Sung Tae Kim

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (293)997.27 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Nanocapsules can efficiently encapsulate therapeutic cargo for anticancer drug delivery. However, the controlled release of the payload remains a challenge for effective drug delivery. Materials & methods: We used dithiocarbamate-functionalized PAMAM dendrimer to cross-link the shell of arginine gold nanoparticles stabilized nanocapsule, and controlled the drug release from the nanocapsule. The ability of cross-linked nanocapsule to deliver hydrophobic paclitaxel to B16F10 cells was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Results: Cross-linked nanocapsule possesses tunable stability and modular permeability, and can deliver paclitaxel with improved anticancer efficiency compared with free drug both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Dithiocarbamate chemistry provides a new tool to harness multifactorial colloidal self-assembly for controlled drug delivery for cancer therapy.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Nanomedicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surface chemistry plays a deciding role in nanoparticle biodistribution, yet very little is known about how surface chemistry influences the sub-organ distributions of nanomaterials. Here, using quantitative imaging based on laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we demonstrate that surface charge dictates the sub-organ distributions of nanoparticles in the kidney, liver, and spleen of mice intravenously injected with functionalized gold nanoparticles. Images of the kidney show that positively charged nanoparticles accumulate extensively in the glomeruli, the initial stage in filtering for the nephron, suggesting that these nanoparticles may be filtered by the kidney at a different rate than the neutral or negatively charged nanoparticles. We find that positively and negatively-charged nanoparticles accumulate extensively in the red pulp of the spleen. In contrast, uncharged nanoparticles accumulate in the white pulp and marginal zone of the spleen to a greater extent than the positively or negatively-charged nanoparticles. Moreover, these uncharged nanoparticles are also more likely to be found associated with Kupffer cells in the liver. Positively-charged nanoparticles accumulate extensively in liver hepatocytes, whereas negatively-charged nanoparticles show a broader distribution in the liver. Together these observations suggest that neutral nanoparticles having 2 nm cores may interact with the immune system to a greater extent than charged nanoparticles, highlighting the value of determining the sub-organ distributions of nanomaterials for delivery and imaging applications.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · ACS Nano
  • Jihoon Cha · Sung Tae Kim · Won Beom Jung · Yong Hee Han · Geun Ho Im · Jung Hee Lee
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke is accompanied by structural deformation and functional deficits in the affected hemisphere. Within a couple of hours after symptom onset, the accurate identification of brain characteristics is critical to design the therapeutic strategies and it can potentially improve overall brain tissue viability by minimizing irreversible brain damage. In this study, white matter integrity and functional connectivity within 2-4h after right middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were investigated using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging. During this stage, diffusion tensor image (DTI) revealed that fractional anisotropy along the ipsilesional external capsule was slightly increased as compared with preoperative baseline. Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) showed that the inter-hemispheric functional connectivities from primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory of forelimb (S1FL), and barrel field (S1BF) seeds were considerably reduced at the hyperacute stage. Fractional amplitudes of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from rs-fMRI were significantly enhanced at the hyperacute stage in the frequency spectrum between 0.01 to 0.08Hz. In addition, the changes in fALFF were negatively correlated with the number of functionally connected voxels in M1, S1FL and S1BF. Our results suggest that these techniques are useful tools to evaluate remarkable brain changes in the hyperacute stage of ischemic stroke.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a family of cationic gold nanoparticles (NPs) with similar size and charge, we demonstrate that proper surface engineering can control the nature and identity of protein corona in physiological serum conditions. The protein coronas were highly dependent on the hydrophobicity and arrangement of chemical motifs on NP surface. The NPs were uptaken in macrophages in a corona-dependent manner, predominantly through recognition of specific complement proteins in the NP corona. Taken together, this study shows that surface functionality can be used to tune the protein corona formed on NP surface, dictating the interaction of NPs with macrophages.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · ACS Nano
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have unique properties that make them important biomedical materials. Optimal use of these materials, though, requires an understanding of their fate in vivo. Here we describe the use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to image the biodistributions of AuNPs in tissues from mice intravenously injected with AuNPs. We demonstrate for the first time that the distributions of very small (~ 2 nm core) monolayer-protected AuNPs can be imaged in animal tissues at concentrations in the low parts-per-billion range. Moreover, the LA-ICP-MS images reveal that the monolayer coatings on the injected AuNPs influence their distributions, suggesting that the AuNPs remain intact in vivo and their surface chemistry influences how they interact with different organs. We also demonstrate that quantitative images of the AuNPs can be generated when the appropriate tissue homogenates are chosen for matrix matching. Overall, these results demonstrate the utility of LA-ICP-MS for tracking the fate of biomedically-relevant AuNPs in vivo, facilitating the design of improved AuNP-based therapeutics.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · The Analyst
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the topographic changes of white matter (WM) integrity and cortical thickness related to gait disturbances and determine whether these neural correlates mediate the association between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and gait disturbances. Methods: A total of 129 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment were included. CSVD severity was quantified as global and regional WM hyperintensities (WMH) volume and lacune and microbleed numbers. Amyloid burdens were assessed using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET scanning. Gait score was measured using a standardized scale. WM integrity was assessed by applying tract-based spatial statistics. Cortical thickness was measured using surface-based methods. Path analysis for gait score was performed using regional CSVD markers as predictors and fractional anisotropy (FA) and cortical thickness as mediators. Results: Periventricular WMH (PWMH) volume was associated with gait score, regardless of other CSVD. PiB retention ratio was not associated with gait score. Gait score was correlated with FA in the frontal and parietal WM and bilateral corpus callosum and with cortical thinning in the bilateral frontal and lateral temporo-parieto-occipital regions. Path analysis for gait score showed that PWMH contributed to gait disturbances with the mediation of mean FA or cortical thickness. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that WMH-related cortical thinning as well as disrupted integrity of periventricular WM is linked to gait disturbances.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Neurology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Minimizing pituitary dysfunction by preservation of the normal pituitary gland has a significant clinical impact on patient outcome after pituitary surgery. This study aimed to determine whether re-expansion of normal gland after surgery was related to endocrinological outcome. Methods: From January 2012 to July 2014, 112 patients were eligible for this retrospective study. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with dynamic contrast enhancement at the pre and postoperative 2 days and 3 months was evaluated to assess the tumor and normal pituitary gland. We assessed the size of pituitary gland and evaluated the relationship with endocrinological outcome. Results: The mean preoperative size of glands was 3.86 mm, 5.50 mm within postoperative 2 days, and 7.17 mm after postoperative 3 months. Patients were grouped based on the requirement of hormone replacement preoperatively. Patients who required hormone replacement therapy before surgery and did not recover from hormonal insufficiency were classified as group 1 (26 patients), those who recovered from preoperative hormonal insufficiency and discontinued hormone replacement after surgery were classified as group 2 (17 patients), and those who showed hormonally normal status and did not need hormone replacement before-and after-surgery as group 3 (68 patients). In group 1, size of the gland expanded 1.24 times within postoperative 2 days but had no increase after 3 months (1.25mm) (p=0.716). Group 2 showed 1.30 times larger gland within postoperative 2 days and 2.37 at 3 months follow up (p=0.001). Group 3 showed 1.62 and 2.1, each respectively. Conclusion: Serial re-expansion of the normal pituitary gland at the 3 month follow-up MR imaging can predict the endocrinological recovery.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · World Neurosurgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We postulated that multicentric glioblastoma (GBM) represents more invasiveness form than solitary GBM and has their own genomic characteristics. From May 2004 to June 2010 we retrospectively identified 51 treatment-naïve GBM patients with available clinical information from the Samsung Medical Center data registry. Multicentricity of the tumor was defined as the presence of multiple foci on the T1 contrast enhancement of MR images or having high signal for multiple lesions without contiguity of each other on the FLAIR image. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that multicentric GBM had worse prognosis than solitary GBM (median, 16.03 vs. 20.57 months, p < 0.05). Copy number variation (CNV) analysis revealed there was an increase in 11 regions, and a decrease in 17 regions, in the multicentric GBM. Gene expression profiling identified 738 genes to be increased and 623 genes to be decreased in the multicentric radiophenotype (p < 0.001). Integration of the CNV and expression datasets identified twelve representative genes: CPM, LANCL2, LAMP1, GAS6, DCUN1D2, CDK4, AGAP2, TSPAN33, PDLIM1, CLDN12, and GTPBP10 having high correlation across CNV, gene expression and patient outcome. Network and enrichment analyses showed that the multicentric tumor had elevated fibrotic signaling pathways compared with a more proliferative and mitogenic signal in the solitary tumors. Noninvasive radiological imaging together with integrative radiogenomic analysis can provide an important tool in helping to advance personalized therapy for the more clinically aggressive subset of GBM.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Oncotarget
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system, in which single N-terminal residues act as a determinant of a class of degrons, called N-degrons. In the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system, specific recognition components, called N-recognins, recognize N-degrons and accelerate polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the substrates. In this study, we show that the pathway regulates the activity of the macroautophagic receptor SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) through N-terminal arginylation (Nt-arginylation) of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing molecular chaperones, including HSPA5/GRP78/BiP, CALR (calreticulin), and protein disulfide isomerases. The arginylation is co-induced with macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) as part of innate immunity to cytosolic DNA and when misfolded proteins accumulate under proteasomal inhibition. Following cytosolic relocalization and arginylation, Nt-arginylated HSPA5 (R-HSPA5) is targeted to autophagosomes and degraded by lysosomal hydrolases through the interaction of its N-terminal Arg (Nt-Arg) with ZZ domain of SQSTM1. Upon binding to Nt-Arg, SQSTM1 undergoes a conformational change, which promotes SQSTM1self-polymerization and interaction with LC3, leading to SQSTM1 targeting to autophagosomes. Cargoes of R-HSPA5 include cytosolic misfolded proteins destined to be degraded through autophagy. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which the N-end rule pathway regulates SQSTM1-dependent selective autophagy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Autophagy
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify the pathogenesis of plunging ranulas in regard of the pathway of lesion propagation using CT scans. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed CT scans of 41 patients with plunging ranula. We divided plunging ranulas into two types: type 1 was defined as those directly passing through a defect of the mylohyoid muscle with the presence (type 1A) or absence (type 1B) of the tail sign and type 2 as those through the traditional posterior route along the free edge of the mylohyoid muscle. Images were also analyzed for the extent of the lesion in respect to the spaces involved. As for type 1 lesions, we recorded the location of the defect of the mylohyoid muscle and the position of the sublingual gland in relation to the defect. Results: CT scans demonstrated type 1 lesion in 36 (88%), including type 1A in 14 and type 1B in 22, and type 2 lesion in 5 (12%). Irrespective of the type, the submandibular space was seen to be involved in all cases either alone or in combination with one or more adjacent spaces. Of the 36 patients with type 1 lesions, the anterior one-third was the most common location of the defect of the mylohyoid muscle, seen in 22 patients. The sublingual gland partially herniated in 30 patients. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the majority of plunging ranulas take an anterior shortcut through a defect of the mylohyoid muscle.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Radiology
  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Progressed tissue culture techniques have allowed us to easily obtain mass products of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng over 100 yr old (TCMG-100). We investigated the effects of TCMG-100 extract on erectile function using in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: To examine the relaxation effects and mechanisms of action of TCMG-100 on rabbit cavernosal strips evaluated in an organ bath. To investigate the long-term treatment effect of TCMG-100, 8-wk administration was performed. After administration of TCMG-100, intracavernosal pressure, cyclic guanosine monophosphate and nitric oxide (NO) levels of cavernosal tissue, serum testosterone level, histological observation of collagen fiber, endothelium, smooth muscle cell, and transforming growth factor-β1 were investigated. Results: TCMG-100 extract displayed dose-dependent relaxation effects on precontracted rabbit corporal smooth muscle. The TCMG-100-induced relaxation was significantly reduced by removing the endothelium, and treatment with an NO synthase inhibitor or NO scavenger. Eight weeks of TCMG-100 administration increased intracavernosal pressure in a rat model. The levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and NO in the corpus callosum and serum testosterone level were also increased by TCMG-100 treatment. Furthermore, histological evaluation of collagen, smooth muscle, and endothelium showed increases in endothelium and smooth muscle, and a decrease in transforming growth factor-β1 expression. Conclusion: These relaxation effects on corporal smooth muscle and increased erectile function suggest that TCMG-100 might be used as an alternative herbal medicine to improve erectile function.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of ginseng research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed structural brain damage in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) patients (21 males) and the effects of long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment (18.2 ± 12.4 months; 8-44 months) on brain structures and investigated the relationship between severity of OSA and effects of treatment. Using deformation-based morphometry to measure local volume changes, we identified widespread neocortical and cerebellar atrophy in untreated patients compared to controls (59 males; Cohen's D = 0.6; FDR < 0.05). Analysis of longitudinally scanned magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans both before and after treatment showed increased brain volume following treatment (FDR < 0.05). Volume increase was correlated with longer treatment in the cortical areas that largely overlapped with the initial atrophy. The areas overlying the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the cerebellar dentate nucleus displayed a volume increase after treatment. Patients with very severe OSA (AHI > 64) presented with prefrontal atrophy and displayed an additional volume increase in this area following treatment. Higher impairment of working memory in patients prior to treatment correlated with prefrontal volume increase after treatment. The large overlap between the initial brain damage and the extent of recovery after treatment suggests partial recovery of nonpermanent structural damage. Volume increases in the dentate gyrus and the dentate nucleus possibly likely indicate compensatory neurogenesis in response to diminishing oxidative stress. Such changes in other brain structures may explain gliosis, dendritic volume increase, or inflammation. This study provides neuroimaging evidence that revealed the positive effects of long-term CPAP treatment in patients with OSA. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Human Brain Mapping
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the independent and synergistic effects of amyloid and small vessel disease (SVD) burden on longitudinal cognitive decline in patients with subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted involving patients from outpatient clinics of 2 tertiary referral centers. Sixty-one patients with SVaD were prospectively recruited and underwent MRI, 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET at baseline, and a 3-year annual neuropsychological follow-up. Effects of PiB positivity and SVD markers (white matter hyperintensities [WMH], lacunes, and microbleeds) on longitudinal cognitive decline were evaluated using generalized estimation equation after controlling for age, sex, education, APOE4 allele, and follow-up interval. Results: When individual neuropsychological tests were used as outcome measures, PiB positivity was associated with faster cognitive decline in attention, visuospatial, visual memory, and global cognition function. Higher WMH burden was associated with faster cognitive decline in attention, visuospatial, visual recognition memory, and semantic/phonemic fluency function, whereas lacunes and microbleeds had no significant effects. When global dementia rating (Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes) was considered as an outcome measure, however, only PiB positivity was associated with faster cognitive decline. Significant interactions between PiB positivity and higher SVD burden were found to affect cognitive decline in semantic word fluency (from WMH burden) and global dementia rating (from microbleed burden). Conclusions: In SVaD patients, amyloid burden, independently or interactively with SVD, contributed to longitudinal cognitive decline. Amyloid deposition was the strongest poor prognostic factor.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Neurology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze outcomes in patients treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 817 patients who underwent GKS for brain metastases from NSCLC between January 2002 and December 2012. A total of 1363 GKS procedures were performed for 2970 lesions. The median overall survival time from the initial GKS was 13 months and the salvage treatment-free survival from the first GKS was 6.5 months. Younger age (≤65 years), female sex, better RPA class, higher DS-GPA score, adenocarcinoma, synchronous onset, and lower integrated value of the "numbers and cumulative volume of tumors" were associated with better outcomes. Among the 601 patients with an available follow up image, the pattern of the first progression after initial GKS was the development of new lesions in 356 patients (59.2 %), regrowth of treated lesions in 106 patients (17.6 %), and leptomeningeal seeding (LMS) in 51 patients (8.5 %). Among the deceased, the last MRI performed prior to death was evaluated in 409 patients and showed progression in 263 patients (64.3 %), despite multiple salvage treatments. LMS was identified in 63 patients (15.4 %); a rate much higher than the incidence at first progression. Intracranial tumor burden, defined as the integrated value of the "number of the lesions and cumulative tumor volume", is a new prognostic factor of greater significance than tumor volume or number alone when analyzed as separate factors. Although the cause of death was not progression of brain lesions in the majority of patients, the brain lesions tended to have been persistently progressive in most patients, despite repeated salvage treatment. LMS is an important pattern of treatment failure, in addition to local progression or development of new lesions, particularly in the terminal phase of the disease.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Friction in a post-tensioning system has a significant effect on the distribution of the prestressing force of tendons in prestressed concrete structures. However, attempts to derive friction coefficients using conventional electrical resistance strain gauges do not usually lead to reliable results, mainly due to the damage of sensors and lead wires during the insertion of strands into the sheath and during tensioning. In order to overcome these drawbacks of the existing measurement system, the Smart Strand was developed in this study to accurately measure the strain and prestressing force along the strand. In the Smart Strand, the core wire of a 7-wire strand is replaced with carbon fiber reinforced polymer in which the fiber Bragg grating sensors are embedded. As one of the applications of the Smart Strand, friction coefficients were evaluated using a full-scale test of a 20 m long beam. The test variables were the curvature, diameter, and filling ratio of the sheath. The analysis results showed the average wobble and curvature friction coefficients of 0.0038/m and 0.21/radian, respectively, which correspond to the middle of the range specified in ACI 318-08 in the U.S. and Structural Concrete Design Code in Korea. Also, the accuracy of the coefficients was improved by reducing the effective range specified in these codes by 27–34 %. This study shows the wide range of applicability of the developed Smart Strand system.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The equipment and techniques associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have rapidly evolved. The development of 3.0 Tesla MRI has enabled high-resolution imaging of the intracranial vessel wall. High-resolution MRI (HRMRI) can yield excellent visualization of both the arterial wall and lumen, thus facilitating the detection of the primary and secondary features of intracranial arterial dissection. In the present report, we describe the manner in which HRMRI affected our endovascular treatment planning strategy in 2 cases with unruptured intracranial vertebral artery dissection aneurysm. HRMRI provides further information about the vessel wall and the lumen of the unruptured intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm, which was treated by an endovascular approach in the 2 current cases.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • Mi-kyung Han · Sohwa Kim · Sung Tae Kim · Jong Chan Lee
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An efficient bismuth tribromide catalyzed oxidation of various alcohols with aqueous hydrogen peroxide is described, leading to the corresponding carbonyl compounds.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Synlett
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the relationship between education and cortical thickness in cognitively normal individuals to determine whether education attenuated the association of advanced aging and cortical thinning. A total of 1,959 participants, in whom education levels were available, were included in the final analysis. Cortical thickness was measured on high-resolution MRIs using a surface-based method. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed for education level and cortical thickness, after controlling for possible confounders. High levels of education were correlated with increased mean cortical thickness throughout the entire cortex (p = 0.003). This association persisted after controlling for vascular risk factors. Statistical maps of cortical thickness showed that the high levels of education were correlated with increased cortical thickness in the bilateral premotor areas, anterior cingulate cortices, perisylvian areas, right superior parietal lobule, left lingual gyrus, and occipital pole. There were also interactive effects of age and education on the mean cortical thickness (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest the protective effect of education on cortical thinning in cognitively normal older individuals, regardless of vascular risk factors. This effect was found only in the older participants, suggesting that the protective effects of education on cortical thickness might be achieved by increased resistance to structural loss from aging rather than by simply providing a fixed advantage in the brain. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Neurology
  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015

Publication Stats

3k Citations
997.27 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006-2015
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hanyang University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011-2014
    • Korea University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006-2014
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Chung-Ang University
      • School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010-2013
    • Korea Institute of Construction Technology
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
    • Woosong University
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2009-2010
    • Community Tissue Services
      Fresno, California, United States
    • Hyundai Motor Company
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Konyang University
      • College of Medicine
      Ronsan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
  • 2007
    • Korea National Police University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • National Fisheries Research and Development Institution
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • LG Electronics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005-2007
    • Inha University
      • Department of Polymer Science and Engineering
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Konyang University Hospital
      Gaigeturi, Jeju, South Korea
  • 2002
    • DePaul University
      Chicago, Illinois, United States