[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The detection of adenomatous lesions is a major indicator for quality and competence in colonoscopy. Little is known about adenoma detection rates (ADR) of endoscopy trainees. The aim of our study was to investigate the performance of trainee colonoscopists in detecting adenomas and to depict the shape of adenoma detection learning curves during apprenticeship.
We retrospectively investigated a prospectively maintained database of a single tertiary referral center to reveal colonoscopies performed by trainee endoscopists during 2001 and 2013. Colonoscopy reports were chronologically retrieved and separately analyzed for each trainee. Using cumulative curves, courses of trainee's Adenoma detection rates (ADR) during apprenticeship were displayed. Additionally, procedural data including cecal intubation rate and occurrence of complications were assessed.
We retrospectively analyzed 4354 colonoscopies conducted by 10 trainee endoscopists (TE). A median number of 371 investigations were performed by each apprentice. Group ADR was 23%. No significant difference between aggregated ADRs at the beginning (23%) and at the end (22%) of apprenticeship could be determined (p = 0.70). However, individual learning curves showed considerable different slopes. Personal ADR values ranged between 17% and 31%. Overall cecum intubation rate was 99.0 %. Complication rates were low and fulfilled quality requirements recommended in guidelines.
From the beginning of education, trainee colonoscopists are capable to provide high-quality investigations considering the detection of adenomas as a benchmark quality indicator. Nevertheless, performance differs markedly between investigators. Therefore, individual detection rates should be reviewed regularly to reveal further need for training.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Medical Education
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and study aims: This was to determine whether intervention based on additional capnographic monitoring reduces the incidence of hypoxemia during midazolam and propofol sedation for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods: Patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] I - IV) scheduled for ERCP under midazolam and propofol sedation were randomly assigned to a control arm with standard monitoring or an interventional arm with additional capnographic monitoring. In both arms detection of apnea prompted withholding of propofol administration, stimulation of the patient, insertion of a nasopharyngeal tube, or further measures. The primary study end point was incidence of hypoxemia (oxygen saturation [Sao 2] below 90 %); secondary end points included occurrences of severe hypoxemia (Sao 2 ≤ 85 %), bradycardia, and hypotension, and sedation quality (patient cooperation and satisfaction). Results: 242 patients were enrolled at three German endoscopy centers. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant reduction in hypoxemia incidence in the capnography arm compared with the standard arm (38.0 % vs. 44.4 %, P = 0.314). Apnea was more frequently detected in the capnography arm (64.5 % vs. 6.0 %, P < 0.001). There were no differences regarding rates of bradycardia and hypotension. Per-protocol analysis showed lower incidence of hypoxemia in the capnography arm compared with the standard arm (31.5 % vs. 44.8 %, P = 0.048). There was one death related to sedation in the standard arm. Sedation quality was similar in the two groups. Conclusion: Intention-to-treat analysis showed hypoxemia incidence was not significantly lower in the additional capnography arm compared with standard monitoring. Additional capnographic monitoring of ventilatory activity resulted in improved detection of apnea. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01072474.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The purpose of this clinical study was to assess the prevalence of acidic oral mucosal lesions and periodontal conditions in patients suffering from erosive esophageal reflux disease (ERD) compared with non erosive esophageal reflux disease (NERD) patients, both treated with long term proton pump inhibitors (PPI).
Seventy-one patients with diagnosed GERD were studied: i.e. 29 ERD and 42 NERD patients. Thorough visual examination of the oral mucosa and a periodontal evaluation was performed. The primary outcome was defined as a statistically significant difference, between the two groups, in the presence of acidic lesions of the oral mucosa and specific periodontal parameters.
This study failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences between ERD and NERD patients with respect to the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions. However, significantly more ERD patients suffered from severe periodontitis (CAL ≥ 5 mm) as compared to NERD patients. Accordingly, it may be assumed that PPI-use had no adverse effects on the prevalence of acidic oral mucosal lesions and on periodontal destruction.
Within the limitations of this study it may be concluded that ERD and NERD patients need separate evaluation with respect to periodontal destruction. Moreover, long term PPI medication had no adverse clinical impact on acidic oral mucosal lesions and periodontal destruction. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of reflux in the periodontal destruction of ERD individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the full range of benefits and adverse consequences of Helicobacter pylori eradication as a strategy for gastric cancer prevention, the community-based intervention trial was launched in Linqu County, China.
A total of 184 786 residents aged 25-54 years were enrolled in this trial and received (13)C-urea breath test. H. pylori positive participants were assigned into two groups, either receiving a 10-day quadruple anti-H. pylori treatment or lookalike placebos together with a single dosage of omeprazole and bismuth.
The prevalence of H. pylori in trial participants was 57.6%. A total of 94 101 subjects completed the treatment. The overall H. pylori eradication rate was 72.9% in the active group. Gender, body mass index, history of stomach disease, baseline delta over baseline-value of (13)C-urea breath test, missed medication doses, smoking and drinking were independent predictors of eradication failure. The missed doses and high baseline delta over baseline-value were important contributors in men and women (all Ptrend<0.001). However, a dose-response relationship between failure rate and smoking or drinking index was found in men (all Ptrend<0.001), while high body mass index (Ptrend<0.001) and history of stomach disease were significant predictors in women. The treatment failure rate increased up to 48.8% (OR 2.87, 95% CI 2.24 to 3.68) in men and 39.4% (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.61 to 4.42) in women with multiple factors combined.
This large community-based intervention trial to eradicate H. pylori is feasible and acceptable. The findings of this trial lead to a distinct evaluation of factors influencing eradication that should be generally considered for future eradication therapies.
ChiCTR-TRC-10000979 in accordance with WHO ICTRP requirements.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether sodium picosulfate and magnesium citrate (PMC) is superior to a polyethylene glycol (PEG) preparation in regard to patient acceptance. Furthermore, to investigate possible differences in efficiency and patient safety.
In a randomized, prospective and endoscopist-blinded study patients were 1:1 randomized to either use PMC or 4L PEG in order to prepare for colonoscopy. Cleansing regimes consisted of a split dose administration in the PEG arm and standard administration in the PMC arm. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients evaluating the bowel preparation procedure as "very distressing", defined as ≥ 8 points on a 10- points numeric rating scale (NRS). Secondary endpoints were quality of bowel preparation and electrolyte parameters.
PMC bowel cleansing procedure was better tolerated compared to PEG (PMC(NRS<8) = 89.9% vs. PEG(NRS<8) = 79.2%, P = 0.037). Mean declines in serum sodium (ΔSodium(PEG) = -0.76 ± 3.07 vs. ΔSodium(PMC) = -3.38 ± 3.56 mmol/l; P < 0.001), chloride (ΔChloride(PEG) = -1.00 ± 3.22 vs. ΔChloride(PMC) = -3.49 ± 3.51 mmol/l; P < 0.001) and osmolality (ΔOsmolality(PEG) = -4.23 ± 6.82 vs. ΔOsmolality(PMC) = -8.83 ± 7.43 mosmol/kg; P < 0.001) were higher in the PMC arm than in the PEG arm. Hyponatremia after bowel preparation occurred more often in PMC (21.2%) than in PEG (4.0%) (P < 0.001). Successful preparation was achieved more frequently in the PEG arm (42.9% vs. 82.2%; P < 0.001).
Standard picosulfate/magnesium citrate is better accepted than a split- dose polyethylene glycol regimen. From the perspective of successful preparation and patients' safety, PEG is superior to PMC.
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No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to analyze the microbial colonization rate as well as the spectrum and number of microorganisms in relation to the indwelling time of pancreatic stents.
Forty pancreatic stents were prepared according to a standardized protocol and subsequently sonicated to optimize bacterial release from the biofilm on the stents.
Two hundred forty-six microorganisms were identified. Thirty-nine of 40 stents were colonized with microorganisms. Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms (106/246 [43%]) accounted for the greatest proportion. The predominant microorganisms were Streptococcus species (46/246 [19%]), which were isolated from 27 (68%) of 40 stents. Stents with a short indwelling time (3-13 days) were mainly colonized with aerobic gram-positive bacteria (82%) and Candida species (63%). In contrast, anaerobes (P < 0.01, 69% vs 18%) and aerobic gram-negative microorganisms (P < 0.01, 93% vs 45%) such as Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.01, 86% vs 27%) were significantly more present on stents with a long indwelling time (29-93 days), compared with stents with a short indwelling time.
Microbial analysis of pancreatic duct stents revealed a very high colonization rate. Furthermore, the spectrum and number of microorganisms altered with the indwelling time of the stent. However, clinical relevance of our findings remains unclear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the laryngeal H+K+-ATPase and pharyngeal pH in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR)-symptoms as well as to assess the symptom scores during PPI therapy.
Endoscopy was performed to exclude neoplasia and to collect biopsies from the posterior cricoid area (immunohistochemistry and PCR analysis). Immunohistochemical staining was performed with monoclonal mouse antibodies against human H+K+-ATPase. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR for each of the H+K+-ATPase subunits was performed. The pH values were assessed in the aerosolized environment of the oropharynx (DxpH Catheter) and compared to a subsequently applied combined pH/MII measurement.
Twenty patients with LPR symptoms were included. In only one patient, the laryngeal H+K+-ATPase was verified by immunohistochemical staining. In another patient, real-time RT-PCR for each H+K+-ATPase subunit was positive. Fourteen out of twenty patients had pathological results in DxpH, and 6/20 patients had pathological results in pH/MII. Four patients had pathological results in both functional tests. Nine out of twenty patients responded to PPIs.
The laryngeal H+K+-ATPase can only be sporadically detected in patients with LPR symptoms and is unlikely to cause the LPR symptoms. Alternative hypotheses for the pathomechanism are needed. The role of pharyngeal pH-metry remains unclear and its use can only be recommended for patients in a research study setting.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial colonization of biliary stents is one of the driving forces behind sludge formation which may result in stent occlusion. Major focus of the study was to analyze the spectrum and number of microorganisms in relation to the indwelling time of stents and the risk factors for sludge formation. 343 stents were sonicated to optimize the bacterial release from the biofilm and identified by matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF). 2283 bacteria were analyzed in total. The most prevalent microorganisms were Enterococcus species (spp.) (504;22%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (218;10%) and Candida spp. (188;8%). Colonization of the stents mainly began with aerobic gram-positive bacteria (43/49;88%) and Candida spp. (25/49;51%), whereas stents with an indwelling time>60 days(d) showed an almost equal colonization rate by aerobic gram-negative (176/184;96%) and aerobic gram-positive bacteria (183/184;99%) and a high proportion of anaerobes (127/184;69%). Compared to stents without sludge, more Clostridium spp. [(P = 0.02; Odds Ratio (OR): 2.4; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): (1.1-4.9)]) and Staphylococcus spp. [(P = 0.03; OR (95%CI): 4.3 (1.1-16.5)] were cultured from stents with sludge. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between the number of microorganisms [P<0.01; OR (95%CI): 1.3(1.1-1.5)], the indwelling time [P<0.01; 1-15 d vs. 20-59 d: OR (95%CI): 5.6(1.4-22), 1-15 d vs. 60-3087 d: OR (95% CI): 9.5(2.5-35.7)], the presence of sideholes [P<0.01; OR (95%CI): 3.5(1.6-7.9)] and the occurrence of sludge. Stent occlusion was found in 70/343(20%) stents. In 35% of cases, stent occlusion resulted in a cholangitis or cholestasis. In conclusion, microbial colonization of the stents changed with the indwelling time. Sludge was associated with an altered spectrum and an increasing number of microorganisms, a long indwelling time and the presence of sideholes. Interestingly, stent occlusion did not necessarily lead to a symptomatic biliary obstruction.