Gen Sobue

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (850)3132.17 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · May 2010 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a late-onset lower motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat, which encodes a polyglutamine tract in androgen receptor (AR). Although it is commonly held that the pathogenic polyglutamine proteins accumulate in neurons and thereby induce transcriptional dysregulation, the downstream molecular events have remained elusive. Here, we examined whether TGF-beta signaling is dysregulated in SBMA. Nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad2/3, a key step in TGF-beta signaling, is suppressed in the spinal motor neurons of male transgenic mice carrying the mutant human AR. A similar finding was also observed in the motor neurons, but not in Purkinje cells, of SBMA patients. The pathogenic AR, the causative protein of SBMA, inhibits the transcription of TGF-beta receptor type II (TbetaRII) via abnormal interactions with NF-Y and p300/CBP-associated factor. Furthermore, overexpression of TbetaRII dampens polyglutamine-induced cytotoxicity in a neuroblastoma cell line expressing the pathogenic AR. The present study thus indicates that disruption of TGF-beta due to the transcriptional dysregulation of TbetaRII is associated with polyglutamine-induced motor neuron damage in SBMA.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Skin hyperpigmentation disorders due to abnormal melanin production induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are both a clinical and cosmetic problem. UV irradiation stimulates melanin production in melanocytes by increasing intracellular cAMP. Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), especially HSP70, is induced by various stressors, including UV irradiation, to provide cellular resistance to such stressors. In this study we examined the effect of expression of HSP70 on melanin production both in vitro and in vivo. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a cAMP-elevating agent, stimulated melanin production in cultured mouse melanoma cells, and this stimulation was suppressed in cells overexpressing HSP70. IBMX-dependent transcriptional activation of the tyrosinase gene was also suppressed in HSP70-overexpressing cells. Expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which positively regulates transcription of the tyrosinase gene, was up-regulated by IBMX; however, this up-regulation was not suppressed in HSP70-overexpressing cells. On the other hand, immunoprecipitation and immunostaining analyses revealed a physical interaction between and co-localization of MITF and HSP70, respectively. Furthermore, the transcription of tyrosinase gene in nuclear extract was inhibited by HSP70. In vivo, UV irradiation of wild-type mice increased the amount of melanin in the basal layer of the epidermis, and this increase was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing HSP70. This study provides the first evidence of an inhibitory effect of HSP70 on melanin production both in vitro and in vivo. This effect seems to be mediated by modulation of MITF activity through a direct interaction between HSP70 and MITF.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. The cause of this disease is the expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat, which encodes the polyglutamine tract, within the first exon of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA exclusively occurs in adult males, whereas both heterozygous and homozygous females are usually asymptomatic. Lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and those in the brainstem motor nuclei are predominantly affected in SBMA, and other neuronal and nonneuronal tissues are also widely involved to some extent. Testosterone-dependent nuclear accumulation of the pathogenic AR protein has been considered to be a fundamental step of neurodegenerative process, which is followed by several molecular events such as transcriptional dysregulation, axonal transport disruption and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results of animal studies suggest that androgen deprivation and activation of protein quality control systems are potential therapies for SBMA.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 64-year-old man diagnosed with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) associated with pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. Circulating anti-P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) antibody was detected, and the patient was treated with 3,4-diaminopyridine. At age 61, chest radiograph revealed a tumor shadow in the right upper lung field. This was surgically removed, and a histological diagnosis of moderately differentiated pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma was obtained. After about 1 year, mediastinal metastasis was detected and 5-FU was administered. Eight months later, metastasis was noted in the left frontal hemisphere, and radiosurgical therapy was performed. The brain tumor gradually shrank but generalized fatigue, thirst, and gait disturbance developed after 4 months. A diagnosis of LEMS was made on the basis of neurological findings including proximal muscle weakness and absent tendon reflexes; autonomic symptoms (thirst, constipation, and impotence); characteristic electromyographic findings; and circulating anti-P/Q-type VGCC antibody. He has been treated with 3,4-diaminopyridine at a dose of 30 mg/day, resulting in marked improvement in symptoms but little change in electromyographic findings. The present case is very rare and suggests that anti-P/Q-type VGCC antibody may be involved in the mechanism of LEMS associated with pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration and leads to death within a few years of diagnosis. One of the pathogenic mechanisms of ALS is proposed to be a dysfunction in the protein quality-control machinery. Dorfin has been identified as a ubiquitin ligase (E3) that recognizes and ubiquitinates mutant SOD1 proteins, thereby accelerating their degradation and reducing their cellular toxicity. We examined the effects of human Dorfin overexpression in G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, a mouse model of familial ALS. In addition to causing a decrease in the amount of mutant SOD1 protein in the spinal cord, Dorfin overexpression ameliorated neurological phenotypes and motor neuron degeneration. Our results indicate that Dorfin overexpression or the activation or induction of E3 may be a therapeutic avenue for mutant SOD1-associated ALS.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Neuroscience Research

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · The Japanese Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
  • Keiko Mori · Gen Sobue

    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi
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    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease characterized by upper and lower motor neuron damage. Mutations of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) account for 20% of familial ALS (FALS). We report a unique clinicogenotype of a Japanese family with a novel SOD 1 mutation. A 37-year-old woman (the proband) noticed muscle weakness in the left lower limb. Her mother had developed progressive lower motor neuron signs in four extremities at 38 years of age. Subsequently she was diagnosed as ALS and died of respiratory failure at 15 months after clinical onset. Neurological examination of the proband showed absent muscle stretch reflexes in the left knee and the left ankle without Babinski signs. Mild to moderate degree of muscle weakness existed in the left lower extremity. Muscle atrophy was presented in the left thigh. Initial pulmonary function revealed forced vital capacity of 91.1%. Electromyography disclosed ongoing denervation muscle potentials in the left lower extremity. SOD1 analysis demonstrated amino acid substitution of glycine by serine at codon 85 (G85S) in exon 4. Six months later, marked muscle weakness and atrophy expanded to four extremities. All muscle stretch reflexes were absent. Three months later, ventilator support with a tracheostomy was needed. The patient died at 18 months after clinical onset. Clinical hallmarks of this FALS family indicate that G85S mutation of SOD1 may cause rapidly progressive form of pure lower motor neuron signs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: A 21-year-old man had sudden-onset right hemiplegia and aphasia with respiratory infection. A chest X-ray disclosed consolidation in both lungs and magnetic resonance imaging showed an embolism in the left middle cerebral artery. A pelvic computed tomography scan revealed deep venous thrombus in both femoral veins. Patent foramen ovale was detected by transesophageal echocardiogram. Antibodies to M. pneumoniae were highly elevated, and hypercoagulability was subsequently detected. This case suggests that the possible pathogenic mechanism for M. pneumoniae infection-related stroke might be paradoxical brain embolism with deep venous thrombus as a consequence of the hypercoagulability related to this infection.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Internal Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi
  • Haruki Koike · Gen Sobue

    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Neuroscience Research
  • Gen Sobue

    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Neuroscience Research

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Neuroscience Research
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a lower motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The fundamental histopathological finding of this disease is an extensive loss of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. It is, however, difficult to evaluate clinically the degree of motor neuron degeneration, which stresses the need for biomarkers to detect the remaining neuronal function. The authors performed motor unit number estimation (MUNE) in 52 patients with SBMA, to investigate whether this method could be a potential biomarker of SBMA, and re-evaluated MUNE 1 year later in a subgroup of the patients. The number of functioning motor units was remarkably reduced in patients with SBMA compared with controls, and was correlated with both ipsilateral grip power and disease duration. A longitudinal analysis demonstrated a further reduction in motor units within 1 year. The results suggest that MUNE is an electrophysiological parameter that reflects the severity and progression of motor neuron degeneration in patients with SBMA.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Irradiation with UV light, especially UVB, causes epidermal damage via the induction of apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and DNA damage. Various stressors, including UV light, induce heat shock proteins (HSPs) and the induction, particularly that of HSP70, provides cellular resistance to such stressors. The anti-inflammatory activity of HSP70, such as its inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), was recently revealed. These in vitro results suggest that HSP70 protects against UVB-induced epidermal damage. Here we tested this idea by using transgenic mice expressing HSP70 and cultured keratinocytes. Irradiation of wild-type mice with UVB caused epidermal damage such as induction of apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing HSP70. UVB-induced apoptosis in cultured keratinocytes was suppressed by overexpression of HSP70. Irradiation of wild-type mice with UVB decreased the cutaneous level of IkappaB-alpha (an inhibitor of NF-kappaB) and increased the infiltration of leukocytes and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the epidermis. These inflammatory responses were suppressed in transgenic mice expressing HSP70. In vitro, the overexpression of HSP70 suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased the level of IkappaB-alpha in keratinocytes irradiated with UVB. UVB induced an increase in cutaneous levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, both of which were suppressed in transgenic mice expressing HSP70. This study provides genetic evidence that HSP70 protects the epidermis from UVB-induced radiation damage. The findings here also suggest that the protective action of HSP70 is mediated by anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-DNA damage effects.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a polyglutamine-mediated lower motor neuron disease characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. The cause of this disease is the expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat, which encodes the polyglutamine tract, within the first exon of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA exclusively occurs in adult males, whereas both heterozygous and homozygous females are usually asymptomatic. Testosterone-dependent nuclear accumulation of the pathogenic AR protein has been considered to be a fundamental step of neurodegenerative process, which is followed by several molecular events such as transcriptional dysregulation, axonal transport disruption, and mitochondria dysfunction. Androgen deprivation suppresses the toxicity of the mutant AR in animal models of SBMA, and these insights have been translated to clinic. Animal studies have also suggested that activation of protein quality control systems are potential therapies for SBMA. To optimize "proof of concept", the process for testing candidate therapies in humans, it is of importance to identify responders to each therapy, to initiate interventions in early stages of the disease, and to establish biomarkers which can be used for evaluating the efficacy of treatment.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remain poorly understood even now 140 years after the first description of the disease in 1869 by Jean-Martin Charcot. Exploration of pathogenesis of ALS has long been dependent on transgenic animal models with mutations in the copper/ zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. However, the lack of therapeutic concordance between these animal models and human sporadic ALS patients is troubling. The reasons include that there might exist the differences of pathogenesis between sporadic and familial ALS and/or the disease models for sporadic ALS have not been established. We have been working on screening motor neuron-specific genes critical for pathogenesis of sporadic ALS using cDNA microarray and laser capture microdissection techniques. Many of the resultant genes are of intense interest and may provide a powerful tool for determining the molecular mechanisms of sporadic ALS. In particular, dynactin-1, a major component of dynein/dynactin complex and several cell cycle-related genes are the targets of our research. Development and analysis of new disease models for sporadic ALS based on these genes will open an avenue for novel therapeutics.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
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    ABSTRACT: A 47-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of general convulsion, loss of consciousness and hyperthermia. A diagnosis of acute heat stroke was made clinically and neuroradiologically. As the consciousness level ameliorated, he developed severe abulia and mutism, then cerebellar ataxic syndrome (viz. truncal ataxia, hypermetria, ataxic speech and nystagmus). An MRI (diffusion weighted image; DWI) disclosed abnormal diffuse high signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex with reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Two months later after the onset, truncal ataxia and dysarthria significantly improved, while dysmetria of the extremities rather worsened. At that time, the abnormal signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex disappeared, and the cerebellum became atrophic. The cerebellar blood flow was significantly decreased on brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD). The abnormal DWI signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex in the present patient may represent the cytotoxic edema of Purkinje cells resulting from heat stroke-related hyperthermia It is essential to repeat MRI examination for cerebellar pathology and to obtain better insight into sequelae in patients with acute heat stroke. Protirelin tartrate seemed to be valid for improvement of abulia in the present patient. Further study is indicated.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology

Publication Stats

19k Citations
3,132.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991-2015
    • Nagoya University
      • • Division of Neurology
      • • Division of Pathology
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2012-2013
    • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Juntendo University
      • Department of Neurology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1986-2013
    • Aichi Medical University
      • • Institute for Medical Science of Aging
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      Koromo, Aichi, Japan
  • 2004
    • Kumamoto University
      • Department of Neurology
      Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan
  • 2000
    • Nara Institute of Science and Technology
      Ikuma, Nara, Japan
    • Tachikawa Hospital
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 1993-1996
    • Kyoto Daini Red Cross Hospital
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 1984-1988
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1985
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Neurology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States