[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significant interobserver variability in the diagnostic interpretation of endoscopic gastrointestinal (GI) specimens exists even with the use of World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) standardization criteria. Chi-square analyses compared the extent of pathologists' agreement for microarchitectural features of inflammation in endoscopic specimens obtained from 253 animals of the original WSAVA study. Patterns of agreement between pathologists were classified as broad (3/4 pathologists agreed), dichotomous (2/4 pathologists agreed), or divergent (no agreement between pathologists). The simplified model for GI inflammation was based on those parameters for which the pathologists had either broad or minimally divergent opinions of histopathologic significance. In this model, the parameters chosen were as follows: gastric parameters (intraepithelial lymphocytes [IELs], lamina propria [LP] infiltrates, and mucosal fibrosis), duodenal parameters (villus atrophy, epithelial injury, IELs, crypt changes, and LP infiltrates), and colonic parameters (epithelial injury, crypt dilation, fibrosis, LP infiltrates, and goblet cell depletion). Preliminary data using this simplified model showed excellent correlation between pathologists in defining the presence and extent of GI inflammation in dogs.
Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Veterinary Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited data exist regarding influence of endoscopic forceps on duodenal mucosal biopsy quality and adequacy for histologic examination/assessment in dogs.
Hypothesizing that larger forceps would procure superior specimens, we evaluated effect of 6 disposable forceps on duodenal biopsy weight, depth, crush artifact, and adequacy for histologic examination/assessment.
Seventeen healthy adult dogs.
Prospective study. Two operators each obtained 4 duodenal specimens from each dog with each forceps. Lightest sample discarded. One pathologist evaluated blindly other 3 specimens. A total of 612 specimens evaluated. Results analyzed by one-way ANOVA of forceps effects with dog as blocking factor. Posthoc pairwise comparisons examined with Tukey's test when indicated.
Biopsies performed with large capacity forceps heavier (10.56 ± 0.90 and 11.6 ± 0.62 mg (mean ± SD) versus 5.55 ± 0.53 to 8.61 ± 0.49; P < .0001) and adequacy for histologic examination/assessment superior to standard oval and ‘pediatric’ (scores 2.52 ± 0.41 and 2.58 ± 0.37 versus 2.08 ± 0.33 and 2.14 ± 0.29; P < .0001). No statistically significant difference in depth scores. Large capacity forceps with spike associated with less crush artifact than all smaller forceps (scores 1.19 ± 0.16 versus 1.38 ± 0.21 to 1.52 ± 0.21; P < .0001). In same size forceps, presence of spike had no effect on crush artifact and adequacy for histologic examination/assessment (P < .0001).
Large capacity forceps are superior, providing higher quality and greater numbers of samples achieving adequacy for histologic examination/assessment. Choice of endoscopic biopsy forceps for duodenal samples influences sample volume and diagnostic utility.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The schistosome Heterobilharzia americana infects dogs, raccoons, and other mammals in the southeastern United States. Migration of eggs into the liver results in parasitic granulomas with varying degrees of fibrosis and inflammation. Recently, hepatic parasitic granulomas in horses were shown to be caused by H. americana infection. In the present study, samples of liver from 11 of 12 horses with hepatic granulomas identified at necropsy (n = 11) or surgical biopsy (n = 1) were used for DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing using primers specific for a portion of the H. americana small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. A polymerase chain reaction amplicon of the correct size was produced from the extracted DNA in 8 of the 11 horses. Amplicons from 5 of the 8 positive horses were sequenced and had 100% identity with H. americana. In all but 2 of the 12 horses, Heterobilharzia was not responsible for the primary clinical disease, and the hepatic granulomas were considered an incidental finding.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Veterinary Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic duodenal biopsies are relatively convenient, minimally invasive tests for infiltrative intestinal disorders of cats. Ileal endoscopic biopsies might not be performed because of technical difficulty and effort required to prepare the colon. It is not known whether or not histopathology of feline duodenal and ileal biopsies for detection of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and small cell lymphoma (SC-LSA) provides comparable results.
To evaluate the agreement between endoscopic biopsies of duodenum and ileum in cats with IBD and SC-LSA.
Seventy client-owned cats with gastrointestinal disease and adequate duodenal and ileal tissue biopsies obtained endoscopically.
Retrospective study: Search of medical records of cats with enteropathy and endoscopy. Samples were blinded and re-evaluated by single pathologist (JM) for quality, number of biopsies, and diagnosis according to WSAVA standards. Agreement of IBD and SC-LSA diagnoses among biopsy sites assessed using Cohen's Kappa.
Eighteen of 70 cats (26%) were diagnosed with SC-LSA in duodenum, ileum, or both. Of these 18 cats, 7 (39%) were diagnosed with only duodenal SC-LSA, 8 (44%) were diagnosed with only ileal SC-LSA, and 3 (17%) had SC-LSA in both duodenum and ileum. There was poor agreement on diagnosis between duodenal and ileal biopsies (kappa = 0.23).
Although review by a single pathologist remains a limitation of this study, results suggest that there is a population of cats in which diagnosis of SC-LSA can be found only by evaluation of ileal biopsies. Clinicians should consider performing both upper and lower GI endoscopic biopsies in cats with infiltrative small bowel disease.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemangiosarcomas (HSAs) are malignant tumours of endothelial cell origin. Epithelioid HSA is a variant of the histologically conventional HSA that has little or no morphological evidence of a vascular origin and has been reported rarely in domestic animals. The following report documents six cases of equine epithelioid HSA occurring in the ocular tissues of horses with a mean age of 19.8 years at the time of diagnosis. Microscopically, all of the lesions consisted of solid sheets or cords of epithelioid cells with rare narrow clefts or small spaces containing erythrocytes that were often the only feature indicating a vascular origin. On immunohistochemistry, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, CD31 and factor VIII-related antigen, but not cytokeratin, indicating an endothelial nature.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of comparative pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycotic meningoencephalitis in dogs may manifest as a primary disease of the central nervous system or as a part of disseminated infection. Fungi belonging to the genus Bipolaris are saprophytic plant pathogens and can cause disease in humans. The authors report a case of Bipolaris infection in a dog with granulomatous meningoencephalitis, nephritis, and vasculitis. The clinical and histological features resembled those of the more common aspergillosis, thus warranting confirmation by molecular methods. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis identified Bipolaris from the brain lesion, indicating its involvement in the disease. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of meningoencephalitis caused by this fungus in a domestic animal.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Veterinary Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 6-year-old castrated male ferret presented with multiple black and tan proliferative skin lesions. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by multifocal plaques of irregular epidermal hyperplasia and full-thickness dysplasia, with loss of normal epithelial stratification, loss of nuclear polarity, and rare eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the superficial layers of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody against papillomaviruses was strongly immunoreactive. Ultrastructurally, large numbers of hexagonal viral particles approximately 50 nm were observed within the nuclei of dysplastic superficial keratinocytes. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a ferret multicentric squamous cell carcinoma in situ associated with papillomavirus.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Veterinary Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior studies failed to detect significant association between hypoalbuminemia and small intestinal lesions.
Use of pictorial templates will enhance consistency of interpathologist interpretation and identification of intestinal lesions associated with hypoalbuminemia.
Tissues from 62 dogs and 25 cats examined as clinical cases at 7 referral veterinary practices in 4 countries.
Retrospective, observational study. Histopathology slides from sequential cases undergoing endoscopic biopsy were examined by 4 pathologists by pictorial templates. Changes for 9 microscopic features were recorded as normal, mild, moderate or severe, and 2- and 4-point scales were tested for consistency of interpretation. Logistic regression models determined odds ratios (OR) of histologic lesions being associated with hypoalbuminemia while kappa statistics determined agreement between pathologists on histologic lesions.
There was poor agreement (kappa = -0.013 to 0.3) between pathologists, and institution of origin of slides had effect (kappa = 1.0 for 3 of 4 lesions on slides from Institution 5) on agreement between pathologists on selected histologic features. Using 2 point as opposed to 4-point grading scale increased agreement between pathologists (maximum kappa = 0.69 using 4-point scale versus maximum kappa = 1.0 using 2-point scale). Significant association (P = .019- .04; 95% OR = 3.14-10.84) between lacteal dilation and hypoalbuminemia was found by 3 pathologists.
Substantial inconsistency between pathologists remains despite use of pictorial template because of differences in slide processing. Distinguishing between mild and moderate lesions might be important source of the disagreement among pathologists.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quality of histopathology slides of endoscopic biopsies from different laboratories varies, but the effect of biopsy quality on outcome is unknown.
The ability to demonstrate a histologic lesion in the stomach or duodenum of a dog or cat is affected by the quality of endoscopic biopsy samples submitted. More endoscopic samples are needed to find a lesion in poor-quality tissue specimens.
Tissues from 99 dogs and 51 cats were examined as clinical cases at 8 veterinary institutions or practices in 5 countries.
Histopathology slides from sequential cases that underwent endoscopic biopsy were submitted by participating institutions. Quality of the histologic section of tissue (inadequate, marginal, adequate), type of lesion (lymphangiectasia, crypt lesion, villus blunting, cellular infiltrate), and severity of lesion (normal, mild, moderate, severe) were determined. Sensitivity of different quality tissue samples for finding different lesions was determined.
Fewer samples were required from dogs for diagnosis as the quality of the sample improved from inadequate to marginal to adequate. Duodenal lesions in cats displayed the same trend except for moderate duodenal infiltrates for which quality of tissue sample made no difference. Gastric lesions in dogs and mild gastric lesions in cats had the same trend, whereas the number of tissue samples needed to diagnose moderately severe gastric lesions in cats was not affected by the quality of tissue sample.
The quality of endoscopically obtained tissue samples has a profound effect on their sensitivity for identifying certain lesions, and there are differences between biopsies of canine and feline tissues.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The characterization of inflammatory change in endoscopic biopsy samples of the gastrointestinal mucosa is an increasingly important component in the diagnosis and management of canine and feline gastrointestinal disease. Interpretation has hitherto been limited by the lack of standard criteria that define morphological and inflammatory features, and the absence of such standardization has made it difficult, if not impossible, to compare results of retrospective or prospective studies. The World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Gastrointestinal Standardization Group was established, in part, to develop endoscopic and microscopical standards in small animal gastroenterology. This monograph presents a standardized pictorial and textual template of the major histopathological changes that occur in inflammatory disease of the canine and feline gastric body, gastric antrum, duodenum and colon. Additionally, a series of standard histopathological reporting forms is proposed, to encourage evaluation of biopsy samples in a systematic fashion. The Standardization Group believes that the international acceptance of these standard templates will advance the study of gastrointestinal disease in individual small companion animals as well as investigations that compare populations of animals.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Comparative Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human and equine athletes are reported to have a high prevalence of gastric disease, and anecdotal evidence suggests a similar phenomenon applies to racing sled dogs. To investigate the prevalence of gastric disease in racing sled dogs, we conducted 2 gastroscopy studies on dogs competing in the annual Iditarod Sled Dog Race. A pilot study of dogs that were either dropped from the 2000 Iditarod Sled Dog Race because of illness or that finished the race indicated that, approximately 5 days after competing, 10 of 28 dogs (35%) had endoscopic evidence of gastric ulceration, erosion, or hemorrhage. The next year, an endoscopic study of 73 dogs participating in the 2001 Iditarod race was performed in order to evaluate a larger population of dogs. Data from 70 of these dogs could be used; 34 (48.5%) had ulceration, erosion, gastric hemorrhage, or some combination of these findings. When this group of 70 dogs was compared retrospectively to a control group of 87 dogs presented to the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, the Iditarod sled dogs had a significantly higher prevalence (P = .049) of gastric lesions. These findings suggest that, similar to athletes of other species, elite canine athletes have an increased prevalence of gastric disease compared to the canine population at large.
No preview · Article · May 2003 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human and equine athletes are reported to have a high prevalence of gastric disease, and anecdotal evidence suggests a similar phenomenon applies to racing sled dogs. To investigate the prevalence of gastric disease in racing sled dogs, we conducted 2 gastroscopy studies on dogs competing in the annual Iditarod Sled Dog Race. A pilot study of dogs that were either dropped from the 2000 Iditarod Sled Dog Race because of illness or that finished the race indicated that, approximately 5 days after competing, 10 of 28 dogs (35%) had endoscopic evidence of gastric ulceration, erosion, or hemorrhage. The next year, an endoscopic study of 73 dogs participating in the 2001 Iditarod race was performed in order to evaluate a larger population of dogs. Data from 70 of these dogs could be used; 34 (48.5%) had ulceration, erosion, gastric hemorrhage, or some combination of these findings. When this group of 70 dogs was compared retrospectively to a control group of 87 dogs presented to the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, the Iditarod sled dogs had a significantly higher prevalence (P= .049) of gastric lesions. These findings suggest that, similar to athletes of other species, elite canine athletes have an increased prevalence of gastric disease compared to the canine population at large.
No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine