Roy Cameron

University of Waterloo, Ватерлоо, Ontario, Canada

Are you Roy Cameron?

Claim your profile

Publications (50)113.89 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) involves the incorporation of the best available research evidence along with other relevant sources of information for public health practice, program, and policy decisions; however gaps between this ideal and actual practice exist. This project aimed to explore whether and how a knowledge broker working collaboratively with public health decision makers facilitated evidence-informed decision making at one Ontario public health unit. Methods: Following the implementation of the one-year knowledge brokering intervention, one-to-one interviews were conducted in December 2009 with program specialists, managers, health promotion officers, the divisional director, and the knowledge broker. Questions specifically sought to understand perceptions of progress made, as well as challenges, barriers, and facilitators to evidence-informed decision making. Program specialists and their direct manager assessed their division’s capacity for evidence-informed decision making using the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation self-assessment tool. Interviews and group discussion were audio-taped. Data were analyzed and those involved responded to a preliminary report. Results: Evaluation of brokering in this context suggests that this practical, tailored approach to mentorship and skill development facilitated individual learning and team development; enabled the identification of organizational barriers and promoted intra-organizational knowledge sharing. Conclusions: Evaluation results will be presented along with the collaborative work and resources used and/or developed. Participants will learn of an innovative approach to promoting evidence-informed decision making at the individual and organizational levels, with strategies that may be transferable to other organizations.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2012
  • Article: Youth excel
    Barbara L Riley · Steve Manske · Roy Cameron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Population-level intervention is required to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases. It also promotes health for those living with established risk factors and illness. In this article, the authors describe a vision and approach for continuously improving population-level programs and policies within and beyond the health sector. The vision and approach are anchored in contemporary thinking about what is required to link evidence and action in the field of population and public health. The authors believe that, as a cancer prevention and control community, organizations and practitioners must be able to use the best available evidence to inform action and continually generate evidence that improves prevention policies and programs on an ongoing basis. These imperatives require leaders in policy, practice, and research fields to work together to jointly plan, conduct, and act on relevant evidence. The Propel Center and colleagues are implementing this approach in Youth Excel-a pan-Canadian initiative that brings together national and provincial organizations from health and education sectors and capitalizes on a history of collaboration. The objective of Youth Excel is to build sustainable capacity for knowledge development and exchange that can guide and redirect prevention efforts in a rapidly evolving social environment. This goal is to contribute to creating health-promoting environments and to accelerate progress in preventing cancer and other diseases among youth and young adults and in the wider population. Although prevention is the aim, health-promoting environments also can support health gains for individuals of all ages and with established illness. In addition, the approach Youth Excel is taking to link evidence and action may be applicable to early intervention and treatment components of cancer control.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Cancer
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This randomized clinical trial was designed to test the efficacy of intensive versus brief smoking cessation interventions for hospital patients. The interventions included advice and pamphlets for Brief and bedside counselling, take-home materials, and 7 post-discharge telephone counselling calls over 2 months for Intensive. Confirmed 1-year abstinence was 28% for Intensive (85/301) and 24% for Brief (76/315). Abstinence was significantly higher for patients who did not use pharmacotherapy (36%) versus those who did (16%) and for patients with CVD (40%) versus other diagnoses (20%). Because this was a replication trial, benchmarks for planning can be suggested: 12% to 15% recruitment of identified smokers, 90% plus completion for Intensive, 15% drop-out, and 75% abstinence corroboration. The results consolidate findings for general inpatients, including expected absolute abstinence and treatment outcomes, the effect of CVD patients on outcomes, the reproducibility of high abstinence in a universal health-care system, and the need for more research to inform practice.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · The Canadian journal of nursing research = Revue canadienne de recherche en sciences infirmières
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This randomized clinical trial was designed to test the efficacy of intensive versus brief smoking cessation interventions for hospital patients. The interventions included advice and pamphlets for Brief and bedside counselling, take-home materials, and 7 post-discharge telephone counselling calls over 2 months for Intensive. Confirmed 1-year abstinence was 28% for Intensive (85/301) and 24% for Brief (76/315). Abstinence was significantly higher for patients who did not use pharmacotherapy (36%) versus those who did (16%) and for patients with CVD (40%) versus other diagnoses (20%). Because this was a replication trial, benchmarks for planning can be suggested: 12% to 15% recruitment of identified smokers, 90% plus completion for Intensive, 15% drop-out, and 75% abstinence corroboration. The results consolidate findings for general inpatients, including expected absolute abstinence and treatment outcomes, the effect of CVD patients on outcomes, the reproducibility of high abstinence in a universal health-care system, and the need for more research to inform practice. French Cet essai clinique randomisé a été conçu pour évaluer, en cessation tabagique, l'efficacité des interventions intensives comparées aux interventions brèves, chez les patients hospitalisés. La prestation de conseils et la remise de dépliants figurent parmi les interventions brèves. Le counseling au chevet du patient, la remise de documentation à emporter et la prestation d'un couseling par la voie de sept appels téléphoniques à la suite d'un congé d'hôpital et s'échelonnant sur plus de deux mois figurent parmi les interventions intensives. Ces dernières ont généré une abstinence confirmée de 1 an chez 28 % de participants (85/301), alors que ce chiffre se situe à 24 % (76/315) pour les interventions brèves. Le taux d'abstinence était particulièrement élevé chez les patients qui n'ont pas eu recours à la pharmacothérapie (36 %), contrairement à ceux qui ont adopté cette approche (16 %). Tel était le cas aussi chez les patients atteints de maladies cardiovasculaires (40 %), par opposition aux personnes atteintes d'autres maladies (20 %). Puisqu'il s'agissait d'un essai clinique à répétition, des points de repères à des fins de planification ont été proposés : un recrutement de fumeurs identifiés de 12 % à 15 % ; une complétion de plus de 90 % pour les interventions intensives; 15 % d'impersévérance; et une corroboration d'abstinence de 75 %. Les résultats confirment les conclusions chez l'ensemble des patients hospitalisés, y compris celles portant sur l'abstinence absolue et les résultats de traitements anticipés, l'impact des patients atteints de maladies cardiovasculaires sur les résultats, la reproductibilité d'une abstinence élevée dans un système de soins de santé universels, et le besoin de poursuivre d'autres recherches pour éclairer la pratique.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Canadian journal of nursing research = Revue canadienne de recherche en sciences infirmières
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are no national data on levels of organizational capacity within the Canadian public health system to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Cross-sectional data were collected in a national survey (October 2004 to April 2005) of all 216 national, provincial and regional-level organizations engaged in chronic disease prevention through primary prevention or healthy lifestyle promotion. Levels of organizational capacity (defined as skills and resources to implement chronic disease prevention programmes), potential determinants of organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming were compared in western, central and eastern Canada and across three types of organizations (formal public health organizations, non-governmental organizations and grouped organizations). Forty percent of organizations were located in Central Canada. Approximately 50% were formal public health organizations. Levels of skill and involvement were highest for activities that addressed tobacco control and healthy eating; lowest for stress management, social determinants of health and programme evaluation. The few notable differences in skill levels by provincial grouping favoured Central Canada. Resource adequacy was rated low across the country; but was lowest in eastern Canada and among formal public health organizations. Determinants of organizational capacity (organizational supports and partnerships) were highest in central Canada and among grouped organizations. These data provide an evidence base to identify strengths and gaps in organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming in the organizations that comprise the Canadian public health system.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · The European Journal of Public Health
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Significant resources and time are invested in the production of research knowledge. The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of three knowledge translation and exchange strategies in the incorporation of research evidence into public health policies and programs. This trial was conducted with a national sample of public health departments in Canada from 2004 to 2006. The three interventions, implemented over one year in 2005, included access to an online registry of research evidence; tailored messaging; and a knowledge broker. The primary outcome assessed the extent to which research evidence was used in a recent program decision, and the secondary outcome measured the change in the sum of evidence-informed healthy body weight promotion policies or programs being delivered at health departments. Mixed-effects models were used to test the hypotheses. One hundred and eight of 141 (77%) health departments participated in this study. No significant effect of the intervention was observed for primary outcome (p < 0.45). However, for public health policies and programs (HPPs), a significant effect of the intervention was observed only for tailored, targeted messages (p < 0.01). The treatment effect was moderated by organizational research culture (e.g., value placed on research evidence in decision making). The results of this study suggest that under certain conditions tailored, targeted messages are more effective than knowledge brokering and access to an online registry of research evidence. Greater emphasis on the identification of organizational factors is needed in order to implement strategies that best meet the needs of individual organizations. The trial registration number and title are as follows: ISRCTN35240937 -- Is a knowledge broker more effective than other strategies in promoting evidence-based physical activity and healthy body weight programming?
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Implementation Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A knowledge broker (KB) is a popular knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) strategy emerging in Canada to promote interaction between researchers and end users, as well as to develop capacity for evidence-informed decision making. A KB provides a link between research producers and end users by developing a mutual understanding of goals and cultures, collaborates with end users to identify issues and problems for which solutions are required, and facilitates the identification, access, assessment, interpretation, and translation of research evidence into local policy and practice. Knowledge-brokering can be carried out by individuals, groups and/or organizations, as well as entire countries. In each case, the KB is linked with a group of end users and focuses on promoting the integration of the best available evidence into policy and practice-related decisions. A KB intervention comprised one of three KTE interventions evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. KB activities were classified into the following categories: initial and ongoing needs assessments; scanning the horizon; knowledge management; KTE; network development, maintenance, and facilitation; facilitation of individual capacity development in evidence informed decision making; and g) facilitation of and support for organizational change. As the KB role developed during this study, central themes that emerged as particularly important included relationship development, ongoing support, customized approaches, and opportunities for individual and organizational capacity development. The novelty of the KB role in public health provides a unique opportunity to assess the need for and reaction to the role and its associated activities. Future research should include studies to evaluate the effectiveness of KBs in different settings and among different health care professionals, and to explore the optimal preparation and training of KBs, as well as the identification of the personality characteristics most closely associated with KB effectiveness. Studies should also seek to better understand which combination of KB activities are associated with optimal evidence-informed decision making outcomes, and whether the combination changes in different settings and among different health care decision makers.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Implementation Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation (CBRPE) is a national asset for building pan-Canadian capacity to support intervention studies that guide population-level policies and programs. This paper briefly describes CBRPE's experience in advancing this work in the field of prevention. The aim is to illuminate issues of central importance for advancing the goals of the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada. According to our experience, success in building the population intervention field will depend heavily on purposeful alignment across organizations to enable integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. CBRPE's capacity development roles include a) a catalytic role in shaping this aligned inter-organizational milieu and b) investing our resources in building tangible assets (teams, indicators, data systems) that contribute relevant capacities within this emerging milieu. Challenges in building capacity in this field are described.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada (PHIRIC) is to build capacity to increase the quantity, quality and use of population health intervention research. But what capacity is required, and how should capacity be created? There may be relevant lessons from the Canadian Heart Health Initiative (CHHI), a 20-year initiative (1986-2006) that was groundbreaking in its attempt to bring together researchers and public health leaders (from government and non-government organizations) to jointly plan, conduct and act on relevant evidence. The present study focused on what enabled and constrained the ability to fund, conduct and use science in the CHHI. Guided by a provisional capacity-building framework, a two-step methodology was used: a CHHI document analysis followed by consultation with CHHI leaders to refine and confirm emerging findings. A few well-positioned, visionary people conceived of the CHHI as a long-term, coherent initiative that would have impact, and they then created an environment to enable this to become reality. To achieve the vision, capacity was needed to a) align science (research and evaluation) with public health policy and program priorities, including the capacity to study "natural experiments" and b) build meaningful partnerships within and across sectors. There is now an opportunity to apply lessons from the CHHI in planning PHIRIC.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The School Health Action, Planning, and Evaluation System (SHAPES) is a data collection and feedback system designed to support population-based intervention planning, evaluation, and field research related to youth. The Physical Activity Module of SHAPES consists of: (a) a machine readable questionnaire to collect physical activity data from all students (grades 6 to 12) in a school, (b) a school administrator questionnaire to assess school policies, programs, and resources related to physical activity, and (c) a school-specific feedback report documenting student behavior and school programs and policies. This SHAPES module provides schools with feedback that enables them to take stock of patterns of activity and obesity within their school, recognize what is (and what is not) in place to support physical activity, and how to plan and evaluate their own prevention efforts. SHAPES enables researchers and stakeholders to identify what interventions work, in what contexts, with what students.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Health Promotion Practice
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: We conducted the first national survey of all 212 organizations in Canada with mandates for chronic disease prevention (CDP). In this abstract, we compare organizational capacity (OC) for CDP across regions and according to type of organization. Methods: Structured telephone interviews (95.5% response) were conducted in 3 types of organizations: those formally mandated to provide public health services (PHS), non-profit organizations (NPO), and grouped organizations (GO) (i.e. coalitions, partnerships, alliances, consortia). Data were collected on: (i) level of OC for CDP (measured by skills to implement CDP activities and resource adequacy); (ii) level of involvement in CDP activities; (iii) level of supports for OC; (iv) partnerships with other organizations. Results: PHS represented only 48% of all CDP organizations in Canada. Skill levels to implement CDP activities, involvement in CDP activities, and supports for OC were highest in Central Canada. Resource adequacy was low overall, but lowest in eastern Canada. The East reported the lowest number of partnerships but highest partnership effectiveness. In regard to organization type, involvement in CDP activities and level of supports for OC was highest in GO; resource adequacy was lowest in PHS; and NPO had the lowest number of partnerships, but highest level of partnership effectiveness. Conclusion: The infrastructure for CDP in Canada involves many different types of organizations beyond formally mandated PHS. There is variability in OC for CDP across Canada and type of organization. These data provide an evidence-base for better-informed decision-making in the public health system.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2007
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: : Research to investigate levels of organisational capacity in public health systems to reduce the burden of chronic disease is challenged by the need for an integrative conceptual model and valid quantitative organisational level measures. To develop measures of organisational capacity for chronic disease prevention/healthy lifestyle promotion (CDP/HLP), its determinants, and its outcomes, based on a new integrative conceptual model. Items measuring each component of the model were developed or adapted from existing instruments, tested for content validity, and pilot tested. Cross sectional data were collected in a national telephone survey of all 216 national, provincial, and regional organisations that implement CDP/HLP programmes in Canada. Psychometric properties of the measures were tested using principal components analysis (PCA) and by examining inter-rater reliability. PCA based scales showed generally excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.70 to 0.88). Reliability coefficients for selected measures were variable (weighted kappa(kappa(w)) = 0.11 to 0.77). Indicators of organisational determinants were generally positively correlated with organisational capacity (r(s) = 0.14-0.45, p<0.05). This study developed psychometrically sound measures of organisational capacity for CDP/HLP, its determinants, and its outcomes based on an integrative conceptual model. Such measures are needed to support evidence based decision making and investment in preventive health care systems.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Canadian Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute of Canada have charged their Centre for Behavioral Research and Program Evaluation with contributing to the development of the country's systemic capacity to link research, policy, and practice related to population-level interventions. Local data collection and feedback systems are integral to this capacity. Canada's School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES) allows data to be collected from all of a school's students, and these data are used to produce computer-generated school "health profiles." SHAPES is being used for intervention planning, evaluation, surveillance, and research across Canada. Strong demand and multipartner investment suggest that SHAPES is adding value in all of these domains. Such systems can contribute substantially to evidence-informed public health practice, public engagement, participatory action research, and relevant, timely population intervention research.
    Full-text · Article · May 2007 · American Journal of Public Health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Municipal smoke-free spaces bylaws are a common population-level intervention to address the prominent health risks associated with exposure to second-hand smoke. In Canada, bylaw prevalence is increasing, but inequities in level of protection across communities remain as bylaws vary from place to place. Little is known about the role of place in this policy disparity. To address this gap, this study examined associations between community characteristics and municipal smoke-free spaces policy outcomes to elucidate how ecological conditions are associated with bylaw status and strength. Smoke-free public place and workplace bylaws were obtained from all municipalities with a population of >or=5000 in the provinces of Alberta (N=78) and Ontario (N=245), Canada. Bylaws were assigned a strength score (ranging 0-100) rating the degree of bylaw comprehensiveness, restrictiveness and enforcement provisions. These data were then linked to socio-demographic data from the Canadian Census (1996) and the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001). Logistic and multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop models for municipal bylaw status and strength using community factors including: socio-demographics, municipality type, health region smoking rates, and provincial tobacco control environment. Study findings suggest that community characteristics play a key role in the status and strength of municipal smoke-free bylaws. As smoking bans continue to emerge world-wide under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, knowledge about conditions that promote policy success will be critical for those in need of immediate information to maximize policy-making in their own settings. Use of community profiles that consider socio-demographics along with broader contextual factors can aid decision-makers, public health advocates, and researchers in identifying similar jurisdictions with a successful smoke-free spaces policy and communicating with them about their policy-making experiences. Knowledge about the conditions associated with municipal policy-development may be translated to other jurisdictions where information is sparse, or evidence is newly emerging.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Health Policy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine how social models for smoking are related to smoking susceptibility among a sample of non-smoking elementary school students. The Tobacco Module of the School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES) was administered to 6,431 students (grades 6 to 8) in 57 elementary schools in the province of Ontario, Canada. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to examine how smoking friends, parents, and the prevalence of smoking among grade 8 students at a school were related to smoking susceptibility among the 2,478 non-smoking grade 6 and 7 students. Findings indicate that non-smoking grade 6 and 7 students are more likely to be susceptible to smoking if they have (a) smoking friends, (b) a mother who smokes, or (c) two or more close friends who smoke and attend a school with a relatively high smoking rate among the grade 8 students. Sub-populations of non-smoking youth may be at increased risk for smoking because of the elementary school they attend. Future school-based smoking prevention programs might benefit from targeting prevention programming activities to the schools that are putting students at the greatest risk for smoking.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Prevention Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Capacity building in health promotion has traditionally involved training interventions to support knowledge, skill and resource building for effective practice. However, there is a need to understand how research can be used to support capacity building and practice. Findings are based on a parallel case study comprising qualitative analysis of 66 key informant interviews from five provincial heart health projects (Manitoba, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador) as part of the Canadian Heart Health Dissemination Project. Results indicate research was used primarily to monitor and report results about health promotion capacity and dissemination to stakeholders, and contribute to participatory processes. Respondents noted that research as intervention had an influence on five areas of health promotion capacity and practice: increased heart health promotion knowledge/skills; improved programming, planning and prioritizing; increased motivation for (heart) health promotion initiatives; and cultivation of relationships as well as buy-in. Research was a complementary capacity-building activity, although it did not directly increase program implementation. These findings contribute to linking researchers, practitioners and community decision-makers in the process of enhancing health promotion practice.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique

  • No preview · Article · May 2006 · The European Journal of Public Health
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined how older smoking peers at school and the smoking behaviour of friends and family members are related to youth smoking. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to examine correlates of ever smoking in a sample of 4286 grade 6 and 7 students from 57 elementary schools in Ontario, Canada (2001). Each 1% increase in the smoking rate among grade 8 students increased the odds that a student in grades 6 or 7 was an ever smoker versus never smoker [OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08]. A low-risk student (no family or friends who smoke) was almost three times more likely to try smoking if he/she attended an elementary school with a relatively high prevalence of senior students who smoke than if he/she attended a school with a low prevalence of senior students who smoke. Low-risk grade 6 and 7 students are at significantly greater risk of smoking if they attend an elementary school with a relatively high prevalence of smoking among senior students. Prevention programs should target both at-risk schools and at-risk students.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Preventive Medicine
  • Source
    Roy Cameron · Adrian Bauman · Adria Rose
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Canada on the Move project developed within a dynamic context and in response to an expressed need for increased capacity to support research involving population-level interventions. This article describes a) the movement to create an organized approach to chronic disease prevention in Canada, b) the emerging science of population-level intervention, c) the development of Canadian infrastructure to support population intervention science, and d) the contribution of Canada on the Move in developing a health research platform and, opportunistically, instigating a study which included assessment of the population impact of a commercial marketing initiative.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine how older smoking peers at school and the smoking behavior of friends and family members are related to youth smoking. The School Smoking Profile was used to collect data on tobacco use and determinants of tobacco use from 22,091 students from 29 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada. Correlates of occasional and regular smoking were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Students are at increased risk for smoking if they (a) have smoking friends, (b) have smoking family members, and (c) attend a school with a relatively high senior-student smoking rate. These findings suggest that prevention programs should target both at-risk schools and at-risk students.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2005 · American journal of health behavior

Publication Stats

2k Citations
113.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987-2012
    • University of Waterloo
      • • Propel Centre for Population Health Impact
      • • Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science
      • • Department of Psychology
      Ватерлоо, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003-2007
    • McGill University
      • Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada