[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Na(v)) and their corresponding current (I(Na)) are involved in several cellular processes, crucial to metastasis of cancer cells. We investigated the effects of eicosapentaenoic (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on I(Na) and metastatic functions (cell proliferation, endocytosis and invasion) in human and rat prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and Mat-LyLu cells).
The whole-cell voltage clamp technique and conventional/quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis were used. The presence of Na(v) proteins was shown by immunohistochemical methods. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids after treatment with EPA and metastatic functions were also examined.
A transient inward Na(+) current (I(Na)), highly sensitive to tetrodotoxin, and Na(V) proteins were found in these cells. Expression of Na(V)1.6 and Na(V)1.7 transcripts (SCN8A and SCN9A) was predominant in PC-3 cells, while Na(V)1.7 transcript (SCN9A) was the major component in Mat-LyLu cells. Tetrodotoxin or synthetic small interfering RNA targeted for SCN8A and SCN9A inhibited metastatic functions (endocytosis and invasion), but failed to inhibit proliferation in PC-3 cells. Exposure to EPA produced a rapid and concentration-dependent suppression of I(Na). In cells chronically treated (up to 72h) with EPA, the EPA content of cell lipids increased time-dependently, while arachidonic acid content decreased. Treatment of PC-3 cells with EPA decreased levels of mRNA for SCN9A and SCN8A, cell proliferation, invasion and endocytosis.
Treatment with EPA inhibited I(Na) directly and also indirectly, by down-regulation of Na(v) mRNA expression in prostate cancer cells, thus inhibiting their metastatic potential.
Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence demonstrates that dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular events. However, the molecular mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs prevent atherosclerosis are not fully understood. Here, we examined the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a major n-3 PUFA, on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. Five-week-old ApoE-deficient male mice were fed on western-type diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) EPA (EPA group, n=7) or not (control group, n=5) for 13 weeks. An analysis of the fatty acid composition of liver homogenates revealed a marked increase of the n-3 PUFA content in the EPA group (n-3/n-6 ratio: 0.20+/-0.01 vs. 2.5+/-0.2, p<0.01). En face Sudan IV staining of the aorta and oil red O-staining of the aortic sinus revealed that EPA significantly suppressed the development of atherosclerotic lesions. We also observed anti-atherosclerotic effects of EPA in LDL-receptor-deficient mice. The lesions of the EPA group contained more collagen (19.6+/-2.4% vs. 32.9+/-3.9%, p<0.05) and smooth muscle cells (1.3+/-0.2% vs. 3.6+/-0.8%, p<0.05) and less macrophages (32.7+/-4.1% vs. 14.7+/-2.0%, p<0.05). Pretreatment with EPA attenuated the up-regulation of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and MCP-1 in HUVECs as well as the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in macrophage-like cells induced by TNF-alpha. The anti-inflammatory effects of EPA were abrogated when the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) was suppressed. EPA may potentially reduce and stabilize atherosclerotic lesions through its anti-inflammatory effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular benefit of fish oil in humans and experimental animals has been reported. Endothelin (ET)-1 is a well-known cardiac hypertrophic factor. However, although many studies link a fish oil extract, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), to cardiac protection, the effects of EPA on cardiac hypertrophy and underlying mechanism(s) are unclear. The present study investigated whether EPA prevents ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the potential pathways likely to underlie such an effect were also investigated. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat heart, cultured for 3 days, and then treated for 24 h with vehicle only (control), treated with 0.1 nM ET-1 only, or pretreated with 10 microM EPA and then treated with 0.1 nM ET-1. The cells were harvested, and changes in cell surface area, protein synthesis, expression of a cytoskeletal (alpha-actinin) protein, and cell signaling were analyzed. ET-1 induced a 97% increase in cardiomyocyte surface area, a 72% increase in protein synthesis rate, and an increase in expression of alpha-actinin and signaling molecule [transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and c-Jun]. Development of these ET-1-induced cellular changes was attenuated by EPA. Moreover, the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes showed a 1.5- and a 1.7-fold increase in mRNA expression of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides, the classical molecular markers of cardiac hypertrophy, respectively; these changes were also suppressed by EPA. Here we show that ET-1 induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and expression of hypertrophic markers, possibly mediated by JNK and TGF-beta 1 signaling pathways. These ET-1-induced effects were blocked by EPA, a major fish oil ingredient, suggesting that fish oil may have beneficial protective effects on cardiac hypertrophy.