Eric S Smith

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

Are you Eric S Smith?

Claim your profile

Publications (4)15.69 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sex differences in opioid antinociception have been reported in rodents and monkeys, with opioids being more potent in males than females. In the present study, the influence of rat strain on sex differences in opioid antinociception was examined in a warm water tail-withdrawal procedure. Antinociceptive tests were conducted with the high-efficacy micro-opioid morphine, and the less efficacious opioids buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine. Baseline nociceptive latencies were consistently higher in males than their female counterparts. Sex differences in opioid antinociception were observed in all strains tested, with the opioids being more potent and/or effective in males. The magnitude of the sex differences was related to the relative efficacy of the opioid, with morphine, buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine being on average 2.2-, 2.6-, 15.9- and 11.9-fold more potent in males. Sex differences also varied markedly across strains, with large differences consistently obtained in the F344 and F344-Sasco strains, moderate differences in the ACI, DA, Lewis, Sprague Dawley, Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto strains, and small differences in the Long Evans-Blue Spruce, Long Evans, Brown Norway and Holtzman strains. When compared across strains, there was no relationship between sex differences in nociceptive sensitivity and opioid sensitivity. These findings provide strong support for the role of genetic factors in determining sex differences in opioid antinociception, and suggest that the use of low-efficacy opioids, coupled with the use of rat strains that display small and large sex differences in opioid antinociception, may provide a sensitive tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying sex differences in opioid antinociception.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Pain
  • Source
    Andrew C Barrett · Eric S Smith · Mitchell J Picker
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The influence of sex in determining responses to opioid analgesics has been well established in rodents and monkeys in assays of short-lasting, phasic pain. The purpose of this investigation was to use a capsaicin model of tonic pain to evaluate sex differences in hyperalgesia and mu-opioid-induced antihyperalgesia in Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Capsaicin injected into the tail produced a dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia in males and females, with the dose required to produce a comparable level of hyperalgesia being 3.0-fold higher in males than in females. These sex differences were modulated by gonadal hormones, inasmuch as gonadectomy increased the potency of capsaicin in males and decreased its potency in females. Morphine, buprenorphine, and dezocine administered by various routes [systemic (s.c.), local (in the tail), and central (i.c.v.)] generally produced marked antihyperalgesic effects in males and females. Although in most instances these opioids were equally potent and effective in males and females, selected doses of local and i.c.v. administered buprenorphine produced greater effects in females. When administered locally, the antihyperalgesic effects of morphine were mediated by peripheral opioid receptors in both males and females, since this effect was not reversed by i.c.v. naloxone methiodide. These data contrast with the finding that mu-opioids are more potent in male rodents in assays of phasic pain, thus suggesting that distinct mechanisms underlie male and female sensitivity to opioid antinociception in phasic and tonic pain models. These findings emphasize the need to test male and female rodents in tonic pain assays that may have greater relevance for human pain conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
  • Source
    Andrew C Barrett · Eric S Smith · Mitchell J Picker
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of irreversible antagonists to assess opioid efficacy has proven fruitful for classifying opioids on the basis of high or low efficacy, but few studies have provided quantitative estimates of efficacy. The purpose of this study was to use beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) and clocinnamox (C-CAM) in a drug discrimination procedure to examine the efficacy of fentanyl, morphine, l-methadone, sufentanil, and etorphine. In pigeons trained to discriminate 0.12 mg/kg fentanyl from water, dose-effect curves were determined for each opioid alone and after pretreatment with beta-FNA and C-CAM. Using quantitative analyses according to an extended model of Black and Leff (1983), apparent efficacy (tau) and affinity (KA) of each opioid was determined, as well as the degree of receptor inactivation (q) produced by each dose of each antagonist. beta-FNA and C-CAM produced dose- and time-dependent, rightward shifts in the dose-effect curves of each opioid, and analyses based on dose-ratios and tau values suggest a rank order of efficacy of etorphine > sufentanil = l-methadone > fentanyl = morphine. Marked differences in the profiles of antagonism produced by beta-FNA and C-CAM were also apparent, as C-CAM, but not beta-FNA, produced insurmountable antagonism. The q values for each antagonist were consistent with these data in indicating that C-CAM and beta-FNA can inactivate nearly 100 and 75% of the receptor population, respectively. In tests conducted in pigeons chronically treated with morphine, doses of beta-FNA that produced parallel, rightward shifts in untreated pigeons flattened the morphine dose-effect curve in morphine-treated pigeons. These results indicate that beta-FNA and C-CAM can differentiate opioids with high relative efficacy and yield comparable estimates of efficacy for various opioids. There are, however, limitations in the proportion of the receptor population that can by eliminated by beta-FNA.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
  • Andrew C Barrett · Eric S Smith · Mitchell J Picker
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicate that in antinociceptive procedures employing thermal, chemical and electrical stimuli, opioids are generally more potent in male than female rodents. The purpose of the present study was to examine nociception and opioid antinociception in male and female rats using a mechanical nociceptive stimulus. Results indicated that males had a higher threshold for nociception, and in tests in which a constant pressure was applied to the hindpaw, the paw withdrawal latencies were consistently longer in males. Opioids with activity at the mu receptor, including levorphanol, morphine, dezocine, buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine, were generally more potent and/or effective in males. In contrast, sex differences were not consistently observed with the kappa-opioid receptor agonists spiradoline, (5,7,8b)-N-methyl-N[2-1(1-pyrrolidinyl),1-oxaspiro[4,5]dec-8-yl benzeneacetamide (U69593), trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide (U50488), enadoline, ethylketocyclazocine, and nalorphine. These findings suggest that males and females differ in their responsiveness to mechanical nociception and that sex differences in sensitivity to kappa-, but not mu-, opioid receptor agonists are specific to certain nociceptive stimulus modalities.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · European Journal of Pharmacology

Publication Stats

165 Citations
15.69 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2004
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Psychology
      North Carolina, United States