[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel class of pyridinyl aminohydantoins was designed and prepared as highly potent BACE1 inhibitors. Compound (S)-4g showed excellent potency with IC(50) of 20 nM for BACE1. X-ray crystallography indicated that the interaction between pyridine nitrogen and the tryptophan Trp76 was a key feature in the S2' region of the enzyme that contributed to increased potency.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proteolytic enzyme beta-secretase (BACE1) plays a central role in the synthesis of the pathogenic beta-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. Recently, we reported small molecule acylguanidines as potent BACE1 inhibitors. However, many of these acylguanidines have a high polar surface area (e.g. as measured by the topological polar surface area or TPSA), which is unfavorable for crossing the blood-brain barrier. Herein, we describe the identification of the 2-aminopyridine moiety as a bioisosteric replacement of the acylguanidine moiety, which resulted in inhibitors with lower TPSA values and superior brain penetration. X-ray crystallographic studies indicated that the 2-aminopyridine moiety interacts directly with the catalytic aspartic acids Asp32 and Asp228 via a hydrogen-bonding network.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of highly selective small molecule di-substituted pyridinyl aminohydantoins as beta-secretase inhibitors is reported. The more potent and selective analogs demonstrate low nanomolar potency for the BACE1 enzyme as measured in a FRET assay, and exhibit comparable activity in a cell-based (ELISA) assay. In addition, these pyridine-aminohydantoins are highly selectivity (>500x) against the other structurally related aspartyl proteases BACE2, cathepsin D, pepsin and renin. Our design strategy followed a traditional SAR approach and was supported by molecular modeling studies based on the previously reported aminohydantoin 3a. We have taken advantage of the amino acid difference between the BACE1 and BACE2 at the S2' pocket (BACE1 Pro(70) changed to BACE2 Lys(86)) to build ligands with >500-fold selectivity against BACE2. The addition of large substituents on the targeted ligand at the vicinity of this aberration has generated a steric conflict between the ligand and these two proteins, thus impacting the ligand's affinity and selectivity. These ligands have also shown an exceptional selectivity against cathepsin D (>5000-fold) as well as the other aspartyl proteases mentioned. One of the more potent compounds (S)-39 displayed an IC(50) value for BACE1 of 10nM, and exhibited cellular activity with an EC(50) value of 130nM in the ELISA assay.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of small molecule aminohydantoins as potent and selective human beta-secretase inhibitors is reported. These analogues exhibit low nannomolar potency for BACE1, show comparable activity in a cell-based (ELISA) assay, and demonstrate >100x selectivity for the other structurally related aspartyl proteases BACE2, cathepsinD, renin, and pepsin. On the basis of the cocrystal structure of the HTS-hit 2 in the BACE1 active site and by use of a structure-based drug design approach, we methodically explored the comparatively large binding pocket of the BACE1 enzyme and identified key interactions between the ligand and the protein that contributed to the affinity. One of the more potent compounds, (S)-55, displayed an IC(50) value for BACE1 of 10 nM and exhibited comparable cellular activity (EC(50) = 20 nM) in the ELISA assay. Acute oral administration of (S)-55 at 100 mg/kg resulted in a 69% reduction of plasma A beta(40) at 8 h in a Tg2576 mouse (p < 0.001).
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of small molecule aminoimidazoles as potent and selective human beta-secretase inhibitors is reported. These analogues demonstrate low nannomolar potency for BACE1 in a FRET assay, exhibit comparable activity in a cell-based (ELISA) assay, and show >100x selectivity for the other structurally related aspartyl proteases BACE2, cathepsin D, renin, and pepsin. Our design strategy was supported by molecular modeling studies based on the cocrystal structure of the HTS-hit 3 in the BACE1 active site. These strategies enabled us to integrate pyridine and pyrimidine groups on 3 extending deep into the S3 region of the BACE1 binding pocket and enhancing the ligand's potency. Compound (R)-37 displayed an IC50 value for BACE1 of 20 nM, cellular activity of 90 nM, and >100-fold selectivity over related aspartyl proteases. Acute oral administration of (R)-37 at 30 mg/kg resulted in a significant 71% reduction of plasma Abeta40 measured at the 6 h time point in a Tg2576 mouse model (p < 0.001).
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: gamma-Secretase inhibitors have been shown to reduce the production of beta-amyloid, a component of the plaques that are found in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. A novel series of heterocyclic sulfonamide gamma-secretase inhibitors that reduce beta-amyloid levels in cells is reported. Several examples of compounds within this series demonstrate a higher propensity to inhibit the processing of amyloid precursor protein compared to Notch, an alternative gamma-secretase substrate.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta), produced by the proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretase, is widely believed to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research around the high-throughput screening hit (S)-4-chlorophenylsulfonyl isoleucinol led to the identification of the Notch-1-sparing (9.5-fold) gamma-secretase inhibitor (S)-N-(5-chlorothiophene-2-sulfonyl)-beta,beta-diethylalaninol 7.b.2 (Abeta(40/42) EC(50)=28 nM), which is efficacious in reduction of Abeta production in vivo.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inheritance of the apoE4 allele (epsilon4) increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease; however, the mechanisms underlying this association remain elusive. Recent data suggest that inheritance of epsilon4 may lead to reduced apoE protein levels in the CNS. We therefore examined apoE protein levels in the brains, CSF and plasma of epsilon2/2, epsilon3/3, and epsilon4/4 targeted replacement mice. These apoE mice showed a genotype-dependent decrease in apoE levels; epsilon2/2 >epsilon3/3 >epsilon4/4. Next, we sought to examine the relative contributions of apoE4 and apoE3 in the epsilon3/4 mouse brains. ApoE4 represented 30-40% of the total apoE. Moreover, the absolute amount of apoE3 per allele was similar between epsilon3/3 and epsilon3/4 mice, implying that the reduced levels of total apoE in epsilon3/4 mice can be explained by the reduction in apoE4 levels. In culture medium from epsilon3/4 human astrocytoma or epsilon3/3, epsilon4/4 and epsilon3/4 primary astrocytes, apoE4 levels were consistently lower than apoE3. Secreted cholesterol levels were also lower from epsilon4/4 astrocytes. Pulse-chase experiments showed an enhanced degradation and reduced half-life of newly synthesized apoE4 compared with apoE3. Together, these data suggest that astrocytes preferentially degrade apoE4, leading to reduced apoE4 secretion and ultimately to reduced brain apoE levels. Moreover, the genotype-dependent decrease in CNS apoE levels, mirror the relative risk of developing AD, and suggest that low levels of total apoE exhibited by epsilon4 carriers may directly contribute to the disease progression, perhaps by reducing the capacity of apoE to promote synaptic repair and/or Abeta clearance.
Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SAR on HTS hits 1 and 2 led to the potent, Notch-1-sparing GSI 9, which lowered brain Abeta in Tg2576 mice at 100 mg/kg po. Converting the metabolically labile methyl groups in 9 to trifluoromethyl groups afforded the more stable analogue 10, which had improved in vivo potency. Further side chain modification afforded the potent Notch-1-sparing GSI begacestat (5), which was selected for development for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a cell-based assay, we have identified a new series of Notch-sparing gamma-secretase inhibitors from HTS screening leads 2a and 2e. Lead optimization studies led to the discovery of analog 8e with improved gamma-secretase inhibitory potency and Notch-sparing selectivity.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by beta-secretase (BACE-1) and gamma-secretase leads to formation of beta-amyloid (A beta) a key component of amyloid plaques, which are considered the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Small molecule inhibitors of BACE-1 may reduce levels of A beta and thus have therapeutic potential for treating Alzheimer's disease. We recently reported the identification of a novel small molecule BACE-1 inhibitor N-[2-(2,5-diphenyl-pyrrol-1-yl)-acetyl]guanidine (3.a.1). We report here the initial hit-to-lead optimization of this hit and the SAR around the aryl groups occupying the S(1) and S(2') pockets leading to submicromolar BACE-1 inhibitors.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proteolytic enzyme beta-secretase (BACE-1) produces amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide, the primary constituent of neurofibrillary plaques, implicated in Alzheimer's disease, by cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. A small molecule inhibitor of BACE-1, (diaminomethylene)-2,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrole-1-acetamide (1, BACE-1 IC(50)=3.7 microM), was recently described, representing a new small molecule lead. Initial SAR investigation demonstrated the potential of accessing the nearby S(3) and S(1)(') substrate binding pockets of the BACE-1 enzyme by building substituents off one of the phenyl substituents and guanidinyl functional group. We report here the optimization of guanidinyl functional group substituents on 1, leading to potent submicromolar BACE-1 inhibitors.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of thiophene-substituted acylguanidines were designed from a pyrrole substituted acylguanidine HTS lead. This template allowed a greater flexibility, through differential Suzuki couplings, to explore the binding site of BACE1 and to enhance the inhibitory potencies. This exploration provided a 25-fold enhancement in potency to yield compound 10a, which was 150 nM in a BACE1 FRET assay.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACE1 is an aspartyl protease responsible for cleaving amyloid precursor protein to liberate Abeta, which aggregates leading to plaque deposits implicated in Alzheimer's disease. We have identified small-molecule acylguanidine inhibitors of BACE1. Crystallographic studies show that these compounds form unique hydrogen-bonding interactions with the catalytic site aspartic acids and stabilize the protein in a flap-open conformation. Structure-based optimization led to the identification of potent analogs, such as 10d (BACE1 IC(50) = 110 nM).
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry