[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke. Causes and mechanisms of in-hospital death after SAH in the modern era of neurocritical care remain incompletely understood.
We studied 1200 consecutive SAH patients prospectively enrolled in the Columbia University SAH Outcomes Project between July 1996 and January 2009. Analysis was performed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality.
In-hospital mortality was 18 % (216/1200): 3 % for Hunt-Hess grade 1 or 2, 9 % for grade 3, 24 % for grade 4, and 71 % for grade 5. The most common adjudicated primary causes of death or neurological devastation leading to withdrawal of support were direct effects of the primary hemorrhage (55 %), aneurysm rebleeding (17 %), and medical complications (15 %). Among those who died, brain death was declared in 42 %, 50 % were do-not-resuscitate at the time of cardiac death (86 % of whom had life support actively withdrawn), and 8 % died despite full support. Admission predictors of mortality were age, loss of consciousness at ictus, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, large aneurysm size, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) physiologic subscore, and Modified Fisher Scale score. Hospital complications that further increased the risk of dying in multivariable analysis included rebleeding, global cerebral edema, hypernatremia, clinical signs of brain stem herniation, hypotension of less than 90 mm Hg treated with pressors, pulmonary edema, myocardial ischemia, and hepatic failure. Delayed cerebral ischemia, defined as deterioration or infarction from vasospasm, did not predict mortality.
Strategies directed toward minimizing early brain injury and aneurysm rebleeding, along with prevention and treatment of medical complication, hold the best promise for further reducing mortality after SAH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initial hemorrhage burden is an independent predictor for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). However, the association between clot clearance and DCI still remains to be elucidated.
Quantitative analysis of hemorrhage volume and clot clearance was made in 116 consecutive patients who were scanned within 24 h from onset. Cisternal plus intraventricular hemorrhage volume (CIHV) was calculated as clot volume from the initial scans and scans performed up to 7 days after onset. Clot clearance was calculated as a percentage of residual clot volume compared with the clot volume on the initial scan. Initial clot volume and clot clearance were dichotomized to evaluate the association with DCI.
Included patients were aged 55.5±15.2 years with a female preponderance (65.5%, (76/116)). The group with higher initial clot volume (≥17.2 mL) had higher odds for DCI (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.0, p=0.015). However, the rate of DCI was not different between high and low clot clearance groups (26.7% vs 31.0%, p=0.66). Clot clearance rate was similar in patients with and without DCI up to day 7 after onset.
The quantitative clot clearance rate is not an independent predictor for DCI.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Careful patient monitoring using a variety of techniques including clinical and laboratory evaluation, bedside physiological monitoring with continuous or non-continuous techniques and imaging is fundamental to the care of patients who require neurocritical care. How best to perform and use bedside monitoring is still being elucidated. To create a basic platform for care and a foundation for further research the Neurocritical Care Society in collaboration with the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the Society for Critical Care Medicine and the Latin America Brain Injury Consortium organized an international, multidisciplinary consensus conference to develop recommendations about physiologic bedside monitoring. This supplement contains a Consensus Summary Statement with recommendations and individual topic reviews as a background to the recommendations. In this article, we highlight the recommendations and provide additional conclusions as an aid to the reader and to facilitate bedside care.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Neurocritical Care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is common for patients who die from subarachnoid hemorrhage to have a focus on comfort measures at the end of life. The potential role of ethnicity in end-of-life decisions after brain injury has not been extensively studied.
Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were prospectively followed in an observational database. Demographic information including ethnicity was collected from medical records and self-reported by patients or their family. Significant in-hospital events including do-not-resuscitate orders, comfort measures only orders (CMO; care withheld or withdrawn), and mortality were recorded prospectively.
1255 patients were included in our analysis: 650 (52 %) were White, 387 (31 %) Hispanic, and 218 (17 %) Black. Mortality was similar between the groups. CMO was more commonly observed in Whites (14 %) compared to either Blacks (10 %) or Hispanics (9 %) (p = 0.04). In a multivariate analysis controlling for age and Hunt-Hess grade, Hispanics were less likely to have CMO than Whites (OR, 0.6; 95 %CI, 0.4-0.9; p = 0.02). Of the 229 patients who died, 77 % of Whites had CMO compared to 54 % of Blacks and 49 % of Hispanics (p < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, Blacks (OR, 0.3; 95 %CI, 0.2-0.7; p < 0.01) and Hispanics (OR, 0.3; 95 %CI, 0.2-0.6; p < 0.01) were less likely to die with CMO orders than Whites.
