[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Caffeine reduces toxic Ca(2+) signals in pancreatic acinar cells via inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated signalling, but effects of other xanthines have not been evaluated, nor effects of xanthines on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). We have determined effects of caffeine and its xanthine metabolites on pancreatic acinar IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signalling and experimental AP.
Isolated pancreatic acinar cells were exposed to secretagogues, uncaged IP3 or toxins that induce AP and effects of xanthines, non-xanthine phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cAMP/cGMP) determined. The intracellular cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]C), mitochondrial depolarisation and necrosis were assessed by confocal microscopy. Effects of xanthines were evaluated in caerulein-induced AP (CER-AP), taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate-induced AP (TLCS-AP) or palmitoleic acid plus ethanol-induced AP (fatty acid ethyl ester AP (FAEE-AP)). Serum xanthines were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Caffeine, dimethylxanthines and non-xanthine PDE inhibitors blocked IP3-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations, while monomethylxanthines had little effect. Caffeine and dimethylxanthines inhibited uncaged IP3-induced Ca(2+) rises, toxin-induced Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial depolarisation and necrotic cell death pathway activation; cAMP/cGMP did not inhibit toxin-induced Ca(2+) rises. Caffeine significantly ameliorated CER-AP with most effect at 25 mg/kg (seven injections hourly); paraxanthine or theophylline did not. Caffeine at 25 mg/kg significantly ameliorated TLCS-AP and FAEE-AP. Mean total serum levels of dimethylxanthines and trimethylxanthines peaked at >2 mM with 25 mg/kg caffeine but at <100 µM with 25 mg/kg paraxanthine or theophylline.
Caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites reduced pathological IP3R-mediated pancreatic acinar Ca(2+) signals but only caffeine ameliorated experimental AP. Caffeine is a suitable starting point for medicinal chemistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is caused by toxins that induce acinar cell calcium overload, zymogen activation, cytokine release and cell death, yet is without specific drug therapy. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated but the mechanism not established.
We investigated the mechanism of induction and consequences of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the pancreas using cell biological methods including confocal microscopy, patch clamp technology and multiple clinically representative disease models. Effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the MPTP were examined in isolated murine and human pancreatic acinar cells, and in hyperstimulation, bile acid, alcoholic and choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented acute pancreatitis.
MPTP opening was mediated by toxin-induced inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptor calcium channel release, and resulted in diminished ATP production, leading to impaired calcium clearance, defective autophagy, zymogen activation, cytokine production, phosphoglycerate mutase 5 activation and necrosis, which was prevented by intracellular ATP supplementation. When MPTP opening was inhibited genetically or pharmacologically, all biochemical, immunological and histopathological responses of acute pancreatitis in all four models were reduced or abolished.
This work demonstrates the mechanism and consequences of MPTP opening to be fundamental to multiple forms of acute pancreatitis and validates the MPTP as a drug target for this disease.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Cytosolic calcium overload triggers pancreatic acinar injury induced by pancreatitis toxins. Sustained Ca2+elevation depends on Ca2+entry through store-operated Ca2+entry (SOCE) channel Orai1, but the role of which in experimental acute pancreatitis (EAP) and human pancreatic acinar cell injury has not been determined.
Method Confocal and patch clamp technology were used to examine the effects of GSK-7975A and CM_128, inhibitors of SOCE channel Orai1 on bile acid-, hystimulation-, thapsigargin-, or cyclopiazonic acid-induced calcium entry into murine and human pancreatic acinar as well as human Orai1/STIM1-transfected HEK 293 cells. The effects of GSK-7975A and CM_128 on human necrotic pancreatic acinar cell death pathway activation induced by bile acid were monitored. EAP was induced by seven hourly intraperitoneal cerulein injections (50 mg/kg), retrograde pancreatic ductal TLCS infusion (50 mL 3 mM) or two hourly intraperitoneal injections of 150 mg/kg palmitoleic acid and 1.35g/kg ethanol. Different doses of either compound were tested in three diverse clinical representative models of EAP, begun at different time point after disease induction. EAP severity was assessed by standard biochemical parameters and blinded histopathology.
Results GSK-7975A and CM_128 inhibited toxin-induced SOCE and/or Ca2+release-activated Ca2+currents in a concentration-dependent manner up to >90% of control in all cells tested and significantly inhibited murine and human necrotic pancreatic acinar cell death pathway activation (p < 0.05). Administration of GSK-7975A or CM_128 after induction of EAP had pronounced inhibitory effects on all local and systemic disease parameters in all three models (all p < 0.05), demonstrating both dose- and time-dependency, with significantly greater effectiveness in a range of parameters when given one hour rather than six hours after disease induction.
