Prawit Janwantanakul

Chulalongkorn University, Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand

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Publications (41)58.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Having a screening tool with reasonable predictive ability is essential in providing information about an individual’s risk of developing a disease, allowing an examination to be conducted with limited personnel and time, and selecting the relevant individuals for therapeutic research. This study aimed to produce a screening tool to identify office workers at risk of developing non-specific low back pain (LBP) with disability, and to evaluate the tool’s predictive power. Methods At baseline, 615 healthy office workers filled out a self-administered questionnaire and underwent physical examination to gather potential risk factors. The incidence of LBP was collected every month thereafter. Disability level was assessed using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). The minimum RMDQ score for categorization as LBP was 3. Logistic regression was used to select significant factors to build a risk score. The coefficients from the logistic regression model were used to develop the components of a screening tool. Results Over the 1-year follow-up, 8.8 % of participants reported incident LBP with disability. The screening tool for non-specific low back pain with disability in office workers comprised two items that contributed to the total score: previous history of LBP and psychological demand (assessed by the Job Content Questionnaire). The score range of the screening tool was 12 to 69. With a cut-off score of 53, the sensitivity was 65 % and the specificity was 68 %. The positive and negative predictive values were 16 and 95 %, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.76. Conclusions A screening tool for non-specific low back pain with disability in office workers was developed and appears to have reasonable sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values. Further validation and impact studies of the screening tool in a new population of office workers are suggested.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: All occupations expose workers to varied and unique conditions. The nature of work has been recognized as influencing the health of workers. Whether predictors for chronic neck and low back pain would be occupation-specific is unknown. This study aimed to identify predictors for chronic neck and low back pain in a cohort of office workers. Methods: A prospective study was carried out among 669 healthy office workers. At baseline, risk factors were assessed using a questionnaire and standardized physical examination. A symptomatic case was defined as an individual who reported pain greater than 30 mm on a 100-mm VAS, and chronic pain was defined as experiencing ongoing neck or low back pain for greater than 3 months over the past 6 months. Two regression models were built to analyze the risk factors for developing chronic neck and low back pain. Results: Of the sample, 17% and 27% of office workers who reported a new onset of neck or low back pain developed chronicity, respectively. Predictors for chronic neck pain were high body mass index, frequent neck extension during the work day, high initial pain intensity, and high psychological job demands. The development of chronic low back pain was associated with history of low back pain and high initial pain intensity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that predictors for chronic musculoskeletal pain in a subpopulation may be a subset of predictors identified in a general population or occupation specific. Successful management to prevent chronic musculoskeletal pain may also need to consider the patient's occupation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Occupational Health
  • Pooriput Waongenngarm · Bala S. Rajaratnam · Prawit Janwantanakul
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged sitting leads to low back discomfort and lumbo-pelvic muscle fatigue. This study examined characteristics of body perceived discomfort and trunk muscle fatigue during 1-hour sitting in three postures in office workers.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Safety and Health at Work
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    Pooriput Waongenngarm · Bala S Rajaratnam · Prawit Janwantanakul
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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the perceived discomfort and trunk muscle activity in three different 1-hour sitting postures. [Subjects] A repeated-measures design study was conducted on 10 healthy subjects. [Methods] Each subject sat for an hour in three sitting postures (i.e., upright, slumped, and forward leaning sitting postures). Subjects rated perceived body discomfort using Borg's CR-10 scale at the beginning and after 1 hour sitting. The electromyographic activity of the trunk muscle activity was recorded during the 1-hour period of sitting. [Results] The forward leaning sitting posture led to higher Borg scores in the low back than those in the upright (p = 0.002) and slumped sitting postures (p < 0.001). The forward leaning posture was significantly associated with increased iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis (ICL) and superficial lumbar multifidus (MF) muscle activity compared with the upright and slumped sitting postures. The upright sitting posture was significantly associated with increased internal oblique (IO)/transversus abdominis (TrA) and ICL muscle activity compared with the slumped sitting posture. [Conclusion] The sitting posture with the highest low back discomfort after prolonged sitting was the forward leaning posture. Sitting in an upright posture is recommended because it increases IO/TrA muscle activation and induces only relatively moderate ICL and MF muscle activation.