After subarachnoid hemorrhage, Blacks and Hispanics are less likely to die with CMO orders than Whites. Further research to confirm and investigate the causes of these ethnic differences should be performed.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Neurocritical Care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurocritical care depends, in part, on careful patient monitoring but as yet there are little data on what processes are the most important to monitor, how these should be monitored, and whether monitoring these processes is cost-effective and impacts outcome. At the same time, bioinformatics is a rapidly emerging field in critical care but as yet there is little agreement or standardization on what information is important and how it should be displayed and analyzed. The Neurocritical Care Society in collaboration with the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the Society for Critical Care Medicine, and the Latin America Brain Injury Consortium organized an international, multidisciplinary consensus conference to begin to address these needs. International experts from neurosurgery, neurocritical care, neurology, critical care, neuroanesthesiology, nursing, pharmacy, and informatics were recruited on the basis of their research, publication record, and expertise. They undertook a systematic literature review to develop recommendations about specific topics on physiologic processes important to the care of patients with disorders that require neurocritical care. This review does not make recommendations about treatment, imaging, and intraoperative monitoring. A multidisciplinary jury, selected for their expertise in clinical investigation and development of practice guidelines, guided this process. The GRADE system was used to develop recommendations based on literature review, discussion, integrating the literature with the participants’ collective experience, and critical review by an impartial jury. Emphasis was placed on the principle that recommendations should be based on both data quality and on trade-offs and translation into clinical practice. Strong consideration was given to providing pragmatic guidance and recommendations for bedside neuromonitoring, even in the absence of high quality data.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Neurocritical Care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is an important part of the normal physiologic response to acute brain injury (ABI). How inflammation is manifest determines if it augments or hinders the resolution of ABI. Monitoring body temperature, the cellular arm of the inflammatory cascade, and inflammatory proteins may help guide therapy. This summary will address the utility of inflammation monitoring in brain-injured adults. An electronic literature search was conducted for English language articles describing the testing, utility, and optimal methods to measure inflammation in ABI. Ninety-four articles were included in this review. Current evidence suggests that control of inflammation after ABI may hold promise for advances in good outcomes. However, our understanding of how much inflammation is good and how much is deleterious is not yet clear. Several important concepts emerge form our review. First, while continuous temperature monitoring of core body temperature is recommended, temperature pattern alone is not useful in distinguishing infectious from noninfectious fever. Second, when targeted temperature management is used, shivering should be monitored at least hourly. Finally, white blood cell levels and protein markers of inflammation may have a limited role in distinguishing infectious from noninfectious fever. Our understanding of optimal use of inflammation monitoring after ABI is limited currently but is an area of active investigation.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Neurocritical Care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Risk factors for infections after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and their association with outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized there are predictors of poststroke infection and infections drive worse outcomes.
We determined prevalence of infections in a multicenter, triethnic study of ICH. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses to determine the association of infection with admission characteristics and hospital complications. We performed logistic regression on association of infection with outcomes after controlling for known determinants of prognosis after ICH (volume, age, infratentorial location, intraventricular hemorrhage, and Glasgow Coma Scale).
Among 800 patients, infections occurred in 245 (31%). Admission characteristics associated with infection in multivariable models were ICH volume (odds ratio [OR], 1.02/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.03), lower Glasgow Coma Scale (OR, 0.91 per point; 95% CI, 0.87-0.95), deep location (reference lobar: OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.28-2.88), and black race (reference white: OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.32). In a logistic regression of admission and hospital factors, infections were associated with intubation (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.1-4.5), dysphagia (with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 2.03-5.05 and without percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.04-4.23), pulmonary edema (OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.29-12.33), and deep vein thrombosis (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.86-21.02), but not ICH volume or Glasgow Coma Scale. Infected patients had higher discharge mortality (16% versus 8%; P=0.001) and worse 3-month outcomes (modified Rankin Scale ≥3; 80% versus 51%; P<0.001). Infection was an independent predictor of poor 3-month outcome (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-3.9).