Conclusion This study confirms the pivotal role of cytosolic calcium overload in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and provides robust preclinical validation for Orai inhibition as a treatment for acute pancreatitis.
Disclosure of interest L. Wen: None Declared, S. Voronina: None Declared, M. Javed: None Declared, M. Awais: None Declared, P. Szatmary: None Declared, D. Latawiec: None Declared, M. Chvanov: None Declared, D. Collier: None Declared, J. Barrett Employee of: GlaxoSmithKline, M. Begg Employee of: GlaxoSmithKline, K. Stauderman Employee of: CalciMedica, M. Dunn Employee of: CalciMedica, A. Tepikin: None Declared, D. Criddle: None Declared, R. Sutton: None Declared.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & Aims
Sustained activation of the cytosolic calcium concentration induces injury to pancreatic acinar cells and necrosis. The calcium release–activated calcium modulator ORAI1 is the most abundant Ca2+ entry channel in pancreatic acinar cells; it sustains calcium overload in mice exposed to toxins that induce pancreatitis. We investigated the roles of ORAI1 in pancreatic acinar cell injury and the development of acute pancreatitis in mice.
Mouse and human acinar cells, as well as HEK 293 cells transfected to express human ORAI1 with human stromal interaction molecule 1, were hyperstimulated or incubated with human bile acid, thapsigargin, or cyclopiazonic acid to induce calcium entry. GSK-7975A or CM_128 were added to some cells, which were analyzed by confocal and video microscopy and patch clamp recordings. Acute pancreatitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by ductal injection of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate or intravenous' administration of cerulein or ethanol and palmitoleic acid. Some mice then were given GSK-7975A or CM_128, which inhibit ORAI1, at different time points to assess local and systemic effects.
GSK-7975A and CM_128 each separately inhibited toxin-induced activation of ORAI1 and/or activation of Ca2+ currents after Ca2+ release, in a concentration-dependent manner, in mouse and human pancreatic acinar cells (inhibition >90% of the levels observed in control cells). The ORAI1 inhibitors also prevented activation of the necrotic cell death pathway in mouse and human pancreatic acinar cells. GSK-7975A and CM_128 each inhibited all local and systemic features of acute pancreatitis in all 3 models, in dose- and time-dependent manners. The agents were significantly more effective, in a range of parameters, when given at 1 vs 6 hours after induction of pancreatitis.
Cytosolic calcium overload, mediated via ORAI1, contributes to the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. ORAI1 inhibitors might be developed for the treatment of patients with pancreatitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the development of acute pancreatitis (AP), antioxidant therapy in patients has so far been discouraging. The aim of this study was to assess potential protective effects of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, in experimental AP using in vitro and in vivo approaches. MitoQ blocked H2O2-induced intracellular ROS responses in murine pancreatic acinar cells, an action not shared by the control analogue dTPP. MitoQ did not reduce mitochondrial depolarisation induced by either cholecystokinin (CCK) or bile acid TLCS, and at 10 µM caused depolarisation per se. Both MitoQ and dTPP increased basal and CCK-induced cell death in a plate-reader assay. In a TLCS-induced AP model MitoQ treatment was not protective. In AP induced by caerulein hyperstimulation (CER-AP), MitoQ exerted mixed effects. Thus, partial amelioration of histopathology scores was observed, actions shared by dTPP, but without reduction of the biochemical markers pancreatic trypsin or serum amylase. Interestingly, lung myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 were concurrently increased by MitoQ in CER-AP. MitoQ caused biphasic effects on ROS production in isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, inhibiting an acute increase but elevating later levels. Our results suggest that MitoQ would be inappropriate for AP therapy, consistent with prior antioxidant evaluations in this disease.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inducers of acute pancreatitis trigger a prolonged increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, which is responsible for the damage and eventual death of pancreatic acinar cells. Vacuolisation is an important indicator of pancreatic acinar cell damage. Furthermore, activation of trypsinogen occurs in the endocytic vacuoles; therefore the vacuoles can be considered as "initiating" organelles in the development of the cell injury. In this study we investigated the relationship between the formation of endocytic vacuoles and Ca2+ influx developed in response to the inducers of acute pancreatitis ((bile acid taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S) and supramaximal concentration of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK)). We found that the inhibitor of STIM/Orai channels GSK-7975A effectively suppressed both Ca2+ influx (stimulated by inducers of pancreatitis) and the formation of endocytic vacuoles. Cell death induced by TLC-S or CCK was also inhibited by GSK-7975A. We documented the formation of endocytic vacuoles in response to store-operated Ca2+ entry induced by thapsigargin (inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps) and observed strong inhibition of thapsigargin-induced vacuole formation by GSK-7975A. Finally we found that structurally-unrelated inhibitors of calpain suppress formation of endocytic vacuoles, suggesting that this Ca2+-dependent protease is a mediator between Ca2+ elevation and endocytic vacuole formation.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
The aim of this study was to develop a fluorescent reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe, which is preferentially localized in cellular membranes and displays a strong change in fluorescence upon oxidation. We also aimed to test the performance of this probe for detecting pathophysiologically relevant ROS responses in isolated cells.
