- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify candidate genes for intellectual disability, we performed a meta-analysis on 2,637 de novo mutations, identified from the exomes of 2,104 patient–parent trios. Statistical analyses identified 10 new candidate ID genes: DLG4, PPM1D, RAC1, SMAD6, SON, SOX5, SYNCRIP, TCF20, TLK2 and TRIP12. In addition, we show that these genes are intolerant to nonsynonymous variation and that mutations in these genes are associated with specific clinical ID phenotypes. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor switch-insensitive 3 family member A (SIN3A; chromosome 15q24.2) in individuals who, in addition to mild intellectual disability and ASD, share striking features, including facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly and short stature. This phenotype is highly related to that of individuals with atypical 15q24 microdeletions, linking SIN3A to this microdeletion syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed subtle abnormalities, including corpus callosum hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly. Intriguingly, in vivo functional knockdown of Sin3a led to reduced cortical neurogenesis, altered neuronal identity and aberrant corticocortical projections in the developing mouse brain. Together, our data establish that haploinsufficiency of SIN3A is associated with mild syndromic intellectual disability and that SIN3A can be considered to be a key transcriptional regulator of cortical brain development.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are genetically heterogeneous, and a significant number of genes have been associated with both conditions. A few mutations in POGZ have been reported in recent exome studies; however, these studies do not provide detailed clinical information. We collected the clinical and molecular data of 25 individuals with disruptive mutations in POGZ by diagnostic whole-exome, whole-genome, or targeted sequencing of 5,223 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (ID primarily) or by targeted resequencing of this locus in 12,041 individuals with ASD and/or ID. The rarity of disruptive mutations among unaffected individuals (2/49,401) highlights the significance (p = 4.19 × 10(-13); odds ratio = 35.8) and penetrance (65.9%) of this genetic subtype with respect to ASD and ID. By studying the entire cohort, we defined common phenotypic features of POGZ individuals, including variable levels of developmental delay (DD) and more severe speech and language delay in comparison to the severity of motor delay and coordination issues. We also identified significant associations with vision problems, microcephaly, hyperactivity, a tendency to obesity, and feeding difficulties. Some features might be explained by the high expression of POGZ, particularly in the cerebellum and pituitary, early in fetal brain development. We conducted parallel studies in Drosophila by inducing conditional knockdown of the POGZ ortholog row, further confirming that dosage of POGZ, specifically in neurons, is essential for normal learning in a habituation paradigm. Combined, the data underscore the pathogenicity of loss-of-function mutations in POGZ and define a POGZ-related phenotype enriched in specific features.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: De novo missense mutations and in-frame coding deletions in the X-linked gene SMC1A (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes 1A), encoding part of the cohesin complex, are known to cause Cornelia de Lange syndrome in both males and females. For a long time, loss-of-function mutations in SMC1A were considered incompatible with life, as such mutations had not been reported in neither male or female patients. However, recently we and others reported loss-of-function mutations in females with ID and epilepsy. Here we present the detailed phenotype of two females with de novo loss-of-function mutations in SMC1A, including a de novo mutation of single base deletion (c.2364del, p.(Asn788Lysfs*10)), predicted to result in a frameshift, and a de novo deletion of exon 16, resulting in an out-of-frame mRNA splice product (p.(Leu808Argfs*6)). By combining our patients with the other recently reported females carrying SMC1A loss-of-function mutations, we ascertained a phenotypic spectrum of (severe) ID, therapy resistant epilepsy, absence/delay of speech, hypotonia and small hands and feet. Our data show the existence of a novel phenotypic entity - distinct from CdLS -and caused by de novo SMC1A loss-of-function mutations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report is regarding a Dutch female with microcephaly, mild intellectual disability (ID), gonadal dysgenesis and dysmorphic facial features with synophrys. Upon genotyping, an ∼455 kb de novo deletion encompassing the first exon of NRXN1 was found. Bidirectional sequencing of the coding exons of the NRXN1 alpha isoform was subsequently performed to investigate the possibility of a pathogenic mutation on the other allele, but we could not find any other mutation. Previously, many heterozygous mutations as well as microdeletions in NRXN1 were shown to be associated with ID, autism, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric and psychotic disorders. Our results are in agreement with other reports that show that NRXN1 deletions can lead to ID, microcephaly and mild dysmorphic features. However, this is the first report of gonadal dysgenesis being associated with such deletions. It is not clear whether there is a causal relationship between the NRXN1 deletion and gonadal dysgenesis, but it is of interest that the FSHR gene, which encodes the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor causative correlation that is mutated in ovarian dysgenesis, is located proximal to the NRXN1 gene. Given that most of the females carrying NRXN1 deletions have been diagnosed at a prepubertal age, gynecologic screening of female carriers of a NRXN1 deletion is warranted.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS; OMIM #610443), also known as the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterised by (neonatal) hypotonia, developmental delay, moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial dysmorphism. Expressive language development is particularly impaired compared with receptive language or motor skills. Other frequently reported features include social and friendly behaviour, epilepsy, musculoskeletal anomalies, congenital heart defects, urogenital malformations, and ectodermal anomalies. The syndrome is caused by a truncating variant in the KAT8 regulatory NSL complex unit 1 (KANSL1) gene or by a 17q21.31 microdeletion encompassing KANSL1. Herein we describe a novel cohort of 45 individuals with KdVS of whom 33 have a 17q21.31 microdeletion and 12 a single-nucleotide variant (SNV) in KANSL1 (19 males, 26 females; age range 7 months to 50 years). We provide guidance about the potential pitfalls in the laboratory testing and emphasise the challenges of KANSL1 variant calling and DNA copy number analysis in the complex 17q21.31 region. Moreover, we present detailed phenotypic information, including neuropsychological features, that contribute to the broad phenotypic spectrum of the syndrome. Comparison of the phenotype of both the microdeletion and SNV patients does not show differences of clinical importance, stressing that haploinsufficiency of KANSL1 is sufficient to cause the full KdVS phenotype.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we report inherited dysregulation of protein phosphatase activity as a cause of intellectual disability (ID). De novo missense mutations in 2 subunits of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) were identified in 16 individuals with mild to severe ID, long-lasting hypotonia, epileptic susceptibility, frontal bossing, mild hypertelorism, and downslanting palpebral fissures. PP2A comprises catalytic (C), scaffolding (A), and regulatory (B) subunits that determine subcellular anchoring, substrate specificity, and physiological function. Ten patients had mutations within a highly conserved acidic loop of the PPP2R5D-encoded B56δ regulatory subunit, with the same E198K mutation present in 6 individuals. Five patients had mutations in the PPP2R1A-encoded scaffolding Aα subunit, with the same R182W mutation in 3 individuals. Some Aα cases presented with large ventricles, causing macrocephaly and hydrocephalus suspicion, and all cases exhibited partial or complete corpus callosum agenesis. Functional evaluation revealed that mutant A and B subunits were stable and uncoupled from phosphatase activity. Mutant B56δ was A and C binding-deficient, while mutant Aα subunits bound B56δ well but were unable to bind C or bound a catalytically impaired C, suggesting a dominant-negative effect where mutant subunits hinder dephosphorylation of B56δ-anchored substrates. Moreover, mutant subunit overexpression resulted in hyperphosphorylation of GSK3β, a B56δ-regulated substrate. This effect was in line with clinical observations, supporting a correlation between the ID degree and biochemical disturbance.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism and behavioral characteristics in adults with Dravet syndrome (DS) have rarely been systematically studied. Three scales were used to assess the outcomes of DS in adulthood in terms of autism and behavior. All the adult patients with DS, nine male and four female, aged between 18 and 60years, living at the Epilepsy Center Kempenhaeghe in The Netherlands were included in the study. In addition, the past medical history of each patient was systematically screened for diagnoses like autism, Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), hyperactivity, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and self-mutilation. Information concerning past and current use of psychoactive drugs was also evaluated. Eight patients (61.5%) were classified as having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to the AVZ-R or according to the medical record. Self-mutilation was seen in four patients (30.8%), hyperactivity in none. Three patients (23.1%) currently used psychoactive drugs. Autism spectrum disorders persist in adult patients with DS, while certain characteristics associated with behavioral problems, such as hyperactivity or use of psychoactive medication, seem to be less prominent than in childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dataset: SLC6A17 article supplementary data
Dataset: Web supplement
Dataset: Web supplement
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of SCN8A encoding the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.6 are associated with early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 13 (EIEE13) and intellectual disability. Using clinical exome sequencing, we have detected three novel de novo SCN8A mutations in patients with intellectual disabilities, and variable clinical features including seizures in two patients. To determine the causality of these SCN8A mutations in the disease of those three patients, we aimed to study the (dys)function of the mutant sodium channels. The functional consequences of the three SCN8A mutations were assessed using electrophysiological analyses in transfected cells. Genotype-phenotype correlations of these and other cases were related to the functional analyses. The first mutant displayed a 10 mV hyperpolarising shift in voltage dependence of activation (gain of function), the second did not form functional channels (loss of function), while the third mutation was functionally indistinguishable from the wildtype channel. Comparison of the clinical features of these patients with those in the literature suggests that gain-of-function mutations are associated with severe EIEE, while heterozygous loss-of-function mutations cause intellectual disability with or without seizures. These data demonstrate that functional analysis of missense mutations detected by clinical exome sequencing, both inherited and de novo, is valuable for clinical interpretation in the age of massive parallel sequencing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Dataset: Web figures
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1 A (DYRK1A) maps to the Down syndrome critical region; copy number increase of this gene is thought to have a major role in the neurocognitive deficits associated with Trisomy 21. Truncation of DYRK1A in patients with developmental delay (DD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests a different pathology associated with loss-of-function mutations. To understand the phenotypic spectrum associated with DYRK1A mutations, we resequenced the gene in 7162 ASD/DD patients (2446 previously reported) and 2169 unaffected siblings and performed a detailed phenotypic assessment on nine patients. Comparison of our data and published cases with 8696 controls identified a significant enrichment of DYRK1A truncating mutations (P=0.00851) and an excess of de novo mutations (P=2.53 × 10(-10)) among ASD/intellectual disability (ID) patients. Phenotypic comparison of all novel (n=5) and recontacted (n=3) cases with previous case reports, including larger CNV and translocation events (n=7), identified a syndromal disorder among the 15 patients. It was characterized by ID, ASD, microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, febrile seizures in infancy, impaired speech, stereotypic behavior, hypertonia and a specific facial gestalt. We conclude that mutations in DYRK1A define a syndromic form of ASD and ID with neurodevelopmental defects consistent with murine and Drosophila knockout models.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 February 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.5.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neutral amino acids and glutamate, and plays an important role in the regulation of glutamatergic synapses. Prediction programs and 3D modeling suggest that the identified mutations are deleterious to protein function. To directly test the functional consequences, we investigated the neuronal subcellular localization of overexpressed wild-type and mutant variants in mouse primary hippocampal neuronal cells. Wild-type protein was present in soma, axons, dendrites, and dendritic spines. p.Pro633Arg altered SLC6A17 was found in soma and proximal dendrites but did not reach spines. p.Gly162Arg altered SLC6A17 showed a normal subcellular distribution but was associated with an abnormal neuronal morphology mainly characterized by the loss of dendritic spines. In summary, our genetic findings implicate homozygous SLC6A17 mutations in autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, and their pathogenic role is strengthened by genetic evidence and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. During the past two decades in excess of 100 X-chromosome ID genes have been identified. Yet, a large number of families mapping to the X-chromosome remained unresolved suggesting that more XLID genes or loci are yet to be identified. Here, we have investigated 405 unresolved families with XLID. We employed massively parallel sequencing of all X-chromosome exons in the index males. The majority of these males were previously tested negative for copy number variations and for mutations in a subset of known XLID genes by Sanger sequencing. In total, 745 X-chromosomal genes were screened. After stringent filtering, a total of 1297 non-recurrent exonic variants remained for prioritization. Co-segregation analysis of potential clinically relevant changes revealed that 80 families (20%) carried pathogenic variants in established XLID genes. In 19 families, we detected likely causative protein truncating and missense variants in 7 novel and validated XLID genes (CLCN4, CNKSR2, FRMPD4, KLHL15, LAS1L, RLIM and USP27X) and potentially deleterious variants in 2 novel candidate XLID genes (CDK16 and TAF1). We show that the CLCN4 and CNKSR2 variants impair protein functions as indicated by electrophysiological studies and altered differentiation of cultured primary neurons from Clcn4-/- mice or after mRNA knock-down. The newly identified and candidate XLID proteins belong to pathways and networks with established roles in cognitive function and intellectual disability in particular. We suggest that systematic sequencing of all X-chromosomal genes in a cohort of patients with genetic evidence for X-chromosome locus involvement may resolve up to 58% of Fragile X-negative cases.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 3 February 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.193.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function variants in ANKRD11 were identified as the cause of KBG syndrome, an autosomal dominant syndrome with specific dental, neurobehavioural, craniofacial and skeletal anomalies. We present the largest cohort of KBG syndrome cases confirmed by ANKRD11 variants reported so far, consisting of 20 patients from 13 families. Sixteen patients were molecularly diagnosed by Sanger sequencing of ANKRD11, one familial case and three sporadic patients were diagnosed through whole-exome sequencing and one patient was identified through genomewide array analysis. All patients were evaluated by a clinical geneticist. Detailed orofacial phenotyping, including orthodontic evaluation, intra-oral photographs and orthopantomograms, was performed in 10 patients and revealed besides the hallmark feature of macrodontia of central upper incisors, several additional dental anomalies as oligodontia, talon cusps and macrodontia of other teeth. Three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry was performed in 14 patients and 3D analysis of patients compared with controls showed consistent facial dysmorphisms comprising a bulbous nasal tip, upturned nose with a broad base and a round or triangular face. Many patients exhibited neurobehavioural problems, such as autism spectrum disorder or hyperactivity. One-third of patients presented with (conductive) hearing loss. Congenital heart defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency and hip anomalies were less frequent. On the basis of our observations, we recommend cardiac assessment in children and regular hearing tests in all individuals with a molecular diagnosis of KBG syndrome. As ANKRD11 is a relatively common gene in which sequence variants have been identified in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, it seems an important contributor to the aetiology of both sporadic and familial cases.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 26 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.253.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: - Until recently, the cause of intellectual disability remained unknown in at least 50% of affected people.- The various causes require diverse healthcare needs. Knowing the cause enables specific anticipation on these.- Severe intellectual disability (IQ < 50) usually has a genetic cause. The majority can be explained by de novogene mutations and chromosomal aberrations.- In recent years, rapid advances in genetic diagnostics have provided great new opportunities. The introduction of array analysis has allowed the genome-wide detection of chromosomal aberrations. Until recently, the detection of monogenic causes of intellectual disability was highly dependent on the recognisability of the phenotype and specific DNA diagnostic testing of single genes. The introduction of exome sequencing enables testing of all genes simultaneously in a single test.- It is expected that exome sequencing will be followed up by genome sequencing in the near future, and this will become the first tier diagnostic test. Detection of chromosomal aberrations is also possible with this technique.- These developments may lead to a significant increase in the percentage of explained intellectual disability, from 50% in the past to 80%.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microdeletions of the 5q11.2 region are rare; in literature only two patients with a deletion in this region have been reported so far. In this study, we describe four additional patients and further define this new 5q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. A comparison of the features observed in all six patients with overlapping 5q11.2 deletions showed a phenotypic spectrum that overlaps with CHARGE syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome including choanal atresia, developmental delay, heart defects, external ear abnormalities, and short stature. No colobomas or abnormalities of semicircular canals and olfactory nerves were reported. Two male patients had genital abnormalities. We estimated a 2.0 Mb (53.0–55.0 Mb) Shortest Region of Overlap (SRO) for the main clinical characteristics of the syndrome. This region contains nine genes and two non-coding microRNAs. In this region DHX29 serves as the candidate gene as it encodes an ATP-dependent RNA-helicase that is involved in the initiation of RNA translation. Screening a small cohort of 14 patients who presented the main features, however, did not reveal any pathogenic abnormalities of DHX29. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
- Department of Human Genetics