There are identifiable risk factors for infection after ICH, and infections predict poor outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic response to injury is well described; however, very little is understood about optimal markers to measure this response. This summary will address the current evidence about monitoring nutritional status including blood glucose after acute brain injury (ABI). An electronic literature search was conducted for English language articles describing the testing, utility, and optimal methods to measure nutritional status and blood glucose levels in the neurocritical care population. A total of 45 articles were included in this review. Providing adequate and timely nutritional support can help improve outcome after ABI. However, the optimal content and total nutrition requirements remain unclear. In addition, how best to monitor the nutritional status in ABI is still being elucidated, and at present, there is no validated optimal method to monitor the global response to nutritional support on a day-to-day basis in ABI patients. Nitrogen balance may be monitored to assess the adequacy of caloric intake as it relates to protein energy metabolism, but indirect calorimetry, anthropometric measurement, or serum biomarker requires further validation. The adverse effects of hyperglycemia in ABI are well described, and data indicate that blood glucose should be carefully controlled in critically ill patients. However, the optimal frequency or duration for blood glucose monitoring after ABI remains poorly defined. There are significant knowledge gaps about monitoring nutritional status and response to nutritional interventions in ABI; these need to be addressed and hence few recommendations can be made. The optimal frequency and duration of blood glucose monitoring need further study.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Neurocritical Care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurocritical care depends, in part, on careful patient monitoring but as yet there are little data on what processes are the most important to monitor, how these should be monitored, and whether monitoring these processes is cost-effective and impacts outcome. At the same time, bioinformatics is a rapidly emerging field in critical care but as yet there is little agreement or standardization on what information is important and how it should be displayed and analyzed. The Neurocritical Care Society in collaboration with the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the Society for Critical Care Medicine, and the Latin America Brain Injury Consortium organized an international, multidisciplinary consensus conference to begin to address these needs. International experts from neurosurgery, neurocritical care, neurology, critical care, neuroanesthesiology, nursing, pharmacy, and informatics were recruited on the basis of their research, publication record, and expertise. They undertook a systematic literature review to develop recommendations about specific topics on physiologic processes important to the care of patients with disorders that require neurocritical care. This review does not make recommendations about treatment, imaging, and intraoperative monitoring. A multidisciplinary jury, selected for their expertise in clinical investigation and development of practice guidelines, guided this process. The GRADE system was used to develop recommendations based on literature review, discussion, integrating the literature with the participants' collective experience, and critical review by an impartial jury. Emphasis was placed on the principle that recommendations should be based on both data quality and on trade-offs and translation into clinical practice. Strong consideration was given to providing pragmatic guidance and recommendations for bedside neuromonitoring, even in the absence of high quality data.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Intensive Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an uncommon cause of myelopathy that should be considered after more common causes have been ruled out. Objective: This article presents a case report of a 50-year-old man with acute myelopathy attributed to FCE and summarizes the clinical features of the disease by analyzing all of the published evidence. Data Sources and Extraction: Two computerized literature searches (MEDLINE—Pubmed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library) were performed. The search term used was “Fibrocartilaginous embolism.” No language restrictions were applied. All articles were evaluated and key data were extracted according to predefined criteria: patient’s age, year of publication, localization of the embolism and type of vascular syndrome, clinical outcome, and time to death in the fatal cases. Results: Fifty-two cases (39 biopsy proven and 13 clinically diagnosed) were found in the literature. Median age at presentation was 37 years (interquartile range, 19–53) and 56% were women. Median progression of symptoms was 6 hours (interquartile range, 5–60 h), predominantly affecting the cervical spine (48%) by an arterial embolic source (56%). Conclusions: FCE is an unusual cause of spinal cord and cerebral ischemia with unknown incidence. Implementation of diagnostic imaging techniques and initial management of acute spinal disorders care in intensive care units might increase the incidence of disease antemortem. FCE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ischemic spinal cord injury when no other causes can be identified and especially when the onset is progressive over several hours.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of spinal disorders & techniques
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the association between exposure to hyperoxia and the risk of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).
Methods We analysed data from a single centre, prospective, observational cohort database. Patient inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, aneurysmal SAH, endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation, and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) measurements. Hyperoxia was defined as the highest quartile of an area under the curve of PaO2, until the development of DCI (PaO2≥173 mm Hg). Poor outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale 4–6 at 3 months after SAH.
Results Of 252 patients, there were no differences in baseline characteristics between the hyperoxia and control group. Ninety-seven (38.5%) patients developed DCI. The hyperoxia group had a higher incidence of DCI (p<0.001) and poor outcome (p=0.087). After adjusting for modified Fisher scale, rebleeding, global cerebral oedema, intracranial pressure crisis, pneumonia and sepsis, hyperoxia was independently associated with DCI (OR, 3.16; 95% CI 1.69 to 5.92; p<0.001). After adjusting for age, Hunt–Hess grade, aneurysm size, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, rebleeding, pneumonia and sepsis, hyperoxia was independently associated with poor outcome (OR, 2.30; 95% CI 1.03 to 5.12; p=0.042).
Conclusions In SAH patients, exposure to hyperoxia was associated with DCI. Our findings suggest that exposure to excess oxygen after SAH may represent a modifiable factor for morbidity and mortality in this population.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Cerebral glucose metabolism and energy production are affected by serum glucose levels. Systemic glucose variability has been shown to be associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to assess whether glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
A total of 28 consecutive comatose patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, who underwent cerebral microdialysis and intracranial pressure monitoring, were studied. Metabolic distress was defined as lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) >40. The relationship between daily glucose variability, the development of cerebral metabolic distress and hospital outcome was analyzed using a multivariable general linear model with a logistic link function for dichotomized outcomes.
Daily serum glucose variability was expressed as the standard deviation (SD) of all serum glucose measurements. General linear models were used to relate this predictor variable to cerebral metabolic distress and mortality at hospital discharge. A total of 3,139 neuromonitoring hours and 181 days were analyzed. After adjustment for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and brain glucose, SD was independently associated with higher risk of cerebral metabolic distress (adjusted odds ratio = 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1), P = 0.02). Increased variability was also independently associated with in hospital mortality after adjusting for age, Hunt Hess, daily GCS and symptomatic vasospasm (P = 0.03).
Increased systemic glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and increased hospital mortality. Therapeutic approaches that reduce glucose variability may impact on brain metabolism and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Critical care (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) are frequent following acute brain injury and have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury, but mechanisms that cause NCSz are controversial. Proinflammatory states are common after many brain injuries, and inflammation-mediated changes in blood-brain barrier permeability have been experimentally linked to seizures.
In this prospective observational study of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, we explored the link between the inflammatory response following SAH and in-hospital NCSz studying clinical (systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS]) and laboratory (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 [TNF-R1], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) markers of inflammation. Logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards regression, and mediation analyses were performed to investigate temporal and causal relationships.
Among 479 SAH patients, 53 (11%) had in-hospital NCSz. Patients with in-hospital NCSz had a more pronounced SIRS response (odds ratio [OR]=1.9 per point increase in SIRS, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3-2.9), inflammatory surges were more likely immediately preceding NCSz onset, and the negative impact of SIRS on functional outcome at 3 months was mediated in part through in-hospital NCSz. In a subset with inflammatory serum biomarkers, we confirmed these findings linking higher serum TNF-R1 and hsCRP to in-hospital NCSz (OR=1.2 per 20-point hsCRP increase, 95% CI=1.1-1.4; OR=2.5 per 100-point TNF-R1 increase, 95% CI=2.1-2.9). The association of inflammatory biomarkers with poor outcome was mediated in part through NCSz.
In-hospital NCSz were independently associated with a proinflammatory state following SAH as reflected in clinical symptoms and serum biomarkers of inflammation. Our findings suggest that inflammation following SAH is associated with poor outcome and that this effect is at least in part mediated through in-hospital NCSz.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Annals of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether therapeutic temperature modulation (TTM) to treat fever after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with improved hospital complications and discharge outcomes.
We performed a retrospective case-control study of patients admitted with spontaneous ICH having two consecutive fevers ≥38.3 °C despite acetaminophen administration. Cases were enrolled from a prospective database of patients receiving TTM from 2006 to 2010. All cases received TTM for fever control with goal temperature of 37 °C with a shiver-control protocol. Controls were matched in severity by ICH score and retrospectively obtained from 2001 to 2004, before routine use of TTM for ICH. Primary outcome was discharge-modified Rankin score.
Forty patients were enrolled in each group. Median admission ICH Score, ICH volume, and GCS were similar. TTM was initiated with a median of 3 days after ICH onset and for a median duration of 7 days. Mean daily T max was significantly higher in the control group over the first 12 days (38.1 vs. 38.7 °C, p ≤ 0.001). The TTM group had more days of IV sedation (median 8 vs. 1, p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (18 vs. 9, p = 0.003), and more frequently underwent tracheostomy (55 vs. 23 %, p = 0.005). Mean NICU length of stay was longer for TTM patients (15 vs. 11 days, p = 0.007). There was no difference in discharge outcomes between the two groups (overall mortality 33 %, moderate or severe disability 67 %).
Therapeutic normothermia is associated with increased duration of sedation, mechanical ventilation, and NICU stay, but is not clearly associated with improved discharge outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are commonly found after stroke, but have not been previously studied in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
To study the prevalence, radiographic patterns, predictors, and impact on outcome of CMBs in patients with SAH.
We analyzed retrospectively 39 consecutive patients who underwent T2-weighted gradient-echo imaging within seven days after onset of spontaneous SAH. We report frequency and location of CMBs and show their association with demographics, vascular risk factors, the Hunt-Hess grade, the modified Fisher Scale, the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II, MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging lesions (DWILs), and laboratory data, as well as data on rebleeding, global cerebral edema, delayed cerebral ischemia, seizures, the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, and the modified Rankin Scale.
Eighteen (46%) patients had CMBs. Of these patients, nine had multiple CMBs, and overall a total of 50 CMBs were identified. The most common locations of CMBs were lobar (n=23), followed by deep (n=15) and infratentorial (n=12). After adjustment for age and history of hypertension, CMBs were related to the presence of DWILs (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 24.00; p = 0.033). Three months after SAH, patients with CMBs had non-significantly higher modified Rankin Scale scores (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 0.67 to 9.39; p = 0.175).
This study suggests that CMBs are commonly observed and associated with DWILs in patients with SAH. Our findings may represent a new mechanism of tissue injury in SAH. Further studies are needed to investigate CMBs' clinical implications.