We introduced a novel lipophilic ROS probe dihydrorhodamine B octadecyl ester (H2RB-C18). We then applied the new probe to characterize the ROS changes triggered by inducers of acute pancreatitis in pancreatic acinar cells. We resolved ROS changes produced by L-ornithine, L-arginine, cholecystokinin-8, acetylcholine, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate, palmitoleic acid ethyl ester, and the bacterial toxin pyocyanin. Particularly prominent ROS responses were induced by pyocyanin and L-ornithine. These ROS responses were accompanied by changes in cytosolic Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), and NAD(P)H concentration.
The study describes a novel sensitive lipophilic ROS probe. The probe is particularly suitable for detecting ROS in near-membrane regions and therefore for reporting the ROS environment of plasma membrane channels and pumps.
In our experimental conditions, the novel probe was more sensitive than 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (CM-H2DCF) and dihydrorhodamine123 (H2R123) and allowed us to resolve ROS responses to secretagogues, pyocyanin, and L-ornithine. Changes in the fluorescence of the new probe were particularly prominent in the peripheral plasma membrane-associated regions. Our findings suggest that the new probe will be a useful tool in studies of the contribution of ROS to the pathophysiology of exocrine pancreas and other organs/tissues.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This brief review discusses recent advances in studies of mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling and considers how the relationships between mitochondria and Ca(2+) responses are shaped in secretory epithelial cells. Perhaps the more precise title of this review could have been "How to win ATP and influence Ca(2+) signaling in secretory epithelium with emphasis on exocrine secretory cells and specific focus on pancreatic acinar cells". But "brevity is a virtue" and the authors hope that many of the mechanisms discussed are general and applicable to other tissues and cell types. Among these mechanisms are mitochondrial regulation of Ca(2+) entry and the role of mitochondria in the formation of localized Ca(2+) responses. The roles of Ca(2+) signaling in the physiological adjustment of bioenergetics and in mitochondrial damage are also briefly discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol (NOME) produces fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via carboxylester lipase (CEL) and other enzyme action implicated in mitochondrial injury and acute pancreatitis (AP). This study investigated the relative importance of oxidative and non-oxidative pathways in mitochondrial dysfunction, pancreatic damage and development of alcoholic AP, and whether deleterious effects of NOME are preventable.
Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]C), NAD(P)H, mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways were examined in isolated pancreatic acinar cells in response to ethanol and/or palmitoleic acid (POA) in the presence or absence of 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) to inhibit oxidative metabolism. A novel in vivo model of alcoholic AP induced by intraperitoneal administration of ethanol and POA was developed to assess the effects of manipulating alcohol metabolism.
Inhibition of OME with 4-MP converted predominantly transient [Ca(2+)]C rises induced by low ethanol/POA combination to sustained elevations, with concurrent mitochondrial depolarisation, fall of NAD(P)H and cellular necrosis in vitro. All effects were prevented by 3-benzyl-6-chloro-2-pyrone (3-BCP), a CEL inhibitor. 3-BCP also significantly inhibited rises of pancreatic FAEE in vivo and ameliorated acute pancreatic damage and inflammation induced by administration of ethanol and POA to mice.
A combination of low ethanol and fatty acid that did not exert deleterious effects per se became toxic when oxidative metabolism was inhibited. The in vitro and in vivo damage was markedly inhibited by blockade of CEL, indicating the potential for development of specific therapy for treatment of alcoholic AP via inhibition of FAEE generation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrated that increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations results in the inhibition of migration of PANC-1 and other pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell types. The rise of cAMP was accompanied by rapid and reversible cessation of ruffling, by inhibition of focal adhesion turnover and by prominent loss of paxillin from focal adhesions. All these phenomena develop rapidly suggesting that cAMP effectors have a direct influence on the cellular migratory apparatus. The role of two primary cAMP effectors, exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) and protein kinase A (PKA), in cAMP-mediated inhibition of PDAC cell migration and migration-associated processes was investigated. Experiments with selective activators of EPAC and PKA demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of cAMP on migration, ruffling, focal adhesion dynamics and paxillin localisation are mediated by PKA, whilst EPAC potentiates migration.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta