[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Efforts to improve the outcome of liver surgery by combining curative resection with chemotherapy have failed to demonstrate definite overall survival benefit. This may partly be due to the fact that these studies often involve strict inclusion criteria. Consequently, patients with a high risk profile as characterized by Fong’s Clinical Risk Score (CRS) are often underrepresented in these studies. Conceptually, this group of patients might benefit the most from chemotherapy. The present study evaluates the impact of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk patients with primary resectable colorectal liver metastases, without extrahepatic disease. Our hypothesis is that adding neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to surgery will provide an improvement in overall survival (OS) in patients with a high-risk profile.
CHARISMA is a multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial. Patients will be randomized to either surgery alone (standard treatment, arm A) or to 6 cycles of neo-adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, followed by surgery (arm B). Patients must be ≥ 18 years of age with liver metastases of histologically confirmed primary colorectal carcinoma. Patients with extrahepatic metastases are excluded. Liver metastases must be deemed primarily resectable. Only patients with a CRS of 3–5 are eligible. The primary study endpoint is OS. Secondary endpoints are progression free survival (PFS), quality of life, morbidity of resection, treatment response on neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and whether CEA levels can predict treatment response.
CHARISMA is a multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial that will provide an answer to the question if adding neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to surgery will improve OS in a well-defined high-risk patient group with colorectal liver metastases.
The CHARISMA is registered at European Union Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT), number: 2013-004952-39, and in the “Netherlands national Trial Register (NTR), number: 4893.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Docetaxel is used for treatment of several solid malignancies. In this study, we aimed for predicting docetaxel clearance and docetaxel-induced neutropenia by developing several genetic models. Therefore, pharmacokinetic data and absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) of 213 docetaxel-treated cancer patients were collected. Next, patients were genotyped for 1936 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 225 genes using the drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters platform and thereafter split into two cohorts. The combination of SNPs that best predicted severe neutropenia or low clearance was selected in one cohort and validated in the other. Patients with severe neutropenia had lower docetaxel clearance than patients with ANCs in the normal range (P=0.01). Severe neutropenia was predicted with 70% sensitivity. True low clearance (1 s.d.<mean clearance) was identified in 80% of cases. These models however did not reach statistical significance. To improve the predictive value of these models, the addition of non-genetic influencing factors is needed.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 8 September 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.66.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Pharmacogenomics Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: BI 853520 is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of FAK. In the dose-finding part of this study in patients (pts) with advanced or metastatic solid tumors, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined as 200 mg in a continuous oral daily dosing schedule in 28-day cycles. Dose limiting toxicities included proteinuria grade 3 and fatigue grade 3. Preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) data support the once-daily dosing schedule. BI 853520 is now evaluated at the MTD in expansion cohorts of selected tumor types. Methods: Pts with metastatic or advancedpancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC), platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (OC), esophageal cancer (EC) and soft tissue sarcoma (STS) are treated with 200 mg of BI 853520. Selection criteria: radiologically demonstrated progressive disease in 6 months before study entry and consent for tumor biopsies for biomarker assessment. Endpoints include further determination of safety profile (NCI Common Terminology Criteria for AEs (v4.03)), PK, pharmacodynamics (PD) and efficacy, determined according to RECIST v1.1 criteria. Results: To date, 41 pts have been treated: 8 PAC, 11 OC, 8 EC, 14 STS. Male/female ratio: 12/29, median age 62 years (range, 21–78 years), ECOG PS 0/1:10/31. Drug-related adverse events (AEs) in > 10% of pts included proteinuria (58.5%), nausea (58.5%), diarrhea (48.8%), vomiting (36.6%), fatigue (19.5%), decreased appetite (14.6%), dyspepsia and dysgeusia (both 12.2%), in the majority of grade 1–2. Proteinuria grade 3 was reported in 8 pts and reversible upon treatment interruption. Ten pts underwent dose reduction. Three drug-related serious AEs have been reported of which none were fatal. Preliminary PD analysis in fresh tumor biopsies (pFAK) shows target engagement. Preliminary efficacy: of 30 evaluable pts 8 pts had stable disease lasting 2-6 cycles in PAC (3 pts), OC (1 pt), EC (1 pt) and in STS (3 pts), and 22 progressed. Conclusions: The safety profile of BI 853520 is favorable. Preliminary analysis shows anti-tumor efficacy in pts with progressive disease. Recruitment is ongoing and an update on all study endpoints will be provided at the meeting. Clinical trial information: NCT01335269
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are several reasons why combining an inhibitor of the vascular endothelial and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor with a taxane might induce synergistic antitumor activity. This phase I study aimed to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of the combination of pazopanib with two different schedules of docetaxel.
In a 3 + 3 + 3 design, patients with advanced solid tumors received escalating doses of oral pazopanib combined with docetaxel given either every 3 weeks (D3w) or weekly at days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days (D1w). Pharmacokinetic data of docetaxel and pazopanib were obtained through extensive sampling and WinNonlin modeling.
Forty-six patients were enrolled to six dose levels. Both schedules of docetaxel could be combined with 400 mg/day pazopanib. The MTD of D3w docetaxel was 50 mg/m(2), while for D1w MTD, it was 20 mg/m(2). In the D3w schedule, the administration of pazopanib led to a 33 % lower docetaxel clearance (mean 31.5 vs 21.1 L/h/m(2); P = 0.019) and >50 % increase in AUC0-∞ (mean 1,602 vs 2,414 ng*h/mL; P = 0.029) compared with docetaxel single-agent data. Data for the D1w schedule were comparable.
Both treatment schedules of docetaxel combined with pazopanib are feasible but at doses for both drugs that are considerably lower than the recommended single-agent doses. This is largely due to a clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interaction with pazopanib, substantially increasing docetaxel exposure. This interaction is most likely due to CYP3A4 and OATP1B1 inhibition.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been confirmed in randomized controlled trials. For nonpancreatic periampullary cancers (NPPC) originating from the distal bile duct, duodenum, ampulla, or papilla of Vater, the role of adjuvant therapy remains largely unclear. This review describes methods for distinguishing PDAC from NPPC by means of readily available and recently developed molecular diagnostic methods. The difficulties of reliably determining the exact origin of these cancers pathologically also is discussed. The review also considers the possibility of unintentional inclusion of NPPC in the most important adjuvant trials on PDAC and the subsequent implications for interpretation of the results. The authors conclude that correct determination of the origin of periampullary cancers is essential for clinical management and should therefore be systematically incorporated into clinical practice and future studies.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rare in the Netherlands, even though the incidence has increased quite sharply in recent years. Standard treatment options consist of surgery, orthotopic liver transplantation, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and systemic therapy with sorafenib. The consensus-based Dutch HCC guideline, established in 2013, serves to guide surveillance, diagnosis and treatment options: Surveillance should be performed by ultrasound at six-month intervals in well-defined cirrhotic patients and in selected high-risk hepatitis B carriers; A nodule > 1 cm in cirrhotic patients with arterial hypervascularity and venous or delayed phase washout at four-phase CT or MRI scan establishes the diagnosis of HCC; In patients with HCC without underlying cirrhosis, resection should be considered regardless of tumour size; In cirrhotic HCC patients, tumour stage, severity of underlying cirrhosis, and performance status determine treatment options. The algorithm of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system should be followed; Patients with Child-Pugh A-B cirrhosis (CP < 8 points) and performance status 0-2 are candidates for any active treatment other than transplantation; In early stage HCC (BCLC stage 0 or A, compensated cirrhosis without portal hypertension) surgical resection, liver transplantation, or radiofrequency ablation should be considered; In intermediate stage HCC (BCLC stage B) TACE and÷ or radiofrequency ablation should be considered; In advanced stage HCC (BCLC stage C) sorafenib should be considered.
The Dutch HCC guideline offers advice for surveillance, diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · The Netherlands Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The vascular disrupting agent ombrabulin shows synergy with docetaxel in vivo. Recommended phase II doses were determined in a dose escalation study in advanced solid tumours.
Ombrabulin (30-min infusion, day 1) followed by docetaxel (1-h infusion, day 2) every 3 weeks was explored. Ombrabulin was escalated from 11.5 to 42 mg m−2 with 75 mg m−2 docetaxel, then from 30 to 35 mg m−2 with 100 mg m−2 docetaxel. Recommended phase II dose cohorts were expanded.
Fifty-eight patients were treated. Recommended phase II doses were 35 mg m−2 ombrabulin with 75 mg m−2 docetaxel (35/75 mg m−2; 13 patients) and 30 mg m−2 ombrabulin with 100 mg m−2 docetaxel (30/100 mg m−2; 16 patients). Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 fatigue (two patients; 42/75, 35/100), grade 3 neutropaenic infection (25/75), grade 3 headache (42/75), grade 4 febrile neutropaenia (30/100), and grade 3 thrombosis (35/100). Toxicities were consistent with each agent; mild nausea/vomiting, asthaenia/fatigue, alopecia, and anaemia were common, as were neutropaenia and leukopaenia. Diarrhoea, nail disorders and neurological symptoms were frequent at 100 mg m−2 docetaxel. Pharmacokinetic analyses did not show any relevant drug interactions. Ten patients had partial responses (seven at 30 mg m−2 ombrabulin), eight lasting >3 months.
Sequential administration of ombrabulin with 75 or 100 mg m−2 docetaxel every 3 weeks is feasible.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The pan-Class I PI3K inhibitor buparlisib (BKM120) has shown activity in a range of preclinical cancer models. This first-in-man study was initiated to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of buparlisib (100 mg/day) and to assess safety and preliminary efficacy.
Patients with advanced solid tumors (N = 83) enrolled in a Phase I dose-escalation and -expansion study of single-agent buparlisib. Patients in the dose-expansion arm (n = 43) had tumor samples with PIK3CA and/or PTEN alterations.
The most common cancers were colorectal (n = 31) and breast cancer (n = 21). Median number of prior antineoplastic regimens was four (range: 1-12). Grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) included asthenia (12.0 %) and performance status decrease (9.6 %). Treatment-related AEs (all grades) included decreased appetite, diarrhea, nausea (each in 33 % of patients), hyperglycemia (31 %) and rash (29 %). One confirmed partial response (PR; triple-negative breast cancer) and three unconfirmed PRs (parotid gland carcinoma, epithelioid hemangiothelioma, ER + breast cancer) were reported. Tumor molecular status did not predict clinical benefit in the full study cohort, or among the colorectal or breast cancer subpopulations. Pharmacodynamic biomarkers ((18)F-FDG-PET, C-peptide, pS6) demonstrated dose-dependent changes; however, tumor heterogeneity precluded a clear correlation with clinical benefit.
Buparlisib was well tolerated up to the 100 mg/day dose and showed preliminary activity in patients with advanced cancers. Future studies in more homogeneous patient populations will evaluate buparlisib in combination with other agents and further investigate the use of predictive biomarkers.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) pathway plays a pivotal role in solid malignancies and is probably involved in chemotherapy resistance. Pazopanib, inhibitor of, among other receptors, VEGFR1–3, has activity as single agent and is attractive to enhance anti-tumour activity of chemotherapy. We conducted a dose-finding and pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamics study of pazopanib combined with two different schedules of ifosfamide.
In a 3+3+3 design, patients with advanced solid tumours received escalating doses of oral pazopanib combined with ifosfamide either given 3 days continuously or given 3-h bolus infusion daily for 3 days (9 g m−2 per cycle, every 3 weeks). Pharmacokinetic data of ifosfamide and pazopanib were obtained. Plasma levels of placental-derived growth factor (PlGF), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble VEGFR2 (sVEGFR2) and circulating endothelial cells were monitored as biomarkers.
Sixty-one patients were included. Pazopanib with continuous ifosfamide infusion appeared to be safe up to 1000 mg per day, while combination with bolus infusion ifosfamide turned out to be too toxic based on a variety of adverse events. Ifosfamide-dependent decline in pazopanib exposure was observed. Increases in PlGF and VEGF-A with concurrent decline in sVEGFR2 levels, consistent with pazopanib-mediated VEGFR2 inhibition, were observed after addition of ifosfamide.
Continuous as opposed to bolus infusion ifosfamide can safely be combined with pazopanib. Ifosfamide co-administration results in lower exposure to pazopanib, not hindering biological effects of pazopanib. Recommended dose of pazopanib for further studies combined with 3 days continuous ifosfamide (9 g m−2 per cycle, every 3 weeks) is 800 mg daily.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical activity of E7107 administered as 5-minute bolus infusions on days 1, 8, and 15 in a 28-day schedule.
Patients with solid tumors refractory to standard therapies or with no standard treatment available were enrolled. Dose levels of 0.6-4.5 mg/m2 were explored.
Forty patients (24M/16F, median age 61 years [45-79]) were enrolled. At 4.5 mg/m2, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) consisted of Grade-3 diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting and Grade-4 diarrhea, respectively, in two patients. At 4.0 mg/m2, DLT (Grade-3 nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps) was observed in one patient. Frequently occurring side effects were mainly gastrointestinal. After drug discontinuation at 4.0 mg/m2, one patient experienced reversible Grade-4 blurred vision. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is 4.0 mg/m2. No complete or partial responses during treatment were observed; one patient at 4.0 mg/m2 had a confirmed partial response after drug discontinuation. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed large volume of distribution, high systemic clearance, and a plasma elimination half-life of 5.3-15.1 hours. Overall drug exposure increased in a dose-dependent manner. At the MTD, mRNA levels of selected target genes monitored in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a reversible 15- to 25-fold decrease, whereas unspliced pre-mRNA levels of DNAJB1 and EIF4A1 showed a reversible 10- to 25-fold increase.
The MTD for E7107 using this schedule is 4.0 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetics is dose-dependent and reproducible within patients. Pharmacodynamic analysis revealed dose-dependent reversible inhibition of pre-mRNA processing of target genes, confirming proof-of-principle activity of E7107.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and the second in women. Metastatic disease develops in more than half of the patients and carries a poor prognosis. Over the past three decades, significant advances have been made in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The development of new cytotoxic agents and the incorporation of target-specific agents in first-, second-, third-, and nowadays even fourth-line treatment has prolonged median overall survival up to 24–28 months. However, 5-year survival rates remain disappointingly low. This review summarizes the currently available cytotoxic treatment options for mCRC, and highlights the further emerging role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-inhibiting strategies, emphasizing the role of aflibercept. Aflibercept is a recombinant fusion protein with high VEGF affinity, and is the second antiangiogenic agent to obtain registration in the treatment of mCRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Paclitaxel is used for the treatment of several solid tumors and displays a high interindividual variation in exposure and toxicity. Neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent side effects of paclitaxel. This study explores potential predictive pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic determinants for the onset and severity of neurotoxicity.
In an exploratory cohort of patients (n = 261) treated with paclitaxel, neurotoxicity incidence, and severity, pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacogenetic variants were determined. Paclitaxel plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and individual pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from previously developed population pharmacokinetic models by nonlinear mixed effects modeling. Genetic variants of paclitaxel pharmacokinetics tested were CYP3A4*22, CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, and ABCB1 3435 C>T. The association between CYP3A4*22 and neurotoxicity observed in the exploratory cohort was validated in an independent patient cohort (n = 239).
Exposure to paclitaxel (logAUC) was correlated with severity of neurotoxicity (P < 0.00001). Female CYP3A4*22 carriers were at increased risk of developing neurotoxicity (P = 0.043) in the exploratory cohort. CYP3A4*22 carrier status itself was not associated with pharmacokinetic parameters (CL, AUC, Cmax, or T>0.05) of paclitaxel in males or females. Other genetic variants displayed no association with neurotoxicity. In the subsequent independent validation cohort, CYP3A4*22 carriers were at risk of developing grade 3 neurotoxicity (OR = 19.1; P = 0.001).
Paclitaxel exposure showed a relationship with the severity of paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, female CYP3A4*22 carriers had increased risk of developing severe neurotoxicity during paclitaxel therapy. These observations may guide future individualization of paclitaxel treatment.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be diagnosed in the absence of cirrhosis. However, little is known about prognostic factors for the survival of HCC patients with a non-cirrhotic liver in the absence of well-established risk factors.
Survival rates and risk factors for survival and recurrence were analysed in all patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 with HCC in a non-cirrhotic liver and in the absence of well-established risk factors.
Ninety-four patients were analysed. Treatment with curative intent consisted of surgical resection in 43 patients (46%) and radiofrequency ablation in 4 patients (4%). In patients treated with curative intent and alive 30 days after treatment (n = 40), 1- and 5-year overall survival rates were 95 and 51%, respectively. Patients with a high preoperative α-fetoprotein (AFP) serum level, the presence of microvascular invasion in the resected specimen, a complicated postoperative course and a major resection, due to a greater tumour volume, had a significantly worse outcome and a higher recurrence rate. In multivariate analysis, a high AFP serum level at presentation was significantly associated with recurrence and a worse survival.
HCC presenting in a non-cirrhotic liver in the absence of well-established risk factors has a poor prognosis. Increased AFP serum levels are significantly associated with clinical outcome.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Digestive surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
For anticancer drug development, it is crucial that patients participate in early-phase clinical trials. The main aim of this study was to gain insight into the motivations and other variables influencing patients in their decision to participate in phase I oncology trials.
Materials and methods:
Over a period of 25 months, all patients who were informed about (specific) phase I trials in our cancer center were retrospectively included in this study. Data on providing informed consent and final phase I enrollment were collected.
In total, 365 patients, with a median age of 59 years and a median World Health Organization performance status score of 1, were evaluated. The majority of patients (71%) were pretreated with systemic therapy, with a median of two lines. After specific study information had been given, 145 patients (40%) declined informed consent, 54% of them mainly because of low expectations regarding treatment benefits and concerns about potential side effects. Patients who had received previous systemic therapy consented more frequently than others. After initial consent, 61 patients (17%) still did not receive study treatment, mostly because of secondary withdrawal of consent or rapid clinical deterioration prior to first dosing.
After specific referral to our hospital for participation in early clinical trials, only 44% of all patients who were informed about a specific phase I trial eventually participated. Reasons for both participation and nonparticipation were diverse. Patient participation rates could be improved by forming an experienced and dedicated study team.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
A Phase I study to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of afatinib (BIBW 2992), a novel irreversible ErbB Family Blocker, administered orally once daily in a 3-week-on/1-week-off dosing schedule.
Patients with advanced solid tumors received single-agent afatinib at 10, 20, 40, 55 or 65 mg/day. Safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic modulation of biomarkers were assessed.
Forty-three patients were enrolled. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred in five patients in the dose escalation phase (1/8 at 40 mg/day; 1/6 at 55 mg/day; 3/6 at 65 mg/day). The MTD was established at 55 mg/day. In the expansion cohort at the MTD, 6 patients experienced a DLT in the first 28-day treatment period. The most frequent DLT was diarrhea. The most common adverse events were diarrhea, rash, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Overall, the afatinib safety profile in a 3-week-on/1-week-off dose schedule was similar to that of our daily-continuous schedule. Afatinib displayed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics at doses up to and including 55 mg/day, with a terminal half-life suitable for once-daily dosing. Signs of clinical antitumor activity were observed. In biopsies taken from clinically normal forearm skin, afatinib caused a reduced proliferation rate, with a concomitant increase in differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes.
Afatinib in a 3-week-on/1-week-off schedule showed a good safety profile. The MTD was 55 mg/day, although excess DLTs in the expansion cohort indicated that the 40 mg/day dose would have an acceptable safety profile for future studies. Dose cohorts between 40 and 55 mg/day were not examined in this study.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Investigational New Drugs