correlated with the outcomes of ischemic stroke. In addition, preischemic treadmill exercise improves outcomes of ischemic stroke by increasing the numbers of both the HSP20-containing neurons and the HSP20-containing glia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke, caused by obstruction of blood flow to the brain, would initiate microglia activation which contributes to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation could be a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid and etanercept given either singly or in combination in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Both α-lipoic acid and etanercept markedly reduced cerebral infarct, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neurological motor deficits with the former drug being more effective with the dosage used. Furthermore, when used in combination, the reduction was more substantial. Remarkably, a greater diminution in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as the brain levels of microglial activation (e.g., microgliosis, amoeboid microglia, and microglial overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α) was observed with the combined drug treatment as compared to the drugs given separately. We conclude that inhibition of peripheral tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as downregulation of brain microglial activation by alpha-lipoic acid or etanercept protect rat brain against ischemic stroke. Moreover, when both drugs were used in combination, the stroke recovery was promoted more extensively.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Molecular Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein (HSP) 72 in serum was decreased to a greater degree in patients with serious heat stroke than in those with mild heat stroke. Thus, increased levels of HSP72 appeared to correlate with a better outcome for the patient. Nevertheless, the function of HSP72 in the heat-induced hypothalamic cell death has not been assessed. In this study, we found that increasing HSP72 levels with mild heat preconditioning or decreasing HSP72 levels with pSUPER plasmid expressing HSP72 small interfering RNA significantly attenuated or exacerbated heat-induced cell death in cultured primary hypothalamic cells, respectively. Our findings suggest that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in heat-induced cell death and may be associated with heat tolerance.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · FEBS Open Bio
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    ABSTRACT: A diet consisting of high levels of saturated fat has been linked to a dramatic rise in obesity. Long-term exposure to high fat, "Western diet" (WD), is detrimental to ischemic brain injury. Adiponectin receptor 1 (ADR-1) activation is also shown to exacerbate ischemic neuronal death. However, it is not known whether increasing percentages of adiponectin (APN)-containing neurons attenuates ischemic neuronal apoptosis by modulating ADRS. To explore the role of APN and its ADRs in the development of acute cerebral injury, we subjected WD and control diet (CD) rats to 1 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 23 h of reperfusion. Compared with CD rats, WD rats exhibited higher levels of brain infarct, neurologic deficits, brain edema, and apoptosis of APN-containing neurons; upregulation of both ADR-1 and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38MAPK); and downregulation of ADR-2 in ischemic brain tissues including frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Increasing percentages of APN-containing neurons by baculovirus-mediated administration of APN, in addition to reducing apoptosis of APN-containing neurons in ischemic brain tissues, significantly attenuated brain infarct and edema, neurologic deficits, and altered expression of ADR-1, P38MAPK, and ADR-2 in both WD and CD group rats. These data suggest a negative correlation between percentages of APN-containing neurons and cerebral ischemic injury. Obesity could exacerbate rat cerebral ischemic injury by enhancing apoptosis of APN-containing neurons in ischemic brain tissues probably via modulating ADRs and P38MAPK.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Molecular Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The primary goal of this study was to test whether high-altitude exposure (HAE: 0.9% O2 at 0.47 ATA for 24 hours) was capable of increasing the systemic inflammatory markers as well as the toxic organ injury indicators in rats, with a secondary goal to test whether preinduction of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 by hypobaric hypoxia preconditioning (HHP: 18.3% O2 at 0.66 ATA for 5 h/day on 5 days consecutively for 2 weeks) attenuated the proposed increased serum levels of both the systemic inflammatory markers and the toxic organ injury indicators. Rats were assigned to: (1) non-HHP (21% O2 at 1.0 ATA)+non-HAE (21% O2 at 1.0 ATA) group; (2) non-HHP+HAE group; (3) HHP+non-HAE group; (4) HHP+HAE group; and (5) HHP+HSP70 antibodies (Ab)+HAE group. For the HSP70Ab group, a neutralizing HSP70Ab was injected intravenously at 24 hours prior to HAE. All the physiological and biochemical parameters were obtained at the end of HAE or the equivalent time period of non-HAE. Blood samples were obtained for determination of both the systemic inflammatory markers (e.g., serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and liver myeloperoxidase activity) and the toxic organ injury indicators (e.g., nitric oxide metabolites, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and lactate dehydrogenase). HHP, in addition to inducing overexpression of tissue HSP70, significantly attenuated the HAE-induced hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxia, acidosis, and increased tissue levels of both the systemic inflammatory markers and the toxic organ injury indicators. The beneficial effects of HHP in inducing tissue overexpression of HSP70 as well as in preventing the HAE-induced increased levels of the systemic inflammatory markers and the toxic organ injury indicators could be significantly reduced by HSP70Ab preconditioning. These results suggest that HHP may downgrade both the systemic inflammatory markers and the toxic organ injury indicators in HAE by upregulating tissue HSP70. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus may be associated with decreased heat tolerance as well as heatstroke formation. The present study explores the hypothalamic proteome mechanisms associated with heatstroke-mediated hypothalamic ischemia, and oxidative damage. Heatstroke rats had hypotension, hypothalamic ischemia and lethality. In addition, they had hyperthermia and hypothalamic blood-brain-barrier disruption, oxidative stress, activated inflammation, and neuronal apoptosis and degeneration. 2-DE combined liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed that heatstroke-induced ischemic injury and apoptosis were associated with up-regulation of L-lactate dehydrogenase but down-regulation of both dihydropyriminase-related protein and 14-3-3 Zeta isoform protein. Heat-induced blood-brain-barrier disruption might be related to up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Oxidative stress caused by heatstroke might be related to up-regulation of cytosolic dehydrogenase-1. Also, heat-induced overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines might be associated with down-regulation of stathmin 1. Heat-induced hypothalamic ischemia, apoptosis, injury (or upregulation of L-lactate dehydrogenase), blood-brain-barrier disruption (or upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein), oxidative stress (or upregulation of cytosolic dehydrogenase-1), and activated inflammation (or down-regulation of stathmin 1) were all significantly reversed by whole body cooling. Our data indicate that cooling therapy improves outcomes of heatstroke by modulating hypothalamic proteome mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · PROTEOMICS
  • Chung-Ching Chio · Mao-Tsun Lin · Ching-Ping Chang
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    ABSTRACT: Microglia and several inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic growth factors are involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) can be released by microglia, astrocytes, and neurons. TNF-α has been reported to be both proneurogenic and antineurogenic, depending upon the model, method, and cell-derived region. There are two subtypes of microglia: M1 and M2. The former (or M1 subtype of non-phagocytic microglia) is able to secrete higher levels of TNF-α but lower levels of interleukin (IL)-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Both the proinflammatory and the pro-apoptotic function can also be promoted by activation of tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 (TNF-R1). In contrast, M2 activation produces lower levels of TNF-α but higher levels of IL-10. Pro-growth and survival pathways can be promoted by the activation of TNFR2. During the acute stage of TBI, both M1 subtype of microglia and TNF-R1 are activated to cause higher levels of TNF-α but lower levels of IL-10, which lead to suppressed neurogenesis, neuronal loss and organ dysfunction (so-called microglial activation I). In contrast, activation of both M2 subtype of microglia and TNF-R2 is able to promote neurogenesis and tissue recovery (so-called microglial activation II). The severity of TBI depends upon the net effects between microglial activation I and microglial activation II. Indeed, by using rodent models of TBI, therapeutic evaluation studies reveal that several agents or strategies attenuate contused brain volume and neurological deficits by inhibiting microglial activation I but inducing microglial activation II. For example, etanercept therapy might attenuate contused brain volume and neurological deficits by inactivating the M1 subtype and TNF-R1 to reduce the microglial activation I response, but it might promote neurogenesis and functional recovery by activating the M2 subtype and TNF-R2. Therefore, based on microglial responses I and II, we conclude that future studies should focus on multiple therapeutic agents and strategies for optimal TBI therapy.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • Chung-Ching Chio · Mao-Tsun Lin · Ching-Ping Chang
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    ABSTRACT: Microglia and several inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic growth factors are involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) can be released by microglia, astrocytes, and neurons. TNF-α has been reported to have both pro- and anti-neurogenic properties, depending on different models, methods, and cell-derived regions. There are two subtypes of microglia: M1 subtype and M2 subtype. The former (or M1 subtype of non-phagocytic microglia) are able to secrete higher levels of TNF-α but lower levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), and anti-inflammatory cytokine. Both pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic function can also be promoted by activation of tumor necrosis factor- receptor 1 (TNF-R1). In contrast, activation of M2 subtype of microglia produces lower levels of TNF-α but higher levels of IL-10. Pro-growth and survival pathways can be promoted by activation of TNF-R2. During the acute stage of TBI, both M1 subtype of microglia and TNF-R1 are activated to cause higher levels of TNF-α but lower levels of IL-10, which leads to suppressed neurogenesis, neuronal loss, and organ dysfunction (so-called microglial activation I). In contrast, activation of both M2 subtype of microglia and TNF-R2 are able to promote neurogenesis and tissue recovery (so-called microglia activation II). The severity of TBI depends on the net effects between microglia activation I and microglial activation II. Indeed, by using the rodent models of TBI, therapeutic evaluation studies reveal that several agents or strategies attenuate contused brain volume and neurological deficits by inhibition of microglia activation I but activation of microglia activation II. For example, etanercept therapy may attenuate contused brain volume and neurological deficits by inactivating M1 subtype of microglia and TNF-R1 for reducing microglia activation (I) response but may promote neurogenesis and functional recovery by activating M2 subtype of microglia and TNF-R2 [or enhancing microglial activation (II) responses]. From the foregoing statements, based on microglial effector response (I) and/or (II) mechanisms, multiple therapeutic agents or strategies should be provided for optimal TBI therapy in future studies.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes increased release of several mediators from injured and dead cells and elicits microglial activation. Activated microglia change their morphology, migrate to injury sites, and release tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and others. In this study we used a controlled fluid percussion injury model of TBI in the rat to determine whether early (4 h post-injury) or late (4 days post-injury) treatment with MLC 601, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, would affect microglial activation and improve recovery. MLC 601 was chosen for this study because its herbal component MLC 901 was beneficial in treating TBI in rats. Herein, rats with induced TBI were treated with MLC 601 (0.2-0.8 mg/kg) 1 h (early treatment) or 4 day post-injury (late treatment) and then injected once daily for consecutive 2 days. Acute neurological and motor deficits were assessed in all rats the day before and 4 days after early MLC 601 treatment. An immunofluorescence microscopy method was used to count the numbers of the cells colocalized with neuron- and apoptosis-specific markers, and the cells colocalized with microglia- and TNF-α-specific markers, in the contused brain regions 4 days post-injury. An immunohistochemistry method was used to evaluate both the number and the morphological transformation of microglia in the injured areas. It was found that early treatment with MLC 601 had better effects in reducing TBI-induced cerebral contusion than did the late therapy with MLC 601. Cerebral contusion caused by TBI was associated with neurological motor deficits, brain apoptosis, and activated microglia (e.g., microgliosis, amoeboid microglia, and microglial overexpression of TNF-α), which all were significantly attenuated by MLC 601 therapy. Our data suggest that MLC 601 is a promising agent for treatment of TBI in rats.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The primary goal of this study was to test whether high-altitude exposure (HAE of 9.7% O2 at 0.47 absolute atmosphere [ATA] for 3 days) was capable of increasing lung edema, neutrophil, and hemorrhage scores as well as decreasing lung levels of both aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and AQP5 proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rats, with a secondary goal to test whether a preinduction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) by hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO2P of 100% O2 at 2.0 ATA for 1 hour per day for 5 consecutive days) attenuated the HAE-induced increased lung injury scores and decreased lung AQP1 and AQP5 protein and mRNA expressions. Methods: Rats were assigned to (1) non-HBO2P (21% O2 at 1.0 ATA) + non-HAE (21% O2 at 1.0 ATA) group; (2) non-HBO2P + HAE group; (3) HBO2P + HAE group; and HBO2P + HSP70 antibodies (Ab) + HAE group. For the HSP70 Ab group, a neutralizing HSP70 Ab was injected intravenously at 24 hours before HAE. All the physiologic and biochemical parameters were obtained at the end of HAE or the equivalent period of non-HAE. The cardiovascular and blood gas parameters were monitored for all experiments. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to determine proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1β, and tumor necrosis factor α). Parts of the lung were excised for myeloperoxidase activity measurement, whereas the rest was collected for lung damage score assessments. AQP1 and AQP5 protein and mRAN expressions were also determined in the lung tissues. Results: In the non-HBO2P + HAE group, the animals displayed higher values of lung myeloperoxidase activity, BAL proinflammatory cytokines, lung water weight, and acute lung injury scores compared with those of the non-HBO2P + non-HAE controls. In contrast, the non-HBO2P + HAE group rats had lower values of lung AQP1 and AQP5 protein and mRNA expressions, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, SO2, Paco2, HCO3, and pH compared with those of non-HBO2P + non-HAE group rats. The increased acute lung edema, neutrophil, and hemorrhage scores; increased BAL levels of proinflammatory cytokines; decreased lung AQP1 and AQP5 protein and mRNA expressions; and hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxia, and acidosis caused by HAE were all significantly attenuated by HBO2P. Conclusion: Our data indicate that HBO2P may attenuate high-altitude acute lung injury by a preinduction of lung HSP70 in rats.