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocytes release (or metabolize) several diffusible agents (e.g., nitric oxide [NO], endothelin-1 [ET-1], and angiotensin II) that exert direct effects on myocyte function under various pathologic conditions. Although cardiac hypertrophy is a compensatory mechanism in response to different cardiovascular diseases, there can be a pathologic transition in which the myocardium becomes dysfunctional. Recently, NO has been found to be an important regulator of cardiac remodeling. Specifically, NO has been recognized as a potent antihypertrophic and proapoptotic mediator in cultured cardiomyocytes. We demonstrated that ET-1-induced hypertrophic remodeling in neonatal cardiomyocytes was arrested by pretreatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a major component of fish oil. In some recent studies, EPA has demonstrated cardioprotective effects by modulating NO. This study investigated the changes in NO synthase (NOS) in ET-1-induced hypertrophied cardiomyocytes and in total levels of nitrates and nitrites. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from 2-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats and were cultured in D-MEM/Ham F12 supplemented with 0.1% fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin for 3 days. At Day 4 of culture, the cardiomyocytes were divided into three groups: control group, ET-1 (0.1 nM) group, and ET-1 pretreated with EPA (10 microM) group. NOS gene expression was evaluated 24 hrs after treatment using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA expression was decreased in the ET-1 group compared with controls and was unchanged by pretreatment with EPA. mRNA expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) was significantly increased in ET-1-treated cardiomyocytes and was suppressed by EPA pretreatment. Neuronal NOS gene expression and total NO level did not exhibit a statistically significant change in any of the groups. There may be some interaction between ET-1, eNOS, and iNOS in ET-1-induced and EPA-regressed hypertrophied cardiomyocytes that suppress iNOS expression without modulating total NO level or eNOS gene expression.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Experimental Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human heart failure is preceded by a process called cardiac remodeling, in which heart chambers progressively enlarge and contractile function deteriorates. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) of cardiac muscle cells has been identified as an essential process in the progression to heart failure. The execution of the apoptotic program entails complex interactions between and execution of multiple molecular subprograms. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, is synthesized and secreted by cardiomyocytes and induces hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. The cardiovascular benefit of fish oil containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in humans and experimental animals was reported. Recently, we found that ET-1-induced cardiomyocytic remodeling could be prevented by pretreatment with EPA. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether there would be any alteration in the expression of important apoptosis-related molecules in ET-1-administered hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. We also sought to determine, if there are alterations in apoptotic molecules, what type of role for EPA would then exist. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from 2-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats and were cultured for 3 days. At Day 4 of culture, the cardiomyocytes were divided into three groups: control, the ET-1 (0.1 nM)-treated group, and the ET-1 group pretreated with EPA (10 microM). Twenty-four hours after the treatment, the gene expressions of three important molecules related to apoptosis (caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) in three experimental groups were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The present study could not demonstrate any significant or representative alteration in any of the above three apoptosis-related important markers in either ET-1-induced hypertrophied cardiomyocytes with or without EPA pretreatment. The present study would at least be able to exclude the involvement of some representative molecules related to apoptosis in ET-1-induced hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. In addition, the present study demonstrates that the antihypertrophic effect of EPA to ET-1-administered cardiomyocytes appears not to modulate the apoptosis signaling cascade.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Experimental Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular benefit of fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in humans and experimental animals has been reported. The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in cardiac hypertrophy is well known. Endothelin-1 stimulates prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression in cardiomyocytes, and the autocrine/paracrine system of ET-1 is important for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Although many studies link EPA to cardiac protection, the effect of EPA on cardiac hypertrophy has yet to be clarified. Recently, we demonstrated that ET-1-induced cardiomyocytic change could be prevented by pretreatment with EPA. The present study investigated the changes of different components of the ET system at the mRNA level in ET-1-administered cardiomyocytes, and examined the effect of EPA pretreatment. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from 2-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats, cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham F12 supplemented with 0.1% fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin for 3 days. At Day 4 of culture, the cardiomyocytes were divided into 3 groups: control group, ET-1-treated (0.1 nM) group, and ET-1-treated group pretreated with EPA (10 microM). Twenty-four hours after treatment, the gene expressions of different components of the endothelin system in three experimental groups were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression was 53% upregulated in ET-1-induced hypertrophied cardiomyocytes and suppressed in the EPA-pretreated group. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) was also increased in ET-1-administered cardiomyocytes by 42% compared with the control group and was reversed in the EPA-pretreated group. The two receptors of ET system, ET(A) and ET(B), tended to be increased in the ET-1-treated group, but no statistical significance was seen among study groups. Endothelin-1 increased prepro-ET-1 and ECE-1 mRNA expression in hypertrophied-neonatal cardiomyocytes, and this was reversed with EPA pretreatment. Thus, EPA may play a crucial role in the regression of ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, partly through the suppression of ET-1 and ECE-1 expression.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Experimental Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated acute and chronic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on voltage-gated Na+ current (I(Na)) expressed in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells (hBSMCs). The whole-cell voltage clamp technique and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis were applied. The alterations in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids after treatment with EPA were also examined. Extracellular application of EPA produced a rapid and concentration-dependent suppression of tetrodotoxin-sensitive I(Na) with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 2 microM. After washing out EPA with albumin, I(Na) returned to the control level. Similar inhibitory effects were observed regarding other fatty acids (docosahexaenoic, arachidonic, stearic, and oleic acids), but EPA was the most potent inhibitor. The effect of EPA on I(Na) was not blocked by nordihydroguaiaretic acid and indometacin, and was accompanied by a significant shift of the steady-state inactivation curve to more negative potentials. In cells chronically treated with EPA, the EPA content of the cell lipid fraction (mol%) increased time-dependently, while arachidonic acid (AA) decreased, resulting in an increase of EPA to AA ratio. Then, the level of mRNA (SCN9A) encoding I(Na) decreased significantly. These results provide novel evidence that EPA not only rapidly inhibits I(Na), but also reduces the mRNA levels of the Na+ channel after cellular incorporation of EPA in cultured hBSMCs.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: cis-Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are the major fatty acids contained in fish oil, and are known to affect the various physiological properties of cell membranes in humans. The present study investigated the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelin-1 (ET-1) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on insulin activity. After addition of various concentrations of EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, or linoleic acid to a culture medium, the concentration of ET-1 was measured using ELISA, and that of ET-1 mRNA was determined by RT-PCR. The results showed that EPA had the strongest inhibitory effect (p<0.05) on both basal ET-1 production and ET-1 mRNA levels. In addition, insulin (1 micromol/l) markedly increased ET-1 production, and EPA also significantly decreased the effect induced by insulin. Pretreatment with Ca2+ chelator EGTA (1 mmol/l), NOS inhibitor L-NAME (300 micromol/l), or calmodulin antagonist W-7 (300 micromol/l) inhibited NO production by EPA (100 micromol/l), but these pretreatments had no effect on ET-1 production by EPA. These findings suggest that EPA reduces basal and insulin-enhanced ET-1 production by inhibiting ET-1 mRNA production. These effects of EPA may contribute to its vasorelaxant and anti-atherosclerotic effects.
No preview · Article · Aug 2003 · Hypertension Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has not been clarified yet as to whether hypoxia and inflammation affect NO synthesis. In this study, we investigated the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in rat smooth muscle cells (SMCs) cultured under hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that hypoxia inhibited the production of NO but did not affect the transcription of iNOS mRNA in rat SMCs treated with IFN-gamma, LPS, or both. These results indicate that O(2) is involved in the regulation of NO synthesis in inflammatory tissues.
No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF) is a secreted mitogen for vascular endothelial cells, and it promotes vascular permeability and neovascularization in vivo. We investigated the mechanisms by which low oxygen tension modulates the expression of VEGF in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (h-SMC) in vitro. Moreover, we measured VEGF levels in the cultured medium with or without endothelin-1 (ET-1) using a newly developed, highly sensitive, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hypoxia resulted in a substantial induction of VEGF transcripts at 3 and 24 hr. VEGF levels were significantly higher when h-SMC were cultured in medium containing ET-1 than when cultured in medium without ET-1. In conclusion, hypoxia and ET-1 constitute potent stimuli for VEGF production in h-SMC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether the abnormal relaxation seen in diabetes is due to decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO) and how eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 omega 3) affects the endothelial production of NO. We investigated the effects of EPA ethyl ester (EPA-E) and elevated glucose on NO production by human endothelial cells (HUE). EPA-E (0.3 mM) significantly enhanced [NO2] production and the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ within 3 min after EPA-E was added to the cultures. High levels of glucose (27.5 mM) significantly increased endothelial glucose, sorbitol and fructose, and inhibited [NO2-] production. However, EPA-E (0.3 mM) prevented the inhibition of [NO2-] production due to the activation of the Ca(2+)-calmodulin system of NO synthase. EPA-E decreased the glucose-mediated inhibition of NO production by HUE. These results suggest this agent might ameliorate endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes.
Preview · Article · Apr 1997 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arterial smooth muscle cell migration from the media to the intima is a crucial process in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been proposed to play a key role in the development of advanced atherosclerotic lesions by stimulating the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 series, extracted from fish oil has been shown to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of omega-3 PUFA on the migration of human aortic smooth muscle cell (hASMC) in vitro. The migration assay was performed according to the Capsoni's method using transwell culture plates. PDGF, fibrinogen or 10% FCS significantly stimulated hASMC migration, however, omega-3 PUFA significantly inhibited PDGF-induced migration of hASMC. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of omega-3 PUFA on cell migration may be an important aspect by which omega-3 PUFA exerts its antiatherosclerotic influence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of elevated glucose and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 omega 3) on myo-inositol uptake in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) were evaluated. Myo-inositol incorporation into HSF was dependent on an active transport system via Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity based on the results with Na+ deprivation and ouabain (5 mM). Although glucose (27.5, 55 mM) inhibited 2-[3H] myo-inositol uptake, the addition of EPA (3 x 10(-4) M) prevented glucose-mediated inhibition. Since EPA decreased glucose-mediated inhibition of myo-inositol uptake, this agent might ameliorate some of the devastating functions associated with diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of the production of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the influence of high glucose concentration, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were studied in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUE). The PDGF production of HUE increased markedly depending on glucose concentration. However, EPA (3 x 10(-4)M) markedly inhibited PDGF production [27.5 mM glucose group: 123 +/- 3% of control (5.5 mM glucose group), 27.5 mM glucose+EPA group: 104 +/- 5% of control]. These results suggested that a high glucose concentration and a high osmotic pressure-induced increase in PDGF production is involved in the development and progression of diabetic macroangiopathy. As eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits the PDGF production induced by high glucose concentration in HUE, use of this agent may exhibit anti-arteriosclerotic effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of elevated glucose and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) on myoinositol uptake in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were evaluated. Myo-inositol incorporation into HASMC was dependent on an active transport system via Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity based on the results with Na+ deprivation and Ouabain (5 mM). Although glucose (27.5, 55 mM) inhibited 2-[3H] myo-inositol uptake, the addition of EPA (3 x 10(-4) M) prevented glucose-mediated inhibition. In addition, EPA potentiated Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity of HASMC. Since EPA decrease glucose-mediated inhibition of myo-inositol uptake, this agent might ameliorate aortic smooth muscle cell function associated with diabetes.