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Neck and low back pain are significant health problems due to their high prevalence among the general population. Educational intervention commonly aims to reduce the symptoms and risk for additional problems by increasing the participant's knowledge, which in turn will alter the person's behavior. The primary aim of this study was to review randomize controlled trials (RCTs) to gain insights into the effectiveness of education for the prevention and treatment of non-specific neck and low back pain. Methods: Publications were systematically searched from 1982 to March 2015 in several databases. Relevant RCTs were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality. Meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of education for the prevention and treatment of non-specific neck and low back pain. The overall quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Results: Thirty-six RCTs (30 high-quality studies) were identified. A total of 15 RCTs, which compared education programs to no education program, were included for further analysis. All studies included investigated the effectiveness of education with intermediate- and long-term follow-ups. The results showed that education programs were not effective in preventing and treating neck pain as well as treating low back pain. Conflicting evidence was found for the effectiveness of education on prevention of low back pain. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that education programs are not recommended in preventing or treating neck pain as well as treating low back pain, unless supplementary high-quality studies provide evidence to the contrary.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Physiotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of an acupoint-stimulating lumbar backrest on pain and disability in office workers who suffering from low back pain (LBP) as well as the preference influence on pain and disability. Sixty-four participants were randomly assigned to two groups: one with no intervention (n=32) and another with 1 month of backrest use (n=32). An additional group (n=37) who wished to try 1 month of acupressure backrest were recruited to indicate the preference effect. Pain and disability were two key outcomes. Significant differences between control and randomized acupressure backrest groups were found at 2 week period for disability and at 4 weeks for pain after the backrest use. Also, significant differences were found in both groups for 3 month period with an increase of the treatment effect on pain and disability. Both control and randomized acupressure backrest groups showed greater improvement in pain and disability scores which were more than the minimal clinically important change (30% improvement for both outcomes). No significant difference was found for pain and disability between the randomized and preferred backrest groups. These findings suggested 1-month of acupressure backrest use could improve LBP conditions. Preference was not a powerful moderator to the significant treatment effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Neck and low back pain are significant health problems due to their high prevalence among the general population. Educational intervention commonly aims to reduce the symptoms and risk for additional problems by increasing the participant's knowledge, which in turn will alter the person's behavior. The primary aim of this study was to review randomize controlled trials (RCTs) to gain insights into the effectiveness of education for the prevention and treatment of non-specific neck and low back pain. Methods: Publications were systematically searched from 1982 to March 2015 in several databases. Relevant RCTs were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality. Meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of education for the prevention and treatment of non-specific neck and low back pain. The overall quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Results: Thirty-six RCTs (30 high-quality studies) were identified. A total of 15 RCTs, which compared education programs to no education program, were included for further analysis. All studies included investigated the effectiveness of education with intermediate- and long-term follow-ups. The results showed that education programs were not effective in preventing and treating neck pain as well as treating low back pain. Conflicting evidence was found for the effectiveness of education on prevention of low back pain. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that education programs are not recommended in preventing or treating neck pain as well as treating low back pain, unless supplementary high-quality studies provide evidence to the contrary.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    Arpalak Paksaichol · Chaipat Lawsirirat · Prawit Janwantanakul
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The etiology of nonspecific neck pain is widely accepted to be multifactorial. Each risk factor has not only direct effects on neck pain but may also exert effects indirectly through other risk factors. This study aimed to test this hypothesized model in office workers. Methods: A one-year prospective cohort study of 559 healthy office workers was conducted. At baseline, a self-administered questionnaire and standardized physical examination were employed to gather biopsychosocial data. Follow-up data were collected every month for the incidence of neck pain. A regression model was built to analyze factors predicting the onset of neck pain. Path analysis was performed to examine direct and indirect associations between identified risk factors and neck pain. Results: The onset of neck pain was predicted by female gender, having a history of neck pain, monitor position not being level with the eyes, and frequently perceived muscular tension, of which perceived muscular tension was the strongest effector on the onset of neck pain. Gender, history of neck pain, and monitor height had indirect effects on neck pain that were mediated through perceived muscular tension. History of neck pain was the most influential effector on perceived muscular tension. Conclusions: The results of this study support the hypothesis that each risk factors may contribute to the development of neck pain both directly and indirectly. The combination of risk factors necessary to cause neck pain is likely occupation specific. Perceived muscular tension is hypothesized to be an early sign of musculoskeletal symptoms.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Occupational Health
  • Ekalak Sitthipornvorakul · Prawit Janwantanakul · Vitool Lohsoonthorn
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This study aimed to investigate the causal relationship between daily walking steps and the 1-year incidence of neck and low back pain in workers with sedentary jobs. Methods A 1-year prospective study was carried out among 387 workers who reported no spinal symptoms in the previous 3 months with pain intensity greater than 30 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire, physical examination, and pedometer. Follow-up data were collected every month for the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders and every 3 months for daily walking steps. Two regression models were built to analyze the effect of daily walking steps on the 1-year incidence of neck and low back pain. Results Among 367 (95 %) participants followed for 1 year, 16 and 14 % reported incident neck and low back pain, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, a negative association between daily walking steps and onset of neck pain was found. Increasing daily walking steps by 1,000 reduced the risk of neck pain by 14 %. No significant association between daily walking steps and the onset of low back pain was found. Conclusions Increasing daily walking steps is a protective factor for onset of neck pain in those with sedentary jobs. Interventions to reduce neck pain should include attempts to increase daily walking steps.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · European Spine Journal
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    Arpalak Paksaichol · Prawit Janwantanakul · Chaipat Lawsirirat
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a neck pain risk score for office workers (NROW) to identify office workers at risk for developing nonspecific neck pain with disability. Methods A 1-year prospective cohort study of 559 healthy office workers was conducted. At baseline, risk factors were assessed using questionnaires and standardized physical examination. The incidence of neck pain was collected every month thereafter. Disability level was evaluated using the neck disability index. Logistic regression was used to select significant factors to build a risk score. The coefficients from the logistic regression model were transformed into the components of a risk score. Results Among 535 (96%) participants who were followed up for 1 year, 23% reported incident neck pain with disability (≥ 5). After adjusting for confounders, the onset of neck pain with disability was significantly associated with history of neck pain, chair adjustability, and perceived muscular tension. Thus, the NROW comprises 3 questions about history of neck pain, chair adjustability, and perceived muscular tension. The NROW had scores ranging from 0 to 4. A cut-off score of at least 2 had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 48%. The positive and negative predictive values were 29% and 91%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75. Conclusion The risk score for nonspecific neck pain with disability in office workers was developed, and it contained 3 items with scores ranging from 0 to 4. This study shows that the score appears to have reasonable sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values for the cut-off point of at least 2.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
  • Nuttika Nakphet · Montakarn Chaikumarn · Prawit Janwantanakul
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study evaluated the effect of different types of activities during rest-break interventions on neck and shoulder muscle activity, muscle discomfort and productivity among symptomatic video display unit (VDU) operators performing prolonged computer terminal work. Study design and setting: Randomized controlled trial was used. Thirty symptomatic VDU operators were randomly assigned to 2 active break groups (stretching and dynamic movement) and a reference group. The subjects performed the same typing task for 60 min and received 3-min breaks after each 20 min of work. Root mean square and median frequency were calculated for neck and shoulder muscle activity. Muscle discomfort was measured with Borg's CR-10 scale. Productivity was measured by counting words. Results: There were no significant differences between the types of activities during breaks on neck and shoulder muscle activity, muscle discomfort or productivity. However, there was a significant difference in the level of muscle discomfort over time. Conclusions: Three types of activity during breaks showed a favourable effect on neck and shoulder muscle activity and productivity, and a positive effect on muscle discomfort in symptomatic VDU operators.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics: JOSE
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    Ekalak Sitthipornvorakul · Prawit Janwantanakul · Allard J van der Beek
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    ABSTRACT: Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · BMC Research Notes
  • Rattaporn Sihawong · Prawit Janwantanakul · Wiroj Jiamjarasrangsi
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an exercise program focusing on muscle stretching and endurance training on the 12-month incidence of low back pain (LBP) in office workers. A 12-month prospective cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in healthy office workers with lower-than-normal trunk extension flexibility or trunk muscle endurance. Healthy office workers (n = 563) were randomly assigned at the cluster level into either intervention (n = 282) or control (n = 281) groups. Participants in the intervention group received an exercise program that included daily stretching exercise and twice-a-week muscle endurance training. Those in the control group received no intervention. The 12-month incidence of LBP was the primary outcome. Secondary outcome were pain intensity, disability level, and quality of life and health status. Analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard models. Over the 12-month follow-up, 8.8 % of participants in the intervention group and 19.7 % in the control group developed incidence of LBP. Hazard rate ratios showed a protective effect of the exercise program for LBP (HR = 0.37, 95 % CI 0.22-0.64) after adjusting for biopsychosocial factors. There was no significant difference in pain intensity, disability, and quality of life and health status between those who reported incidence of LBP in the intervention and control groups. An exercise program consisting of muscle stretching and endurance training is an effective intervention to reduce incident LBP for office workers with lower-than-normal trunk extension flexibility or trunk muscle endurance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · European Spine Journal
  • Rattaporn Sihawong · Prawit Janwantanakul · Wiroj Jiamjarasrangsi
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an exercise programme focusing on muscle stretching and endurance training on the 12-month incidence of neck pain in office workers. A 12-month prospective cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in healthy office workers with lower-than-normal neck flexion movement or neck flexor endurance. Participants were recruited from 12 large-scale enterprises. A total of 567 healthy office workers were randomly assigned at the cluster level into either intervention (n=285) or control (n=282) groups. Participants in the intervention group received an exercise programme that included daily stretching exercise and twice-a-week muscle endurance training. Those in the control group received no intervention. The primary outcome measure was the 12-month incidence of neck pain, and the secondary outcome measures were pain intensity, disability level, and quality of life and health status. Analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard models. Over the 12-month follow-up, 12.1% of participants in the intervention group and 26.7% in the control group developed incident neck pain. Hazard rate ratios showed a protective effect of the exercise programme for neck pain (HR=0.45, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.71) after adjusting for biopsychosocial factors. There was no significant difference in pain intensity, disability and quality of life and health status between those who reported incident neck pain in the intervention and control groups. The exercise programme reduced incident neck pain and increased neck flexion movement for office workers with lower-than-normal neck flexion movement.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Occupational and environmental medicine
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    Annop Sooksawat · Prawit Janwantanakul · Tewin Tencomnao · Praneet Pensri
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    ABSTRACT: Background Low back pain (LBP) is common among office workers. A number of studies have established a relationship between Christianity and physical and mental health outcomes among chronic pain patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism and disability and psychological stress in office workers with chronic LBP. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a self-administered questionnaire delivered by hand to 463 office workers with chronic LBP. Saliva samples were collected from a randomly selected sub-sample of respondents (n=96). Disability due to LBP was assessed using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and psychological stress was assessed based on salivary cortisol. Two hierarchical regression models were built to determine how much variance in disability and psychological stress could be explained by religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism variables after controlling for potential confounder variables. Results Only 6% of variance in psychological stress was accounted for by the religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism. Those with high religiousness experienced lower psychological stress. No association between the religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism and disability level was found. Depressive symptoms were attributed to both psychological stress and disability status in our study population. Conclusions The findings suggest that, although being religious may improve the psychological condition in workers with chronic LBP, its effect is insufficient to reduce disability due to illness. Further research should examine the role of depression as a mediator of the effect of psychological stress on disability in patients with chronic LBP.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • Siriluck Kanchanomai · Prawit Janwantanakul · Wiroj Jiamjarasrangsi
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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the 1 year incidence and identify biopsychosocial factors predicting the onset and persistence of thoracic spine pain in undergraduate students. [Subject] A 1 year prospective study was carried out among 684 healthy undergraduate students. [Methods] At baseline, a self-administered questionnaire and standardized physical examination were employed to gather biopsychosocial data. Follow-up data on the incidence of thoracic spine pain were collected every 3 months. Two regression models were built to analyze factors predicting the onset and persistence of thoracic spine pain. [Results] The 1 year incidence of thoracic spine pain was 27%, and 23% of subjects reported persistent symptoms. The onset of thoracic spine pain was predicted by female gender, poor neck extensor muscle endurance and high percentage duration of mouse use during computer work. Female students being in the second year of their studies and unsupported elbows during computer use were predictors of persistent symptoms. [Conclusion] Thoracic spine pain is quite common among undergraduate students and many of them may have persistent symptoms. Interventions aimed at reducing the occurrence of symptoms in undergraduate students should, at the least, include teaching 2nd year female students how to perform computer work safely.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Physical Therapy Science
  • Prawit Janwantanakul · Ekalak Sitthipornvorakul · Arpalak Paksaichol
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective cohort studies to identify risk factors for the onset of low back pain (LBP) in office workers. Online searches were conducted on PubMed, CINAHL Plus with full text, ScienceDirect, PEDro, ProQuest, and Scopus databases from 1980 to November 2011 using the following keywords: low back pain paired with risk or prognostic factors and office or computer or visual display unit (VDU) or visual display terminal (VDT). The methodological quality of each study was assessed using a 21-item checklist, which was divided into 2 parts: the internal validity (11 items) and descriptive quality (10 items) of studies. Strength of evidence for risk factors associated with the development of nonspecific LBP was assessed by defining 5 levels of evidence based on the number of studies and the quality score of studies. Eighteen full-text articles were identified, and 15 were excluded. A total of 3 articles were judged to meet the selection criteria and were included in the methodological quality assessment. Risk factors were divided into 3 groups: individual, work-related physical, and work-related psychosocial risk factors. There was strong evidence that history of LBP is a predictor of the onset of LBP. Limited evidence was found that the combination of postural risk factors and job strain is associated with the onset of LBP. After review of 3 high-quality prospective studies on the association between risk factors and the onset of nonspecific LBP in office workers, few risk factors were found to predict the onset of LBP in office workers.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: To assess two aspects of the external validity of acupuncture research for osteoarthritis knee pain and determine the common acupoints and treatment parameters used. The external validity of 16 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was investigated using a scale consisting of two aspects: reporting and performance. The reporting aspect included acupuncturist's background, study location, treatment detailed, patient characteristics, positive trial results, adverse effects and between-group statistical differences, whereas treatment appropriateness, appropriate controls and outcomes were classified as the performance aspect. Acupuncture treatment in RCTs was compared with common practice according to the literature sources and survey of acupuncturists working in different parts of Thailand. The levels of external validity for the reporting and performance aspects were in the range of 31.3% to 100%. Statistic values such as mean difference and confidence interval were reported by the minority of trials (43.8%). Patient satisfaction and quality of life were seldom used (31.3%). There were minor differences between research and practice in terms of the points used (25.0%), number of treatment sessions (6.3%) and frequency (12.5%). The most frequently used points were ST34, ST35, ST36, SP6, SP9, SP10, GB34, Xiyan and ah shi points, and the commonly used treatment parameters were 20 minutes, 10-15 sessions and two treatments weekly. Reporting of the external validity of acupuncture RCTs for knee pain was notably inadequate in terms of trial setting, treatment provider and statistical reporting. The majority of studies involved appropriate controls and outcomes and applied acupuncture treatments in line with practice.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Acupuncture in Medicine
  • Rattaporn Sihawong · Prawit Janwantanakul · Praneet Pensri
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether the incidences of neck and low-back symptoms were elevated during the severe floods that occurred in Bangkok, Thailand in 2011, and to explore flood-related risk factors for neck and low-back symptoms. Prospective cohort design. Severe flooding occurred in Bangkok and surrounding neighbourhoods between October and December, 2011. After the flood had subsided (January 2012), 377 healthy office workers, who were already taking part in a study on musculoskeletal symptoms, were asked about their contact with floodwater. Data were gathered from subjects, who had reported no neck and low-back symptoms at the end of September 2011 and who were affected by the flood. Two regression models for the outcomes of 3-month incidence of neck and low-back symptoms, respectively, were performed. Eighty-two percent of the subjects were affected by the flood. No flood-related factor was found to associate significantly with either neck or low-back symptoms. However, neck symptoms may be associated with commuting frequently through flooded areas, and low-back symptoms may be associated with the subjects' homes or workplaces being flooded. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the problem of musculoskeletal symptoms during flooding in urban areas, and that preventive measures are required.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of rehabilitation medicine: official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to investigate the 3-month prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms at the spine attributed to computer use and to identify biopsychosocial factors associated with the prevalence in undergraduate students. Participants: Undergraduate students who studied at a public university in Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a self-administered questionnaire delivered to 3,545 students.Results: A total of 2,511 students (73.7%) returned the questionnaires. Cervical symptoms (22.3%) were the most frequently reported, followed by thoracic (11%) and lumbar symptoms (10.7%). Females, daily computer use greater than three hours and too-high keyboard's position were significantly associated with a high prevalence of cervical symptoms. A significan association was found between higher undergraduate year of the study and too-high keyboard's position and a high prevalence of thoracic symptoms. Higher undergraduate year of the study and daily computer use greater than three hours were significantly related to a high prevalence of lumbar symptoms. Better-than-normal mental health status was associated with a low prevalence of lumbar symptoms. Conclusion: Spinal symptoms are common among undergraduate students. Various factors were identified to be associated with high prevalence of spinal symptoms. Further research investigating the causal relation between these factors and musculoskeletal symptoms should be conducted.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Work