[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the toxicity of combining oncolytic adenovirus-mediated cytotoxic and interleukin 12 (IL-12) gene therapy in a preclinical model to support future phase 1 trials. One hundred and twenty C57BL/6 male mice received an intraprostatic injection of saline (n = 24) or an oncolytic adenovirus (Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep-mIL12) expressing two suicide genes and mouse IL-12 (n = 96). The adenovirus was administered at three dose levels (1.3 × 106, 1.3 × 107, 1.3 × 108 vp/kg) followed by 2 weeks of 5-flurocytosine (5-FC) and gancliclovir (GCV) prodrug therapy. There were no premature deaths. Daily observations of animals did not reveal any obvious clinical problems throughout the 78-day in-life phase of the study. Animals in the highest adenovirus dose group exhibited lymphopenia and transaminitis on day 3, both of which resolved by day 17. Except for mild inflammation of the prostate and seminal vesicles, histopathology of major organs was largely unremarkable. IL-12 and interferon-gamma levels in prostate and serum peaked on day 3 and were either undetectable or returned to baseline levels by day 17. No adenoviral DNA was detected in serum in any group at any time point. The results demonstrate that local administration of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing two suicide genes and IL-12 is well tolerated and support moving this investigational approach into human trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host immunities are induced during cryoablation or oncolytic adenovirus therapy when the entire repertoire of tumor associated antigens (TAA) is released. Local and systemic protection is enhanced by the combined treatment with toll-like receptor agonist or immune stimulating cytokines. Non-surgical tumor ablation is an effective platform for in situ immunization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal is to elucidate the immune modulating activity of an adenovirus (Adv) vector which showed therapeutic activity in human clinical trials. The oncolytic adenovirus (Adv/CD-TK) expressing two suicide genes was tested in two HER2/neu positive BALB/c mouse mammary tumor systems: rat neu-induced TUBO and human HER2-transfected D2F2/E2. Intra-tumoral (i.t.) Adv/CD-TK injection of TUBO tumor plus systemic prodrug therapy showed limited antitumor activity, not exceeding that by the virus itself. Antibody (Ab) to the virus was induced in Adv-/Luc-treated mice, to coincide with the loss of transgene expression. Low replication activity of adenoviruses in rodent cells may limit viral persistence. Host immunity against Adv or Adv-infected cells further mutes suicide gene activity. Treatment of TUBO tumors with Adv/CD-TK alone, however, induced neu-specific Ab responses. Treatment with Adv/CD-TK/GM (Adv/GM) that also expressed mouse granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), but without prodrug treatment, delayed tumor growth, enhanced anti-neu Ab production and conferred complete protection against secondary tumor challenge. D2F2/E2 tumor-bearing mice showed decreased tumor growth following i.t. Adv/GM treatment and they generated greater HER2-specific T-cell responses. These data suggest that i.t. injection of Adv itself induces immune reactivity to tumor-associated antigens and the encoded cytokine, GM-CSF, amplifies that immune response, resulting in tumor growth inhibition. Incorporation of suicide gene therapy did not improve the efficacy of Adv therapy in this mouse mammary tumor system. Oncolytic adenoviral therapy may be streamlined and improved by substituting the suicide genes with immune modulating genes to exploit tumor immunity for therapeutic benefit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To assess the safety and efficacy of combining oncolytic adenovirus-mediated cytotoxic gene therapy (OAMCGT) with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in intermediate-risk prostate cancer.
Methods and materials:
Forty-four men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive either OAMCGT plus IMRT (arm 1; n=21) or IMRT only (arm 2; n=23). The primary phase 2 endpoint was acute (≤90 days) toxicity. Secondary endpoints included quality of life (QOL), prostate biopsy (12-core) positivity at 2 years, freedom from biochemical/clinical failure (FFF), freedom from metastases, and survival.
Men in arm 1 exhibited a greater incidence of low-grade influenza-like symptoms, transaminitis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia than men in arm 2. There were no significant differences in gastrointestinal or genitourinary events or QOL between the 2 arms. Two-year prostate biopsies were obtained from 37 men (84%). Thirty-three percent of men in arm 1 were biopsy-positive versus 58% in arm 2, representing a 42% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm (P=.13). There was a 60% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm in men with <50% positive biopsy cores at baseline (P=.07). To date, 1 patient in each arm exhibited biochemical failure (arm 1, 4.8%; arm 2, 4.3%). No patient developed hormone-refractory or metastatic disease, and none has died from prostate cancer.
Combining OAMCGT with IMRT does not exacerbate the most common side effects of prostate radiation therapy and suggests a clinically meaningful reduction in positive biopsy results at 2 years in men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives::
The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of sociodemographic factors on biochemical control (bNED) and overall survival (OS) in patients with prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer patients treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)±hormone therapy from 1997 to 2006 were analyzed in this IRB-approved study. Patient demographics, treatment (Tx), and clinical outcome were obtained from electronic medical records. Median household income (mHHI) at the census block group level was obtained from the 2000 census data. Data on disease and Tx parameters included Gleason score, pre-Tx prostate-specific antigen (PSA), T stage, year of Tx, EBRT dose, and use of hormone therapy. Patients were categorized as having low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk disease. Sociodemographic factors included age, race, marital status, and mHHI. Biochemical failure was defined as nadir PSA+2 ng/mL. OS was based on death from any cause.
A total of 788 consecutive patients were studied with a median follow-up of 7 years (range, 0.4 to 15 y). African Americans comprised 48% of the patients, whereas 46% of patients were white and 6% were other races. Whites had an average mHHI of $60,190 compared with $36,917 for African Americans (P<0.001). After multivariable modeling, only radiation dose was predictive for bNED (P=0.004) or OS (P=0.008). No sociodemographic factors were predictive for either outcome. Higher radiation dose predicted for better biochemical control and OS.
This analysis suggests that sociodemographic factors are not important prognostic factors in determining outcome after EBRT for prostate cancer.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · American Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy has been shown to improve local tumor control in preclinical tumor models and in the clinic. Although local tumor control is important, for most human cancers, new therapies must also target metastatic disease if they are to have an impact on survival. Here, we test the hypothesis that adding cytokine gene therapy to our multimodal platform improves both local and metastatic tumor control in a preclinical model of prostate cancer. An oncolytic adenovirus (Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep-mIL12) expressing two suicide genes and mouse interleukin-12 (IL-12) was generated. Relative to an adenovirus lacking IL-12 (Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep), Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep-mIL12 improved local and metastatic tumor control in the TRAMP-C2 prostate adenocarcinoma model, resulting in a significant increase in survival. Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep-mIL12 resulted in high levels of IL-12 and interferon gamma in serum and tumor, increased natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lytic activities, and the development of tumor-specific antitumor immunity. Immune cell depletion studies indicated that both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity were required for maximal Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep-mIL12 activity. The results demonstrate that the addition of IL-12 significantly improves the efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy and provide the scientific basis for future trials targeting locally aggressive cancers.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 11 July 2013; doi:10.1038/gt.2013.40.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a replication-competent adenovirus (Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-hNIS) armed with two suicide genes and the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. In this context, hNIS can be used as a reporter gene in conjunction with nuclear imaging and as a potentially therapeutic gene when combined with (131)I radioiodine therapy. Here, we quantified the volume and magnitude of hNIS gene expression in the human prostate following injection of a high Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-hNIS dose using a standardized injection algorithm, and estimated the radiation dose that would be delivered to the prostate had men been administered (131)I with curative intent. Six men with clinically localized prostate cancer received an intraprostatic injection of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-hNIS under transrectal ultrasound guidance. All men received 2 × 0.5 ml deposits (5 × 10(11) vp/deposit) in each of the four base and midgland sextants and 2 × 0.25 ml deposits (2.5 × 10(11) vp/deposit) in each of the two apex sextants for a total of 12 deposits (5 × 10(12) vp) in 5 ml. On multiple days after the adenovirus injection, men were administered sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m)TcO(4)) and hNIS gene expression in the prostate was quantified by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). hNIS gene expression was detected in the prostate of six of six (100%) men. On average, 45% (range 18-83%) of the prostate volume was covered with gene expression. Had men been administered 200 mCi (131)I, we estimate that the mean absorbed dose to the prostate would be 7.2 ± 4.8 Gy (range 2.1-13.3 Gy), well below that needed to sterilize the prostate. We discuss the obstacles that must be overcome before adenovirus-mediated hNIS gene transfer and (131)I radioiodine therapy can be used as a definitive treatment for localized prostate cancer.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Molecular Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cumulative evidence has suggested investigation of the efficacy of Replication-Competent Adenovirus-mediated Suicide Gene Therapy in newly-diagnosed Prostate Cancer (ReCAP). There is a challenge in designing an efficacy trial for newly-diagnosed prostate cancer given its long natural history. The regulatory agency recommended a Phase II trial for safety before conducting the efficacy trial.
The ReCAP trial is an adaptive seamless, multi-site open-label, randomized Phase II/III trial. Two hundred eighty men will be randomized to receive either replication-competent adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy followed by radiation (Arm 1) or radiation alone (Arm 2). Phase II trial component will include the first 21 patients in Arm 1 with complete toxicity through day 90 for safety evaluation. The primary efficacy endpoint is the time free from biochemical and/or clinical failure (FFF). The secondary efficacy endpoints are 2-year prostate biopsies and overall survival. Unequal spaced interim looks are proposed with the adaptive sample-size re-estimation.
This trial has been approved by the FDA for the study therapy investigation and is currently recruiting patients.
Challenges remain in designing newly-diagnosed prostate cancer trials. Adaptive seamless design is time-saving and a cost-effective design in the development of novel medical therapies, but requires a specified statistical plan in the decision process involved.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Contemporary clinical trials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Owing to a low efficiency of gene transfer when delivered systemically, gene therapy may find its greatest utility in the
clinic when combined with loco-regional cancer treatment such as radiation therapy. Although a variety of gene therapy strategies
have been combined with radiation in preclinical models, only a handful have been translated into the clinic. Overall, combining
gene therapy with radiation therapy has been well tolerated. Most of the gene therapy-related adverse events have been mild
to moderate, transient, produced no noticeable symptoms to the patient, and did not exacerbate the side effects of radiation
therapy. Several strategies have demonstrated antitumor activity in early-stage trials, and at least two have progressed to
phase 3. Future developments will be driven by a better understanding of the radiation response and molecular basis for tumor
KeywordsGene therapy-Radiation therapy-Radiosensitizer-Adenovirus-Suicide gene therapy-Oncolysis-p53-TNFα, EGFR-Ku70
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) effectiveness depends on the preferential sequestration of boron in cancer cells relative to normal tissue cells. We present a novel strategy for sequestering boron using an adenovirus expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Human glioma grown subcutaneously in athymic mice and orthotopic rat brain tumors were transfected with NIS using a direct tumor injection of adenovirus. Boron bound as sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF(4)) was administered systemically several days after transfection. Tumors were excised hours later and assessed for boron concentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In the human glioma transfected with NIS, boron concentration was more than 10 fold higher with 100 mg/kg of NaBF(4), compared to tumor not transfected. In the orthotopic tumor model, the presence of NIS conferred almost 4 times the boron concentration in rat tumors transfected with human virus compared with contralateral normal brain not transfected. We conclude that adenovirus expressing NIS has the potential to be used as a novel boron delivery agent and should be explored for future clinical applications.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Radiation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral vectors used for cancer gene therapy are usually delivered by direct intratumoral administration. We studied the role of hyperthermia (HT) in vitro and in vivo in an attempt to achieve higher transfection rates (especially, larger volume of spread).
Replication-deficient adenoviruses containing either the human sodium-iodide symporter (Ad5-CMV-hNIS) or green fluorescent protein (Ad5-CMV-eGFP) as reporter genes were used. For in vitro studies, human lung cancer A549 cells were transfected with the virus and assayed for hNIS expression by radioactive pertechnetate uptake or green fluorescence activity using a gamma-counter or fluoroscopy respectively in the presence and absence of HT. For in vivo studies, A549 tumors were established intramuscularly in CD1 athymic mice. The adenoviral constructs (10(10) viral particles/tumor) were injected intratumorally when the tumors reached 10-11 mm in diameter. Different timing sequences of HT were examined and viral spread was assessed using technetium-autoradiography or GFP-fluorescence microscopy.
In the in vitro studies, A549 cells infected with the adenoviral construct did not show any difference in gene expression level in the presence or absence of HT. In vivo, the effect of HT on the volume of gene expression in A549 tumors was highly variable with some groups of mice showing better spread in the presence of HT and others showing reduced spread with HT.
Improvements in intratumoral adenoviral spread in response to hyperthermia were not consistently observed in a mouse tumor model using two quantitative endpoints of gene expression.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · International Journal of Hyperthermia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced, long-lived free radicals, reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the resultant tissue injury after exposure to ionizing radiation.
An approach designed to reduce the damaging effects of reactive oxidants employs metalloenzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), such as MnSOD. Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) provides safe and long-term expression in humans. We tested the effectiveness of AAV2-MnSOD-hrGFP, a vector expressing MnSOD and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in preclinical models.
Infection of cultured cells with AAV2-MnSOD-hrGFP showed enhanced expression of MnSOD and GFP. Sustained expression of GFP was achieved for at least 1 month in vivo following administration of AAV2-MnSOD-hrGFP to subcutaneous tissue of C57BL/6J mice. A single subcutaneous injection of AAV2-MnSOD-hrGFP significantly mitigated acute skin injury following single dose of irradiation of either 30 or 35 Gy.
The proof-of-concept demonstrated in the present study together with the known safety profile in humans indicate that AAV-mediated MnSOD expression has potential countermeasure utility against normal tissue injury following radiation therapy or radiological accident.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · The Journal of Gene Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To monitor noninvasively potentially therapeutic adenoviruses for cancer, we have developed a methodology based on the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Men with clinically localized prostate cancer were administered an intraprostatic injection of a replication-competent adenovirus, Ad5-yCD/utTK(SR39)rep-hNIS, armed with two suicide genes and the NIS gene. NIS gene expression (GE) was imaged noninvasively by uptake of Na(99 m)TcO(4) in infected cells using single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The investigational therapy was safe with 98% of the adverse events being grade 1 or 2. GE was detected in the prostate in seven of nine (78%) patients at 1 x 10(12) virus particles (vp) but not at 1 x 10(11) vp. Volume and total amount of GE was quantified by SPECT. Following injection of 1 x 10(12) vp in 1 cm(3), GE volume (GEV) increased to a mean of 6.6 cm(3), representing, on average, 18% of the total prostate volume. GEV and intensity peaked 1-2 days after the adenovirus injection and was detectable in the prostate up to 7 days. Whole-body imaging demonstrated intraprostatic gene expression, and there was no evidence of extraprostatic dissemination of the adenovirus by SPECT imaging. The results demonstrate that noninvasive imaging of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy in humans is feasible and safe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral vector mediated suicide gene therapy (SGT) involving thymidine kinase (TK) or cytosine deaminase (CD) have considerable promise in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. An unresolved issue is to what extent tumor hypoxia influences the outcome of SGT since brain tumors characterized by regions of hypoxia have potentially reduced cellular metabolism and SGT's cytotoxicity is manifest through cellular metabolism. We studied in vitro and in vivo, the effect of hypoxia on the cytotoxicity of SGT in rat 9L glioma cells. Neither acute nor chronic hypoxia affected the cell killing of SGT by TK or CD. In vivo confirmation that SGT efficacy was not adversely affected by tumor hypoxia using the hypoxic cell marker pimonidazole was shown by the absence of a change in tumor hypoxia by SGT. These studies support the use of SGT utilizing either TK or CD gene strategies even when tumors are characterized by a hypoxic microenvironment.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In preparation for a Phase I trial, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of replication-competent adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy in combination with radiation in a preclinical model of pancreatic cancer. Human MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were found to be sensitive to the oncolytic effects of the Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP adenovirus and also to the cytotoxic effects of the yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK(SR39)) genes in vitro. Combining Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP-mediated suicide gene therapy with radiation significantly increased tumor control beyond that of either modality alone. Injection of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP in the dog pancreas at doses (10(12) virus particle (vp)) to be used in humans resulted in mild pancreatitis but not peritonitis or hepatotoxicity. Following administration of 9-(4-[(18)F]-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([(18)F]-FHBG), a positron-emitting substrate of HSV-1 TK, Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP activity could be monitored non-invasively by positron emission tomography (PET). [(18)F]-FHBG uptake was readily detected in the pancreas but not in other major abdominal organs, indicating that little of the injected adenovirus disseminates to collateral tissues. These results demonstrate that Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP-mediated suicide gene therapy has the potential to augment the effectiveness of pancreatic radiotherapy without resulting in excessive toxicity. Hence they provide the scientific basis for an ongoing Phase I trial in pancreatic cancer.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Molecular Therapy