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) is a universal marker of stress protein whose expression can be induced by physical exercise. Here we report that, in a localized model of spinal cord injury (SCI), exercised rats (given pre-SCI exercise) had significantly higher levels of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, a lower functional deficit, fewer spinal cord contusions, and fewer apoptotic cells than did non-exercised rats. pSUPER plasmid expressing HSP 72 small interfering RNA (SiRNA-HSP 72) was injected into the injured spinal cords. In addition to reducing neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, the (SiRNA-HSP 72) significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of exercise preconditioning in reducing functional deficits as well as spinal cord contusion and apoptosis. Because exercise preconditioning induces increased neuronal and astroglial levels of HSP 72 in the gray matter of normal spinal cord tissue, exercise preconditioning promoted functional recovery in rats after SCI by upregulating neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in the gray matter of the injured spinal cord. We reveal an important function of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in protecting neuronal and astroglial apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. We conclude that HSP 72-mediated exercise preconditioning is a promising strategy for facilitating functional recovery from SCI.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Astragalosides (AST) are reported to be neuroprotective in focal cerebral ischemic models in vivo. In this study, the direct effect of AST against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) including neuronal injury and the underlying mechanisms in vitro were investigated. 5 h OGD followed by 24 h of reperfusion [adding back oxygen and glucose (OGD-R)] was used to induce in vitro ischemia reperfusion injury in differentiated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. AST (1, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were added to the culture after 5 h of the OGD ischemic insult and was present during the reoxygenation phases. A key finding was that OGD-R decreased cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase, increased reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, autophagy, functional impairment of mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in PC12 cells, all of which AST treatment significantly reduced. In addition, AST attenuated OGD-R-induced cell loss through P38 MAPK activation a neuroprotective effect blunted by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of P38 MAPK. Our data suggest that both apoptosis and autophagy are important characteristics of OGD-R-induced PC12 death and that treating PC12 cells with AST blocked OGD-R-induced apoptosis and autophagy by suppressing intracellular oxidative stress, functional impairment of mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our data provide identification of AST that can concomitantly inhibit multiple cells death pathways following OGD injuries in neural cells.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Repetitive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy may cause excessive generation of reactive oxygen species. This study assessed whether repetitive or 2-4-day trials of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments daily for 2-4 consecutive days) provides better effects in reducing brain inflammation and oxidative stress caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats than did a 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments for 1 day). Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; MCAO without HBO2 treatment; MCAO treated with 1-day trial of HBO2; and MCAO treated with 2-4-day trials of HBO2. One treatment of HBO2 (100% O2 at 253 kPa) lasted for 1 hour in a hyperbaric chamber. Therapy with the 2-4-day trials of HBO2 significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the MCAO-induced cerebral infarction and neurological deficits more than the 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy. The beneficial effects of repetitive HBO2 therapy were associated with: (1) reduced inflammatory status in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase activity); (2) decreased oxidative damage in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic pro-oxidants, but increased levels of enzymatic antioxidant defenses); and (3) increased production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10. The results provide the apparently contradictory finding that heightened oxygen tension reduced oxidative stress (and inflammation), which was reflected by increased antioxidant and decreased oxidant contents under focal cerebral ischemia.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour) and then returned to room temperature (26°C) for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C). Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i) systemic inflammation; (ii) ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii) hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone); (iv) decreased fractional survival; and (v) thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature). These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth pulp (SHED) is a promising approach for the treatment of stroke and spinal cord injury. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of SHED for the treatment of multiple organ (including brain, particularly hypothalamus) injury in heatstroke mice. ICR male mice were exposed to whole body heating (WBH; 41.2°C, relative humidity 50‐55%, for 1 h) and then returned to normal room temperature (26°C). We observed that intravenous administration of SHED immediately post-WBH exhibited the following therapeutic benefits for recovery after heatstroke: (a) inhibition of WBH-induced neurologic and thermoregulatory deficits; (b) reduction of WBH-induced ischemia, hypoxia, and oxidative damage to the brain (particularly the hypothalamus); (c) attenuation of WBH-induced increased plasma levels of systemic inflammatory response molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; (d) improvement of WBH-induced hypothalamo‐pituitary‐adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity (as reflected by enhanced plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone); and (e) attenuation of WBH-induced multiple organ apoptosis as well as lethality. In conclusion, post-WBH treatment with SHED reduced induction of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative radicals, enhanced plasma induction of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone, and improved lethality in mouse heatstroke. The protective effect of SHED may be related to a decreased inflammatory response, decreased oxidative stress, and an increased HPA axis activity following the WBH injury.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Cell Transplantation
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    Chuan-Chih Hsu · Li-Fan Chen · Mao-Tsun Lin · Yu-Feng Tian
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed at investigating the effect of honokiol on heatstroke in an experimental rat model. Sprogue-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: normothermic diabetic rats treated with vehicle solution (NTDR+V), heatstroke-diabetic rats treated with vehicle (HSDR+V), and heatstroke rats treated with konokiol (0.5-5 mg/ml/kg) (HSDR+H). Sixty minutes before the start of heat stress, honokiol or vehicle solution was administered. (HSDR+H) significantly (a) attenuated hyperthermia, hypotension and hypothalamic ischemia, hypoxia, and neuronal apoptosis; (b) reduced the plasma index of the toxic oxidizing radicals; (c) diminished the indices of hepatic and renal dysfunction; (d) attenuated the plasma systemic inflammatory response molecules; (e) promoted plasma levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine; (f) reduced the index of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the serum; and (g) promoted the survival time fourfold compared with the (HSDR+V) group. In conclusion, honokiol protected against the outcome of heatstroke by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress-mediated multiple organ dysfunction in diabetic rats.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · International Journal of Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose Repetitive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy may cause excessive generation of reactive oxygen species. This study assessed whether repetitive or 2–4-day trials of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments daily for 2–4 consecutive days) provides better effects in reducing brain inflammation and oxidative stress caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats than did a 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments for 1 day). Methods Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; MCAO without HBO2 treatment; MCAO treated with 1-day trial of HBO2; and MCAO treated with 2–4-day trials of HBO2. One treatment of HBO2 (100% O2 at 253 kPa) lasted for 1 hour in a hyperbaric chamber. Results Therapy with the 2–4-day trials of HBO2 significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the MCAO-induced cerebral infarction and neurological deficits more than the 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy. The beneficial effects of repetitive HBO2 therapy were associated with: (1) reduced inflammatory status in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase activity); (2) decreased oxidative damage in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic pro-oxidants, but increased levels of enzymatic antioxidant defenses); and (3) increased production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10. Conclusion The results provide the apparently contradictory finding that heightened oxygen tension reduced oxidative stress (and inflammation), which was reflected by increased antioxidant and decreased oxidant contents under focal cerebral ischemia.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014

Publication Stats

2k Citations
444.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Taipei Veterans General Hospital
      • Division of Emergency Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2001-2015
    • Chi-Mei Medical Center
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2013
    • Waseda University
      • Faculty of Human Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2011
    • Taiwan Landseed Hospital
      P’ing-tung-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2010
    • Taipei Medical University
      • Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2002-2007
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • • Department of Physical Therapy
      • • Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2001-2007
    • National Yang Ming University
      • • Department and Institute of Physiology
      • • Department and Institute of Pharmacology
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan