[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has a bidirectional role in the development and maturation of zygotes and embryos. Reduction-oxidation reactions and regulatory proteins, such as thioredoxin (TRX) and thioredoxin reductase (TRXR), are intimately involved in the regulation of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of TRX mRNA and protein in ovarian follicles collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and to assess these levels relative to follicle size, presence of oocytes, and responsiveness to superovulation. Follicular fluid (FF) and/or granulosa cells (GCs) from large and small follicles were collected at the time of ovum pick-up from 42 IVF patients enrolled in this study. We divided the patients into normal and poor responders (NR and PR, respectively) based on the serum estradiol levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. We also compared the TRX concentration in FF (FF-TRX) between oocyte-containing follicles (Oc+) and empty follicles (Oc-). The transcript levels of TRX, but not TRXR, were significantly higher in GCs derived from follicles collected from NR than PR, as determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In NR, the FF-TRX was significantly higher in Oc+ follicles than in Oc- follicles and also in large Oc+ follicles than in large Oc- follicles. Unlike NR, PR exhibited no positive association with elevated FF-TRX and presence of oocytes. Based on its collective anti-oxidative, cytoprotective, and cytokine-like properties of TRX, TRX is likely to be involved in the optimal growth and maturation of ovarian follicles and responsiveness to hyperstimulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate whether the introduction of single embryo transfer (SET) policy in Japan has improved perinatal outcomes.
A retrospective cohort study.
A total of 140,718 live births and 510 stillbirths (after 22 weeks of gestation) conceived by assisted reproductive technology in Japan between 2007 and 2012 were reviewed.
Main outcome measure(s):
Preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), perinatal mortality, and other pregnancy complications.
The rate of SET increased significantly from 52.2% in 2007 to 82.6% in 2012, while the rate of multiple pregnancy decreased significantly from 10.7% to 4.1% over the same period. The rates of PTB, LBW, and SGA decreased significantly, while that of LGA increased. Perinatal mortality decreased from 0.70% to 0.40% in fresh cycles, while that of frozen cycles did not change. Double ET or more was associated with a significantly increased risk for multiple pregnancy, placenta accreta, preterm premature rupture of membrane, cesarean section (CS), PTB, LBW, SGA, and early neonatal death compared with SET. Compared with before the SET policy was launched, the risks of multiple pregnancy, CS, early PTB before 32 weeks, LBW, VLBW, and SGA were significantly decreased after the policy was launched, with significant interactions of fresh/frozen status.
The results suggest that the SET policy improved perinatal outcomes in Japan. The impact of SET policy was different in fresh and frozen cycles for several perinatal outcomes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repeated and dramatic pregnancy-induced uterine enlargement and remodeling throughout reproductive life suggests the existence of uterine smooth muscle stem/progenitor cells. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize stem/progenitor-like cells from human myometrium through identification of specific surface markers. We here identify CD49f and CD34 as markers to permit selection of the stem/progenitor cell-like population from human myometrium and show that human CD45(-) CD31(-) glycophorin A(-) and CD49f(+) CD34(+) myometrial cells exhibit stem cell-like properties. These include side population phenotypes, an undifferentiated status, high colony forming ability, multi-lineage differentiation into smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes, and in vivo myometrial tissue reconstitution following xenotransplantation. Furthermore, CD45(-) CD31(-) glycophorin A(-) and CD49f(+) CD34(+) myometrial cells proliferate under hypoxic conditions in vitro and, compared with the untreated non-pregnant myometrium, show greater expansion in the estrogen-treated non-pregnant myometrium and further in the pregnant myometrium in mice upon xenotransplantation. These results suggest that the newly identified myometrial stem/progenitor-like cells influenced by hypoxia and sex steroids may participate in pregnancy-induced uterine enlargement and remodeling, providing novel insights into human myometrial physiology.
Copyright 2015 by The Society for the Study of Reproduction.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key Clinical Message
Peritoneal pregnancy may cause severe abdominal bleeding without genital bleeding as early as the fifth week of gestation. Awareness that pregnancy can exist in unusual locations is imperative.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To clarify the molecular basis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH).
Genome-wide copy number analysis by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and systematic mutation screening of 29 known causative genes by next-generation sequencing, followed by in silico functional assessment and messenger RNA/DNA analyses of the mutants/variants.
Fifty-eight patients with isolated HH (IHH), combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), and syndromic HH.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Frequency and character of molecular abnormalities.
Pathogenic defects were identified in 14 patients with various types of HH, although oligogenicity was not evident in this patient group. As rare abnormalities, we identified a submicroscopic deletion involving FGFR1 and an SOX3 polyalanine deletion in patients with IHH, and a WDR11 splice site mutation in a patient with CPHD. No disease-associated polymorphism was detected in the 58 patients.
The present study provides further evidence that mutations and deletions in the known causative genes play a relatively minor role in the etiology of HH and that submicroscopic rearrangements encompassing FGFR1 can lead to IHH as a sole recognizable clinical feature. Furthermore, the results indicate for the first time that polyalanine deletions in SOX3 and mutations in WDR11 constitute rare genetic causes of IHH and CPHD, respectively.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Fertility and Sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetuses with concomitant duodenal atresia (DA) and esophageal atresia (EA) might develop in utero gastric rupture as well as neonatal respiratory complication due to dilated stomach and duodenum. Our patient with the typical “double bubble” appearance was highly suspected to have DA in the second trimester. Follow-up examinations revealed a massively dilated stomach and duodenum with a dilated distal esophagus, indicating concomitant DA and EA. With advancing pregnancy, the fetal abdomen progressively increased in size by retention of fluid in the closed loop of DA and EA. To avoid gastric perforation, prenatal stomach paracentesis using an ultrasound-guided needle was performed three times until delivery. A male neonate born at 37 weeks gestation showed no respiratory complication. Perinatal clinical features and operative findings revealed combined DA and EA (gross type A). He was successfully managed with duodenoduodenostomy, followed by esophago-esophagostomy. On fetal sonography, the marked “double bubble” appearance and the cystic structure presenting peristalsis-like movement above the diaphragm were indicative of concomitant DA and EA. Fetal stomach paracentesis could contribute to the improvement of perinatal outcomes in fetuses with this pathological condition.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, infertility treatment-related psychological effects are receiving increased attention. However, whether sexual satisfaction is reduced amongst infertile couples remains to be elucidated. In this study, sexual satisfaction of Japanese infertile couples was assessed using a validated questionnaire designed to assess the male and female partner individually, and the couple as a whole for the first time. This study randomly included 170 infertile couples seen at the outpatient clinic and 170 couples that had recently achieved spontaneous pregnancy. All couples were given the Japanese version of the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). In couples aged 35 years or older, the male partners showed significantly worse sexual satisfaction scores than the female partners. Sexual satisfaction also deteriorated with therapeutic interventions, with mental factors affected more than physical factors. Therapeutic interventions such as timed sexual intercourse and assisted reproductive technology were considered emotionally stressful for infertile couples, with sexual satisfaction accordingly lower in this group than in couples achieving spontaneous pregnancy. GRISS successfully evaluated lower sexual satisfaction associated with infertility, and hence is a useful tool for identifying couples whose sexual satisfaction could be enhanced by counselling or other stress-reduction modalities.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of assisted hatching (AH) in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment.
Material and methods:
In this retrospective observational study, the data of patients who were registered in the National ART Registry System of Japan between January and December 2010 were analyzed. The descriptive statistics and validity of AH in fresh embryo transfer (ET) and frozen-thawed ET were assessed by using multiple logistic regression analyses.
From a total of 105,450 single ET, 46,029 (43.7%) cycles underwent AH. A total of 9737 (21.3%) and 36,292 (60.9%) cycles underwent AH from 45,818 fresh single ET and 59,632 frozen-thawed single ET, respectively. In the fresh ET patients that underwent AH, the clinical pregnancy and live birth rate were significantly decreased in patients of all ages compared with that of the non-AH group. In the frozen-thawed ET patients, there was no significant difference in pregnancy and live birth rate between the AH group and the non-AH group.
AH treatment was more frequently performed in frozen-thawed ET patients than in fresh ET patients, and in the blastocyst stage than in the early cleavage stage. A significantly decreased pregnancy and live birth rate was observed in the fresh ET patients who underwent AH. In the frozen-thawed ET patients who underwent AH, improvement in the clinical pregnancy and live birth rate was not observed. Further studies on the indication and application of AH in ART treatment are required.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the incidence of monozygotic twinning (MZT) among cases undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment.
We performed a retrospective observational study and analyzed the data of patients who were registered in the national ART registry system of Japan from January to December 2010; only the data of patients with single embryo transfer (ET) were included.
Of 30,405 pregnancies, 425 resulted in MZT following fresh and frozenthawed ET. The MZT incidence among women undergoing ART was 1.4 %. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that cases undergoing fresh and frozen-thawed ET, blastocyst transfer had a significantly increased MZT rate (P < 0.01). Assisted hatching (AH) and frozen-thawed ET and maternal age did not significantly affect the MZT incidence. Of 8510 fresh ET pregnancies, 104 resulted in MZT. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that blastocyst transfer significantly increased the MZT rate in cases undergoing fresh ET. Ovarian stimulation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, AH, and maternal age did not significantly affect the MZT incidence.
Blastocyst transfer was associated with an increased MZT incidence. We have to be aware of the potential risk of MZT caused by blastocyst transfer. However, further studies are required to assess the correlation among specific AH types, embryo culture conditions, and MZT incidence.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We induced differentiation of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs) and menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMCs) into endometrial stroma-like cells, which could be useful for cell therapy to support embryo implantation. Interestingly, the expression patterns of surface markers were similar among AMCs, MMCs, and endometrial stromal cells. In addition, whereas treatment with estrogen and progesterone was not very effective for decidualizing AMCs and MMCs, treatment with 8-Br-cAMP prompted remarkable morphological changes in these cells as well as increased expression of decidualization markers (prolactin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1) and attenuated expression of surface markers unique to mesenchymal stem cells. These results demonstrated that bone marrow-derived stem cells, which are considered a potential source of endometrial progenitor cells, as well as AMCs and MMCs show in vitro decidualization potential, which is characteristic of endometrial stromal cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and trends in assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Japan.
Data pertaining to treatment cycles, pregnancy rate, live birth rate, age distribution, single embryo transfer rate, and multiple pregnancy rate were analyzed for patients registered in the national ART registry system of Japan from 2007 to 2010.
The total number of treatment cycles was 161,164, 190,613, 213,800, and 242,161 in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. The number of ART treatments administered to patients aged ≥40 years was 31.2 %, 32.1 %, 33.4 %, and 35.7 %, respectively, showing an increasing trend from 2007 to 2010. In each of these years, the total pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 24.4 %, 21.9 %, 22.3 %, and 21.9 % for fresh cycles, respectively, and 32.0 %, 32.1 %, 32.5 %, and 33.7 % for frozen cycles, respectively. The single embryo transfer rate was 49.9 %, 63.6 %, 70.6 %, and 73.0 %, respectively, showing an increasing trend, while the multiple pregnancy rate was 11.5 %, 6.8 %, 5.3 %, and 4.8 %, respectively, showing a decreasing trend.
From 2007 to 2010 in Japan, the number of ART treatment cycles, number of elderly patients treated, and the single embryo transfer rate increased, while the multiple pregnancy rate decreased. However, the overall pregnancy rate remained stable during the study period.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of information on perinatal data regarding gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the new criteria from a real experience because the number of health care associations implementing the new criteria is still limited. The aim of this study is to investigate perinatal features of the new criteria-defined GDM. We reviewed a total of 995 women with singleton pregnancy that underwent GDM screening followed by a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All women found to have GDM underwent self-monitoring of blood glucose measurements as well as dietary management. Insulin treatment was initiated when dietary treatment did not achieve the glycemic goal. Of the 995 women, 141 had GDM (14.2%): 104 with one, 27 with two, and 10 with three abnormal OGTT values. Women with two or three abnormal OGTT values needed insulin treatment more frequently than those with one abnormal OGTT value (1-AV) (70.3% vs 23.1%, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for age, pregravid overweight, gestational weeks at diagnosis, a first-degree family history of diabetes was correlated with the implementation of insulin treatment in women with 1-AV (adjusted odds ratio 3.9; 95% Confidence Interval 1.7-9.2; P = 0.001). When compared perinatal outcomes between women with normal glucose tolerance and GDM, fetal growth and the occurrence of pregnancy-induced hypertension were comparable between the two groups. Our data suggest that the IADPSG-defined GDM with 1-AV show less severe glucose intolerance, but might be at risk of insulin requirement when a first-degree family history of diabetes exists.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oocytes may undergo two types of aging. The first is induced by exposure to an aged ovarian microenvironment before being ovulated, known as 'reproductive or maternal aging', and the second by either a prolonged stay in the oviduct before fertilization or in vitro aging prior to insemination, known as 'postovulatory aging'. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these aging processes remain to be elucidated. As telomere shortening in cultured somatic cells triggers replicative senescence, telomere shortening in oocytes during reproductive and postovulatory aging may predict developmental competence. This study aimed to ascertain the mechanisms underlying altered telomere biology in mouse oocytes during reproductive and postovulatory aging.
We studied Tert expression patterns, telomerase activity, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and telomere length in fresh oocytes from young versus reproductively-aged female mice retrieved from oviducts at 14 h post-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), in vivo or in vitro postovulatory-aged mouse oocytes at 23 h post-hCG. Oocytes were collected from super-ovulated C57BL/6 J mice of 6--8 weeks or 42--48 weeks of age. mRNA and protein expressions of the Tert gene were quantified using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunochemistry. Telomerase activity was measured by a telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, while telomere length was measured by Q-PCR and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses.
The abundance of Tert expression in oocytes significantly decreased during reproductive and postovulatory aging. Immunofluorescent staining clearly demonstrated an altered pattern and intensity of TERT protein expression in oocytes during reproductive aging. Furthermore, relative telomerase activity (RTA) in oocytes from reproductively-aged females was significantly lower than that in oocytes from young females. In contrast, RTA in postovulatory-aged oocytes was similar to that in fresh oocytes. Oocytes from reproductively-aged females and postovulatory-aged oocytes showed higher ROS levels than oocytes from young females. Relative telomere length (RTL) was remarkably shorter in oocytes from reproductively-aged females compared to oocytes from young females. However, postovulatory aging had no significant effect on RTL of oocytes.
Long-term adverse effects of low telomerase activity and increased ROS exposure are likely associated with telomere shortening in oocytes from reproductively-aged female mice.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) is a rare event that may result from a FSH-producing pituitary adenoma (FSHoma), activating mutations of the FSH receptor (FSHR), and cross-reactivity of the FSHR to elevated hCG and TSH in the setting of pregnancy or hypothyroidism. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an aberrant FSHR was present in a woman with sOHSS and a non-surgically diagnosed FSHoma whose serum FSH levels and FSH bioactivity were nearly normal. Sequencing of the patient's FSHR gene revealed a heterozygous novel missense mutation c. 1536G>A resulting in an amino acid substitution M512I. We asked whether this mutant FSHR affected FSHR-mediated signaling pathways involving cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog kinase (SRC)/ p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2). Thus, 293T cells expressing wild-type (FSHRwt), the mutant FSHR (FSHRmt), or both (FSHRwt/mt) were treated with FSH and subjected to measurements of intracellular cAMP, cAMP-induced CRE (cAMP response element)-mediated luciferase assays and immunoblot analyses of phosphorylated PI3K and ERK1/2. There were no differences in luciferase activities or phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 among FSHRwt, FSHRmt cells and FSHwt/mt cells. However, FSHRmt cells showed a significant reduction in both cAMP production and PI3K phosphorylation levels with unchanged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 upon FSH stimulation in comparison to FSHwt cells. Also, FSH treatment did not provoke PI3K phosphorylation in FSHwt/mt cells. These results indicate that the novel missense M512I FSHR mutation identified herein did not participate in hyperactivation of FSHR-mediated signaling pathways but rather in hypoactivation of the FSH-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, this study demonstrates a new functional property of this novel mutatnt FSHR, which, however, might not be involved in the pathogenesis of sOHSS in this FSHoma patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High titer of maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) in patients with Graves' disease could cause fetal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Clinical features of fetal hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, goiter, growth restriction, advanced bone maturation, cardiomegaly, and fetal death. The recognition and treatment of fetal hyperthyroidism are believed to be important to optimize growth and intellectual development in affected fetuses. We herein report a case of fetal treatment in two successive siblings showing in utero hyperthyroid status in a woman with a history of ablative treatment for Graves' disease. The fetuses were considered in hyperthyroid status based on high levels of maternal TRAb, a goiter, and persistent tachycardia. In particular, cardiac failure was observed in the second fetus. With intrauterine treatment using potassium iodine and propylthiouracil, fetal cardiac function improved. A high level of TRAb was detected in the both neonates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the changes of fetal cardiac function in response to fetal treatment in two siblings showing in utero hyperthyroid status. This case report illustrates the impact of prenatal medication via the maternal circulation for fetal hyperthyroidism and cardiac failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlation between the ooplasmic volume and the number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies in embryos and how they may affect fecundity.
Using real-time PCR, mtDNA quantification was analyzed in unfertilized oocytes and uncleaved embryos. The size of the ovum was also assessed by calculating the ooplasmic volume at the time of granulosa cell removal for IVF or ICSI. Quantification analysis of the mtDNA in blastomeres was performed by real-time PCR at the 7-8 cell stage of the cleaved embryos at 72 h after oocyte retrieval. We calculated the cytoplasmic volume of the blastomeres.
Our studies showed a significantly lower mtDNA copy number in unfertilized oocytes and uncleaved embryos in women who were older than 40 years of age (p < 0.05). The larger ooplasmic volume was also associated with earlier and more rapid cleavage (p < 0.05). The ooplasmic volume was also significantly larger in the group achieving pregnancy. We found a significant positive correlation between blastomere volume and the number of mtDNA copies (r = 0.76, p < 0.01, from Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient).
We have shown that blastomere volume is directly proportional to the number of mtDNA copies. Therefore, larger cytoplasmic volume, with earlier cleavage speed, implies more mtDNA copies. Evaluation of mtDNA quantification and the measurement of ooplasmic and blastomere volume may be useful for selection of high quality embryo and pregnancy outcome.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been recently proposed as one of the key factors responsible not only for promotion of nerve fiber growth but also for the onset and maintenance of pain in a variety of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NGF in the pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Tissue and peritoneal fluid samples were collected from 95 women with laparoscopically and histopathologically confirmed endometriosis and 59 control women without endometriosis. Expression levels of NGF mRNA and protein were examined using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Concentration of NGF in the peritoneal fluid (PF-NGF) was measured using ELISA. The degree of dyspareunia and dysmenorrhea was evaluated using a verbal rating scale. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that NGF mRNA was significantly more abundant in the ovarian endometriomas and peritoneal endometriosis than in the normal control endometrium. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that NGF was prominently expressed and preferentially localized to the glands of the ovarian endometriomas and peritoneal endometriosis, whereas it was only weakly detectable in the normal endometrium. Although PF-NGF was undetectable in some normal subjects and endometriosis patients, elevated PF-NGF in the peritoneal fluid was more frequently observed in endometriosis patients with severe pain than in those with less severe pain. Our results suggest that NGF produced locally in the peritoneal cavity may be involved in the generation of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To achieve a successful pregnancy in humans, sperm is required for capacitation, followed by binding to and entry into an oocyte. Maternal endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) prepare the appropriate implantation environment through regulation of immune cells and endometrial cells. After acquiring endometrial receptivity, a successful pregnancy consists of complex and finely regulated steps involving apposition, adhesion, invasion, and penetration. Glycodelin is a secretory glycoprotein that affects cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and motility. Glycodelin has four glycoforms (glycodelin-A, -S, -F. and -C); differences in glycosylation affect each characteristic function. Glycodelin has a unique temporospatial pattern of expression, primarily in the reproductive tract where glycodelin is mid-secretory phase-dominant. Recent studies have demonstrated that glycodelin protein has the potential to regulate various processes, including immunosuppression, fertilization, and implantation. This review details the orchestrated regulation of successful pregnancy by glycodelin as well as a discussion of the basic characteristics of glycodelin.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Reproductive Medicine and Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on myocardial characteristics examined by speckle-tracking echocardiography are limited. AIMS: To compare myocardial performance between the right and left ventricles during the fetal development using velocity vector imaging (VVI). SUBJECTS AND STUDY DESIGN: Echocardiograms of 95 uncomplicated singleton fetuses (19-36weeks pregnancy) were retrospectively analyzed by VVI to measure global longitudinal peak velocity, strain, and strain rate of both the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV). The regional values were calculated for three segments (base, mid, and apex) of the ventricular free wall and segment. OUTCOME MEASURES: The VVI-derived measurements were examined for gestational age and compared between ventricles. RESULTS: The global peak systolic and diastolic velocity values of both ventricles significantly increased over gestation examined, whereas the global systolic strain and strain rate were stable (RV: strain -22.6±5.0%, strain rate -2.6±0.7/s; LV: strain -21.5±5.6%, strain rate -2.5±0.7/s). Compared to the LV, the RV showed significantly higher global velocity in systole and diastole (P=0.001 for systole, P<0.001 for diastole). The global systolic velocity of the LV increased close to the RV toward term, whereas the RV was dominant in diastole throughout the examined gestation. Basal strain and strain rate in the RV were significantly greater than that of the LV, although there were no significant differences in the middle and apical values between ventricles. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the RV predominance of longitudinal contraction and dilatation, compared to the LV in uncomplicated fetuses.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Early human development