[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vascular actions of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) are of particular relevance for fully understanding rhEPO effects. This study examines the mechanisms of action of rhEPO on endothelial cells from bovine aorta (BAEC). First, the studies demonstrated that rhEPO acts on BAEC proliferation as a comitogenic growth factor in the presence of fetal calf serum (FCS). The main experimental findings disclosed that an interaction between rhEPO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is instrumental for the growth-promoting action of rhEPO, as shown by the blockade (92.8+/-2.2% inhibition, P < 0.01) of the rhEPO-induced BAEC proliferation by a specific anti-VEGF antibody and by the capability of VEGF for substituting FCS in the induction of rhEPO-related BAEC proliferation (increase in BAEC number in the absence of FCS: 20 U/ml rhEPO alone, 0.3+/-2.8%; 5 x 10(-11) M VEGF alone, 52.9+/-3.1%; 20 U/ml rhEPO + 5 X 10(-11) M VEGF, 117.8+/-6.9%, P < 0.01 between the two agents combined with respect to each agent alone). The existence of a positive interaction between rhEPO and VEGF was further demonstrated by observing an increased cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) mobilization response to VEGF (10(-11)M) in BAEC pretreated or not with 20 U/ml rhEPO (delta[Ca2+]i = 704+/-111 versus 246+/-36 nM, respectively, P < 0.01). To further examine the mechanism of the potentiation of VEGF effect by rhEPO, we analyzed the mRNA expression of the VEGF receptors KDR/flk-1 and flt-1. The results disclosed that BAEC pretreatment with rhEPO upregulated the expression of both KDR/flk-1 and flt-1, therefore providing a structural basis for the aforementioned positive interactions between VEGF and rhEPO. Furthermore, inhibition by genistein suggests that tyrosine phosphorylation was involved in the VEGF receptor upregulation. The mechanisms identified in the present study disclose an interaction at the level of mRNA expression and functional effects between a hormone with predominantly hemopoietic effects, namely, erythropoietin, and an angiogenic factor, namely, VEGF. This relationship between rhEPO and VEGF might be of particular importance in neovascularization processes and in patients receiving rhEPO as a treatment.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1998 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell (EC)-released agents are active regulators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functions. The first aim of the present work was to analyze the effect of ECs on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-induced NO production by SMCs. Bovine aortic ECs (BAECs) and BVSMCs in culture were used for the study. IL-1 beta (0.03 U/L) stimulated nitrite production by BVSMCs. This increase was smaller in the presence of BAECs. This effect was accompanied by reduced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in BVSMCs coincubated with BAECs, as analyzed by Western blot analysis. The reduction in iNOS protein expression was partially reversed by a polyclonal antibody against transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Furthermore, we examined the cytotoxic effect of the NO released from BVSMCs on both BAECs and the BVSMCs themselves. Incubation of BAECs with IL-1 beta-prestimulated BVSMCs induced EC toxicity, which was partially inhibited by an inhibitor of NO synthesis, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or an inhibitor of iNOS expression, dexamethasone. No cytotoxic effect of IL-1 beta on BVSMCs themselves was detected. ECs modulate iNOS expression in SMCs by mechanisms that include a TGF-beta-dependent pathway. The NO released from SMCs exerts cytotoxic effects on the adjacent endothelium without altering the viability of the SMCs.
No preview · Article · Nov 1996 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent studies, it has been hypothesized that the protective anti-ischemic effects of aspirin outweigh the effects of inhibition of platelet thromboxane A2 synthesis. Recently, we have found that the antiaggregating effects of aspirin significantly affect nitric oxide (NO) generation by neutrophils.
The present study used circulating neutrophils from myocardial ischemic rabbits to assess the effect of aspirin on the circulating neutrophil-derived NO production and, subsequently, on the modulation of platelet activation. Neutrophils were obtained after 60 minutes of coronary artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Sham-operated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrated that aspirin stimulated the production of NO by neutrophils obtained from both sham-operated rabbits and rabbits with myocardial ischemia. However, neutrophils isolated from animals with myocardial ischemia showed an enhanced ability to generate NO in the presence of aspirin. As a functional in vitro marker, we observed that neutrophils had a NO-dependent, platelet-antiactivating effect in the presence of aspirin. In the absence of aspirin, ischemic neutrophils did not modify platelet activation, even though they produced increased amounts of NO. An inhibitory role of superoxide anion on the neutrophil-related antiplatelet effect was suggested because superoxide dismutase induced significant platelet inhibition by myocardial ischemic neutrophils in the absence of aspirin.
Our results show that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion stimulates production of NO by circulating neutrophils, an effect that was enhanced in the presence of aspirin. These results suggest a novel interpretation of the protective effect of aspirin on myocardial ischemia damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanisms on erythrocyte properties, we exposed red cells to L-arginine competitive analogues, 8Br-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8Br-cGMP) and neutrophil-eliminating filters. These treatments significantly decreased hypotonic hemolysis, increased potassium efflux and caused a spiculate change in erythrocyte morphology. These effects were related to a decrease of NO caused by the three types of treatments.
No preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present paper was to study the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on the sustained contraction phase of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Specifically, the potential role of ANP on the Na+/H+ antiporter and Na+ transport systems was investigated. Both ANP and 8-bromo cGMP inhibited 22Na+ uptake and decreased intracellular Na ([Na+]i) in VSMC, an effect that was mimicked by the specific Na+/H+ antiporter inhibitor, hexamethylen amiloride (HMA). The effect of ANP was not additive with HMA, therefore suggesting that both inhibit the same 22Na+ transport pathway. On the other hand, the inhibition of 22Na+ accumulation by ANP was additive with the inhibition by furosemide or bumetanide, thus suggesting that both drugs act on different Na+ exchange systems. In HEPES-buffered medium, ANP, cGMP, and HMA significantly inhibited the AVP-induced intracellular alkalinization, an effect which was associated with significant inhibition of the AVP-induced shape change. In bicarbonate buffered medium, ANP and cGMP decreased the pH level below the baseline after application of AVP, and an inhibition by ANP and cGMP of AVP-induced VSMC shape change was also observed. The recovery of cellular pH after three different types of acid load, namely, ammonium chloride pulse, nigericin clamp and lowering of extracellular pH, was significantly decreased by ANP and cGMP. Taken together, these results indicate that ANP/cGMP inhibit the activity of the Na+/H+ antiporter in VSMC, either in hormone- or pH-stimulated conditions.
No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on recent evidence showing that endothelin-1 stimulates several activation mechanisms on neutrophils, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of endothelin-1 on neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells and neutrophil accumulation in the heart.
The experiments included (1) adhesion of 51Cr-labeled human neutrophils to bovine endothelial cells in culture both in the presence and absence of monoclonal antibodies against the alpha- and beta-subunits of integrins; (2) surface expression of the alpha- and beta-integrin antigens; (3) accumulation of 51Cr-labeled neutrophils on the isolated perfused rabbit heart; (4) in vivo accumulation of autologous neutrophils in the heart, as assessed by myeloperoxidase activity. Endothelin-1 stimulated neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells (increase of 1 x 10(5) +/- 1 x 10(4) neutrophils per well). The endothelin-1-induced adhesion was blocked (83 +/- 6%) by the anti-CD18 antibody TS1/18 and by several anti-alpha-subunit antibodies. The expression of CD18 and CD11b on the neutrophil surface was also increased by endothelin-1. Endothelin-1 enhanced neutrophil accumulation in the isolated rabbit heart by 4.2 times throughout a TS1/18-inhibitable mechanism. Myeloperoxidase activity increased by 4.2 times in hearts infused in vivo with endothelin-1.
Endothelin-1 stimulates neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells by an effect on the expression of adhesive molecules on the neutrophil surface. Endothelin-1 stimulates neutrophil accumulation in vivo and in vitro in the heart. Antibodies against the integrin complex block the endothelin-1-dependent neutrophil adhesion. These findings have potential importance in the pathophysiology of endothelin-1-increased states.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent data [Lopéz-Farré, Riesco, Moliz, Egido, Casado, Hernando and Caramelo (1991) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 178, 884-891] revealed that endothelin 1 (ET-1) increases intracellular free [Ca2+] in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) by a mechanism that can be inhibited by L-arginine. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanisms of the interaction between the effects of ET-1 and L-arginine in human PMN. The experimental findings showed that in human PMN: (a) ET-1 and the chemoattractant peptide N-formylmethionyl- leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) induce both the metabolism of L-arginine to L-citrulline and cyclic GMP (cGMP) formation; (b) the ET-1-induced cGMP production is inhibitable by the L-arginine antagonist NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, therefore suggesting the involvement of NO; (c) the ET-1- or fMLP-induced NO/cGMP stimulation is critically dependent on the availability of L-arginine; (d) human PMN possess a L-arginine transport system with both Na(+)-dependent and -independent components; (e) the L-arginine transport system in PMN appears to be feedback-regulated by NO/cGMP in ET-1-stimulated conditions, but not under baseline conditions; (f) the L-arginine transport system in PMN is independent of the gamma-glutamyl cycle and is not modified by either ET-1 or fMLP. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP-dependent mechanisms characterized in the present study may be relevant in the regulation of PMN activation in pathophysiological conditions in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of the major immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporin A (CyA), on endothelial function. Conscious Wistar rats, treated with CyA (25 mg.kg-1 x day-1 im for 15 days), developed an inhibition of the endothelium-dependent acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated vasodilation, diuresis, natriuresis, and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate excretion. The response to two endothelium-independent agents, i.e., sodium nitroprusside and atrial natriuretic peptide was preserved in similarly treated rats. The toxic effects of CyA were acutely overcome by the administration of the amino acid L-arginine (L-Arg), a source of substrate for nitric oxide. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of L-Arg (200 mg/kg ip for 15 days) significantly prevented the functional effects of CyA toxicity. The present data suggest that, in early stages of CyA toxicity, the predominant functional alteration occurs at the endothelial level. The reversibility of such alteration by L-Arg opens the possibility for further strategies aimed to reduce the harmful effects of CyA.
No preview · Article · Apr 1993 · The American journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the mechanisms of the renal effect of the NO-donor aminoacid, L-Arg and different non-NO-donor aminoacids, namely L-Asn, L-Ala, L-Gly L-Gln administered separately. In conscious, unrestricted Wistar rats, a bolus of L-Arg produced a short-lasting decrease in mean arterial pressure. No variations in mean arterial pressure were found with either L-Gly, L-Asn, L-Ala or L-Gln. This effect of L-Arg was inhibited by NwNLA, methylene blue and atropine and not affected by meclofenamate. Simultaneously, a dose-response diuretic and natriuretic effect was observed with all the aminoacids. In further experiments with L-Arg and L-Gly, this effect was associated with increased glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, fractional sodium and free water excretion and urinary cyclic guanosine monophosphate. These effects of L-Arg and L-Gly were inhibited by NwNLA. On the contrary, no inhibition by NwNLA was detected on the diuretic, natriuretic and renal hemodynamic effects of L-Gln, and the diuretic and natriuretic effects of L-Asn or L-Ala. Our results show that all the assayed aminoacids were endowed of diuretic and natriuretic capabilities. Such effects were apparently related with a NO-mediated mechanism in the case of L-Arg and L-Gly, but not in the case of L-Gln, L-Asn or L-Ala, therefore suggesting that more than one mechanism is involved in the renal effect of the different aminoacids. Simultaneously, only L-Arg produced a NO-, cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent hypotensive effect, which was not shared by the other assayed aminoacids.
No preview · Article · Jan 1993 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which endothelin-1 (ET-1) acts on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are insufficiently known. In this study, we assessed the hypotheses that ET-1 is a PMN-aggregating agent, and that platelet-activating factor (PAF) is the principal mediator of ET-1-induced PMN aggregation. ET-1 induced dose-related PMN aggregation, which started 1 min after ET-1 exposure. Two different specific PAF receptor antagonists blocked the effect of ET-1 on PMN aggregation. In addition, ET-1 induced a significant increase in the production of PAF by PMN after 2 to 5 min of ET-1 incubation. ET-1 induced PAF release from PMN rather than accumulation. This PAF production was dependent on intra- and extracellular Ca2+. In this regard, the PAF receptor antagonists significantly blunted the ET-1-induced peak in cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Our results, therefore, indicate that ET-1 is effective in causing aggregation of human PMN and that its action appears to be mediated by PAF production via a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism.
No preview · Article · Jan 1993 · European Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of agents stimulating the production of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) by different mechanisms was compared in conscious unrestrained Wistar rats by administration of infusions of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). ACh (10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, n = 8), SNP (200 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, n = 8), and ANP (0.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, n = 7) induced natriuresis (urinary Na gradient: 399, 499, and 504 microeq/h, respectively; P less than 0.001 with respect to baseline) and diuresis (urine volume gradient: 0.87, 0.82, and 0.92 ml/h, respectively; P less than 0.001). Urinary cGMP increased (P less than 0.001) with the three agents (delta pmol cGMP/min: ACh 22.3, SNP 42.5, and ANP 48.4); in addition, a parallel increase in renal cGMP content was observed with the three agents (ACh 1.6, SNP 2.8, and ANP 3.5 times with respect to controls; P less than 0.05). Mean arterial pressure did not change with the aforementioned dose of ANP but decreased by 10 and 40% with ACh and SNP, respectively. Glomerular filtration rate increased by a similar magnitude with the three compounds. The competitive inhibitor of L-arginine, N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), significantly decreased the diuretic, natriuretic, and hypotensive effects of ACh without affecting the actions of SNP and ANP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
No preview · Article · Nov 1991 · The American journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of endothelin (ET) on the cytosolic-free calcium [(Ca2+]i) changes in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from normal humans and Wistar rats was investigated. ET induced a dose-related [Ca2+]i peak. This [Ca2+]i transient was blunted by TMB-8 (10(-5)M) and by Ca(2+)-free EGTA medium, therefore suggesting a role of both intracellular Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx in the generation of the [Ca2+]i peak. Preincubation of PMN with the nitric oxide (NO)-donor L-arginine (L-Arg) markedly blocked the ET-induced [Ca2+]i transient in an enantiomerically-specific manner. A similar blunting effect of L-Arg on the fMLP (10(-7)M)-induced [Ca2+]i transient was detected. The L-Arg antagonist, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), reverted the L-Arg blocking effect on both ET- and fMLP-induced [Ca2+]i transients. These data suggest that ET has a potential role in activating Ca2+ mobilization in PMN, an effect that can be inhibited by L-Arg.
No preview · Article · Sep 1991 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications