[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional structure of Broadhaven virus (BRDV) has been determined to 23 A resolution by cryoelectron microscopy and image processing. As predicted from sequence homology, the BRDV structure resembles that of bluetongue virus (BTV) with the notable exception of one of the outer shell proteins. The cores of BRDV and BTV are identical at medium resolution; they have a diameter of 710 A and the VP7 trimers are arranged on a T = 13 icosahedral lattice. The outer shell proteins, VP5 of BRDV and BTV, have roughly the same molecular weight while VP4 of BRDV is only half the molecular weight of the corresponding VP2 of BTV. This size difference allows unambiguous determination of the identity of the triskelion shape as trimers of VP4 of BRDV (VP2 of BTV). The VP4 of BRDV sits on the VP7 trimers and projects outwards 40 A, giving the capsid an overall diameter of 790 A. This contrasts with VP2 of BTV, which projects outwards 95 A to give the capsid a diameter of 900 A. The difference in accessibility of the outer shell proteins of BRDV and BTV correlates with the difference in antigenic properties of these viral proteins. The shape of the BRDV VP5 indicates that it too is a trimer, thus implying that there are 360 copies of VP5 and 180 copies of VP4 per virion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequence of RNA segment 6 of Broadhaven virus (BRDV), a tick-borne orbivirus, was determined principally from two overlapping cDNA clones and RNA end sequence analysis. The genome segment is 1714 base pairs in length and has a coding capacity for a protein of 537 amino acids, having a net charge of +4.0 at neutral pH. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of BRDV RNA segment 6 with the NS1 sequence of insect-borne orbiviruses, bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) of deer, revealed amino acid identities of 21, 22 and 21%, respectively. This compares with amino acid identities of 31 to 50% between the NS1 proteins of these gnat-transmitted orbiviruses. A recombinant baculovirus was produced containing a full-length clone of BRDV segment 6, which expressed a protein of 61 kD in infected Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Like other orbivirus NS1 proteins the expressed protein formed tubules similar to those produced in BRDV-infected BHK21 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genes encoding the two major core proteins (VP2 and VP7) of Broadhaven (BRD) virus, a tick-borne orbivirus, were inserted into the genome of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) under the control of copies of the AcNPV polyhedrin promoter to produce two recombinant baculoviruses. Infection of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cells with a recombinant AcNPV that synthesized BRDV VP2 produced large numbers of BRDV subcore-like particles. Co-infection of cells with the two recombinants that made either BRDV VP2 or VP7 produced core-like particles similar in appearance to authentic BRDV cores. No evidence was obtained for the formation of core-like particles between the major core proteins of BRDV and those of bluetongue virus (BTV) following the co-expression of BRDV VP2 and BTV VP7, or BRDV VP7 and BTV VP3, indicating that in this respect the proteins of these two orbiviruses are incompatible, unlike the situation previously described for epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and BTV core proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete nucleotide sequence of the smallest RNA segment (segment 10) of Broadhaven (BRD) virus, a tick-borne orbivirus, was determined from a full-length cDNA clone. The genome segment is 702 nucleotides in length and has a coding capacity for two proteins of either 205 or 199 amino acids, having net charges of +16.5 and +17.5, respectively, at neutral pH. Comparison of the sequence of RNA segment 10 of BRD, bluetongue, African horse sickness, and Palyam viruses revealed amino acid homology of 20 to 30% between the four orbiviruses, with one conserved region of 40 to 50% homology which, in segment 10 of BRD virus, is found between residues 26 and 71.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genome of orbiviruses (Reoviridae family) comprises 10 segments of double-stranded RNA. The fourth largest segment of the tick-borne Kemerovo (KEM) group orbiviruses is the genetic determinant of neurovirulence in experimentally infected mice, and segment 6 determines serotype. Reassortant viruses derived from a cross between two KEM-related viruses, Great Island (GI) and Wexford (WEX), that had the heterotypic gene combination W4G6 (segment 4 of WEX virus and segment 6 from GI virus) were nonpathogenic in mice. This apparent genetic modulation of neurovirulence may have resulted from steric interaction between the two outer capsid proteins of nonpathogenic reassortants. Further data are consistent with this hypothesis. Reassortants generated from additional KEM group viruses showed various degrees of enhanced neurovirulence in terms of their PFU/LD50 (ratio of infectivity in cell culture and in mice) and ASTmax (the average survival time at the highest virus dilution resulting in 100% mortality). Some reassortants were more pathogenic than either of their parental viruses. The results indicate that the gene determining neurovirulence dictates ASTmax, and the PFU/LD50 is a measure of the interaction between the products of the gene determining neurovirulence and that determining serotype. The nonpathogenic phenotype of a low passage isolate (St. Abb's 84-34 virus), derived from a single tick, generated neurovirulent reassortants. This result indicates that genetic modulation of KEM group viruses may occur in nature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sequence of Broadhaven (BRD) virus segment 5, the major genetic determinant of serotype, is 1658 nucleotides in length and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) having the coding capacity for a protein of Mr 52.5K. Comparison of the ORF of segment 5 of BRD virus with published sequences of bluetongue virus (BTV) revealed 30% nucleotide homology and 31% amino acid homology with the protein encoded by segment 5 of BTV serotype 10. Significant homology was not shown with segment 2 of BTV, the major genetic determinant of the BTV serotype. The sequences at the 3' and 5' ends determined for BRD segment 5 were similar to the respective 3' and 5' regions of BTV. The sequence data provide evidence of an evolutionary relationship between two ecologically distinct groups of orbiviruses and demonstrate changes that have occurred in the functions of genetically related genomic segments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic studies have been carried out on orbiviruses in the Great Island (GI) antigenic subgroup of the Kemerovo serogroup (Orbivrus, Reoviridae) to elucidate the functions of the 10 genomic double-stranded RNA segments. Such studies have shown that segment 4 is the major genetic determinant of neurovirulence (P.A. Nuttall, S.R. Moss, L.D. Jones, and D. Carey, 1989, Virology 172, 428-434), whereas segment 5 of Wexford (WEX) virus and segment 6 of GI virus are the major determinants of serotype specificity (S.R. Moss, C.M. Ayres, and P.A. Nuttall, 1987, Virology 157, 137-144; S.R. Moss, C.M. Ayres, and P.A. Nuttall, 1988, J. Gen. Virol. 69, 2721-2727). In studies with reassortants isolated following dual infection of cell cultures with WEX and GI viruses, the gene combination W4G6 (i.e., viruses deriving segment 4 from WEX virus and segment 6 from GI virus) resulted in nonpathogenic reassortants. Unlike the parental viruses, the avirulent reassortants did not produce clinical evidence of infection in inoculated 2-day-old mice although, suprisingly, they replicated in the brains of the mice. The alternate heterotypic gene combination, G4W5, resulted in typical neurovirulent reassortants. The results indicate that segment 6 of GI virus is able to modulate the phenotypic expression of segment 4 of WEX virus, but not vice versa. Modulation probably results from interactions between the products of these two genomic segments, possibly at the level of virion structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three members of the Great Island antigenic subgroup (Kemerovo serogroup) of tick-borne obiviruses produced fatal infections following intracerebral inculation of 2-day-old mice. The average survival times and PFU/LD50 ratios of mice inoculated with Wexford (WEX) virus were significantly greater than those of either Nugget (NUG) or Great Island (GI) virus. Reassortant viruses were isolated following dual infections of cell cultures with a spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of WEX virus, and either NUG wild-type virus or a ts mutant of GI virus. The neurovirulence for mice and derivation of the genomic RNA segments were determined for the reassortants. Analysis of this data revealed that the pathogenic phenotype of the reassortant viruses depended on the parental origin of genomic segment 4. The major genetic determinant of serotype specificity was not shown to influence neurovirulence in these investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Kemerovo (KEM) serogroup of tick-borne orbiviruses (Reoviridae family) is currently classified into four antigenic subgroups: KEM, Chenuda (CNU), Great Island (GI), and Wad Medani (WM) (B. M. Gorman, J. Taylor, and P. J. Walker, 1983, In "The Reoviridae," pp. 287-357). Reassortment assays were carried out to determine the potential for gene exchange both within and between subgroups. Genome segment reassortment was demonstrated between members of two subgroups: KEM virus (a human pathogen) and representatives of the GI subgroup (viruses associated with seabirds). Neither KEM nor GI subgroup viruses reassorted with three viruses currently assigned to the CNU subgroup [CNU, Essaouira (ESS), and Mono Lake (ML)]. Within the CNU subgroup, CNU and ESS viruses reassorted, but there was no evidence of genome segment exchange between either of these two viruses and ML virus. The genetic data, and previously published antigenic data, suggest the need for reassigning these viruses. Four new serogroups are proposed to replace the extant KEM serogroup: KEM serogroup (comprising KEM and GI subgroups), CNU serogroup (including CNU and ESS viruses), Mono Lake serogroup, and WM serogroup.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reassortant viruses were produced from high-frequency recombination events between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of Broadhaven (BRD) (S. R. Moss and P. A. Nuttall, Virus Res. 4, 331-336, 1986) and Wexford (WEX) viruses, two serotypes in the Kemerovo serogroup of orbiviruses. The parental origin of each of the 10 genomic segments comprising each reassortant was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Comparison of neutralization titers with the results of genomic dsRNA analyses revealed that genome segment 5 codes for the neutralizing epitope(s). Kemerovo group viruses therefore differ from orbiviruses of the bluetongue serogroup in which segment 2 codes for the neutralizing epitopes (M. J. Grubman, J. A. Appleton, and G. J. Letchworth, Virology 131, 355-366, 1983; J. Kahlon, K. Sugiyama, and P. Roy, J. Virol. 48, 627-632, 1983). Results also indicated that the ts lesions in mutants of recombination groups II, III, and VI were in segments 1, 5, and 4, respectively. Reassortment of segments 2 and 10 appeared to be nonrandom, and evidence of possible "linkage" was obtained for segments 3 and 9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eighteen stable temperature sensitive (ts) mutants of Broadhaven virus were isolated without the aid of mutagens. Spontaneous mutants were detected using 41 degrees C as the nonpermissive temperature and 36 degrees C as the permissive temperature. High frequency pairwise recombination defined five recombination groups. Four mutants belonged to group I, three to group II, six to group III, two to group IV, and two to group V. ts 7 was a possible double mutant representing lesions corresponding to those of groups III and V mutants. This is the first reported isolation of temperature sensitive mutants of a tick-borne orbivirus.