[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influence of age and sex on chemotherapy-related toxicity was evaluated in children (3-9 years), adolescents (10-17 years), and adults (up to 40 years) with localized Ewing sarcoma (ES) enrolled in the ISG/SSG III protocol. Treatment was based on vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, dactinomycin, and etoposide. High-dose chemotherapy with busulfan and melphalan was given in poor responder patients. The analysis was based on 2191 courses of standard chemotherapy and 230 patients. A lower risk of G4 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, hospitalization, febrile neutropenia, and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions was observed in males. Use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was more frequent in adults, while children more often received RBC transfusions. A significant correlation between sex and chemotherapy-related toxicity was observed in the study, whereas no significant differences in terms of bone marrow toxicity can be expected according to patient age. Further studies should analyse the role of pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics, and clinical characteristics.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: The incidence of central venous catheter (CVC)-related complications reported in pediatric sarcoma patients is not established as reports in available literature are limited. The analysis of risk factors is part of the strategy to reduce the incidence of CVC complications. OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of CVC complications in children with bone sarcomas and if defined clinical variables represent a risk factor. METHODS:: During an 8-year period, 155 pediatric patients with bone sarcomas were prospectively followed up for CVC complications. Incidence and correlation with clinical features including gender, age, body mass index, histology, disease stage, and use of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin were analyzed. RESULTS:: Thirty-three CVC complications were recorded among 42 687 CVC-days (0.77 per 1000 CVC-days). No correlation between the specific clinical variables and the CVC complications was found. A high incidence of CVC-related sepsis secondary to gram-negative bacteria was observed. CONCLUSIONS:: The analysis of CVC complications and their potential risk factors in this sizable and relatively homogeneous pediatric population with bone sarcomas has led to the implementation of a multimodal approach by doctors and nurses to reduce the incidence and morbidity of the CVC-related infections, particularly those related to gram-negative bacteria. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: As a result of this joint medical and nursing study, a multimodal approach that included equipping faucets with water filters, the reeducation of doctors and nurses, and the systematic review of CVC protocol was implemented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The Italian Sarcoma Group and the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group designed a joint study to improve the prognosis for patients with Ewing's family tumors and synchronous metastatic disease limited to the lungs, or the pleura, or a single bone.
Patients and methods:
The study was opened in 1999 and closed to the enrollment in 2008. The program consisted of intensive five-drug combination chemotherapy, surgery and/or radiotherapy as local treatment, and consolidation treatment with high-dose busulfan/melphalan plus autologous stem cell rescue and total-lung irradiation.
During the study period, 102 consecutive patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 62 months (range 24-124). The 5-year event-free survival probability was 0.43 [standard deviation (SD) = 0.05] and the 5-year overall survival probability was 0.52 (SD = 0.052). Unfavorable prognostic factors emerging on multivariate analysis were a poor histological/radiological response at the site of the primary tumor [relative risk (RR) = 3.4], and incomplete radiological remission of lung metastases after primary chemotherapy (RR = 2.6). One toxic death and one secondary leukemia were recorded.
This intensive approach is feasible and long-term survival is achievable in ∼50% of patients. New treatment approaches are warranted for patients responding poorly to primary chemotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Annals of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of high-grade osteosarcoma is rare in children aged 5 years or younger and only limited series or case reports have been described.
The records of patients aged 5 years or younger with non-metastatic high-grade osteosarcoma of the extremities treated with surgery and adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy at Rizzoli Institute between 1972 and 1999 were retrospectively evaluated in relation to gender, primary tumor site, histological subtype, surgical treatment, chemotherapy-induced tumor necrosis, 5- and 10-year event-free survival (EFS), and rate of local recurrence. Data were compared to patients aged 6-40 years entered with the same diagnosis and over the same time interval.
Data from 20 patients were collected. Comparing these data with those from 1,106 patients 6-40 years of age only two main differences resulted: the younger group showed a higher rate for fibroblastic subtype (P < 0.01) and for amputation surgery (P < 0.01). Among the two groups, no statistical difference was observed for the 5-year EFS (60% vs. 53.8%; P = 0.6) and 10-year EFS (60% vs. 52.1%; P = 0.5). The rate of local recurrence was 5.0% and 5.4%.
These findings suggest that in non-metastatic osteosarcoma of the extremities outcome and clinical characteristics are similar among children 5 years of age or younger and older patients. However, in the younger group we have observed a significant higher rate of fibroblastic subtype as well as a significant higher rate of mutilating surgery. Pediatr Blood Cancer.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of age and sex on chemotherapy-related toxicity was evaluated in children and adults with non metastatic osteosarcoma. treatment consisted of methotrexate (MTX, 12 g/m(2)), cisplatin (CDP 120 mg/m(2)) and doxorubicin (ADM 75-90 mg/m(2)) and high-dose ifosfamide (HDIFO). toxicity data from 1,051 courses (295 with MTX, 756 based on doxorubicin, cisplatin and high-dose ifosfamide) were analyzed. Children (4-14 yrs) and females showed a higher incidence of grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and were more frequently hospitalized for neutropenic fever compared to adolescents and young adults (AYA, 15-19 yrs) and adults (>20-40 yrs). Delayed MTX excretion was higher in adults than AYA and children. Adults (up to 40 years) can be treated with pediatric protocols for osteosarcoma and they experience lower hematologic toxicity compared to pediatric population. further investigations on sex-related susceptibility to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma patients are recommended.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1991, the Italian Association for Pediatric Hematology-Oncology and the National Council of Research (CNR) initiated an Italian Cooperative Study (SE 91-CNR Protocol) with the main objective of improving the overall survival (SUR) and the event free survival (EFS) of children and young adults with localized Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of bone compared with a previous study (IOR/Ew2 Protocol).
Between November 1991 and November 1997, 165 patients were enrolled in this study, 160 of whom were evaluable. The patients were treated with a multimodal approach characterized by intensified chemotherapy, hyperfractionated and accelerated radiation therapy, and the addition of ifosfamide and etoposide to standard chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin-D, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide.
After a median follow-up of 37 months, 126 of the 160 evaluable patients remained free of disease recurrence. Thirty-one patients developed a disease recurrence (20 with disseminated disease).
The 3-year SUR and EFS rates found in the current study (83.6% and 77.8%, respectively) may be considered satisfactory. Only age at diagnosis < or =14 years and a good histologic response appeared to affect the outcome of patients with localized Ewing sarcoma positively. These results appear to demonstrate the efficacy of the addition of ifosfamide in induction chemotherapy to four-drug standard combination chemotherapy, as confirmed by the improved outcome in terms of 3-year EFS reported in the SE 91-CNR Protocol compared with the IOR/Ew2 Protocol (77.8% vs. 60.7%). In addition, the better outcome also could be explained by the change in treatment strategy with a trend toward the use of more surgery than radiation therapy compared with the authors' previous protocol.