Steven H. Platts

NASA, Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States

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Publications (52)130.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Cardiovascular deconditioning apparently progresses with flight duration, resulting in a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance following long-duration missions. Therefore, we anticipated that the proportion of astronauts who could not complete an orthostatic tilt test (OTT) would be higher on landing day and the number of days to recover greater after International Space Station (ISS) than after Space Shuttle missions. Methods: There were 20 ISS and 65 Shuttle astronauts who participated in 10-min 80° head-up tilt tests 10 d before launch, on landing day (R+0), and 3 d after landing (R+3). Fisher's Exact Test was used to compare the ability of ISS and Shuttle astronauts to complete the OTT. Cox regression was used to identify cardiovascular parameters associated with OTT completion and mixed model analysis was used to compare the change and recovery rates between groups. Results: The proportion of astronauts who completed the OTT on R+0 (2 of 6) was less in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts (52 of 65). On R+3, 13 of 15 and 19 of 19 of the ISS and Shuttle astronauts, respectively, completed the OTT. An index comprised of stroke volume and diastolic blood pressure provided a good prediction of OTT completion and was altered by spaceflight similarly for both astronaut groups, but recovery was slower in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts. Conclusions: The proportion of ISS astronauts who could not complete the OTT on R+0 was greater and the recovery rate slower after ISS compared to Shuttle missions. Thus, mission planners and crew surgeons should anticipate the need to tailor scheduled activities and level of medical support to accommodate protracted recovery after long-duration microgravity exposures. Lee SMC, Feiveson AH, Stein S, Stenger MB, Platts SH. Orthostatic intolerance after ISS and Space Shuttle missions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(12, Suppl.):A54-A67.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Short periods of weightlessness are associated with reduced stroke volume and left ventricular (LV) mass that appear rapidly and thought to be largely plasma volume-dependent. The magnitude of these cardiac adaptations are even greater after prolonged periods of simulated weightlessness, but the time course during and the recovery from bed rest has not been previously described. Methods: We collected serial measures of plasma volume (PV, carbon monoxide rebreathing) and LV structure and function (tissue Doppler imaging, three- (3-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography) before, during, and up to 2 weeks after 60 days of 6° head down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) in 7 healthy subjects (4 men and 3 women). Results: By 60 days of HDTBR, PV was markedly reduced (2.7±0.3 vs. 2.3±0.3 L, p<0.001). Resting measures of LV volume and mass were ~15% (p<0.001) and ~14 % lower (p<0.001) respectively compared to pre-HDTBR. After 3 days of reambulation, both PV and LV volumes were not different than pre-HDTBR. However, LV mass did not recover with the normalization of PV and remained 12±4% lower than pre-bed rest (p<0.001). Conclusions: As previously reported, decreased PV and LV volume precede and likely contribute to cardiac atrophy during prolonged LV unloading. While PV and LV volume recover rapidly after HDTBR, there is no concomitant normalization of LV mass. These results demonstrate that reduced LV mass in response to prolonged simulated weightlessness is not a simple effect of tissue dehydration but rather true LV muscle atrophy that persists well into recovery. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26494448
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Applied Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (>5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the in-flight exercise hardware that prevented high-intensity training. PURPOSE: To determine whether a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of 6 head-down-tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen men participated in this study and performed either no exercise (Control, n=10) or an intense exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 d/wk, Exercise subjects performed supine lower-body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of upright seated rowing (≥75% max heart rate) separated by 4 hr. On 3 other d/wk, Exercise subjects performed high-intensity interval rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 head-up tilt test performed 2 d before (BR-2) and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: After 70 d of BR, tilt tolerance time significantly decreased 34±31% (mean ±SD) in the Control subjects (BR-2: 15.0±0.0, BR70: 9.9±4.6 min) and by 56±16% in Exercise subjects (BR-2: 12.2±4.7, BR70: 4.9±1.9 min), with no difference between groups. Plasma volume also decreased from pre to post-BR in both groups (Control: -0.56±0.40, Exercise: -0.48±0.33 L), with no between group differences. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the combination of high intensity aerobic with resistive exercise during prolonged BR, orthostatic intolerance and plasma volume losses were evident, similar to previous results observed in shorter duration BR that used less comprehensive exercise protocols. These data suggest the need to continue to investigate novel or combinations of countermeasures, including periodic orthostatic stress, fluid repletion, and/or lower-body compression garments to minimize orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight.
    No preview · Conference Paper · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: http://ston.jsc.nasa.gov/collections/TRS/_techrep/TM-2015-218572.pdf
    Full-text · Technical Report · Apr 2015
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant examination as predisposing factors to atherosclerosis, important as the current cohort of astronauts ages. Currently, 20% of astronauts are women, and the recently selected astronaut recruits are 50% women. Thus there should be expectation that future research will reflect the composition of the overall population to determine potential benefits or risks. This should apply both to clinical studies and to basic science research.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Women's Health
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    ABSTRACT: PRELIMINARY SENSORIMOTOR AND CARDIOVASCULAR RESULTS FROM THE JOINT RUSSIAN AND U.S. PILOT FIELD TEST WITH PLANNING FOR THE FULL FIELD TEST BEGINNING WITH THE YEAR LONG ISS MISSION M.F. Reschke1, I.B. Kozlovskaya2, E.S. Tomilovskaya2, J.J. Bloomberg1, S.H. Platts3, I.V. Rukavishnikov2, E.V. Fomina2, M.B. Stenger3,4, S.M.C. Lee3,4, S.J. Wood1,5, A.P. Mulavara1, A.H. Feiveson1, J.M. Cerisano1,4, I.S. Kofman1,4, E.A Fisher1,4 1Neuroscience Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas; 2Russian Federation State Research Center, Institute of Biomedical Problems, Department of Sensory-Motor Physiology and Countermeasures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; 3Cardiovascular Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, 4Wyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group, Houston, Texas, 5Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA Ongoing collaborative research efforts between NASA’s Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories, and the Institute of Biomedical Problems’ (IBMP) Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories have been measuring functional sensorimotor, cardiovascular and strength responses following bed rest, dry immersion, short duration (Space Shuttle) and long duration (Mir and International Space Station) space flights. While the unloading paradigms associated with dry immersion and bed rest do serve as acceptable flight analogs, testing of crew responses following the long duration flights has not been possible until a minimum of 24 hours after landing. As a result it is not possible to estimate the nonlinear trend of the early (<24 hr) recovery process nor is it possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long duration flight. To overcome these limitations both the Russian and U.S. sides have implemented testing at the time of landing and before the flight crews have left the landing site. By joint agreement this research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test (FT). For practical reasons the FT has been divided into two phases: the full FT and a preliminary pilot version (PFT) of the FT that is reduced in both length and scope. The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities in long duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements including an evaluation of NASA’s new anti-orthostatic compression garment as compared with the Russian Kentavr garment. Functional sensorimotor measurements will include, but are not limited to, assessment of hand/eye coordination, ability to egress from a seated position, walk normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, ability to discriminate different forces generated with both the hands and legs, recovery from a fall, a coordinated walk involving tandem heel-to-toe placement and determination of postural ataxia while standing. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation includes blood pressure and heart rate measurements during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia testing (quiet stance sway). In addition to the immediate postlanding collection of data for the full FT, postflight data will be acquired at a minimum of one to three more other times within the 24 hr following landing and continue until functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. The PFT represents a single trial run comprised of jointly agreed tests from the full FT and relies heavily on IBMP’s Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories for content, and implementation. The PFT was first conducted following the September 2013 landing of the Soyuz spacecraft (34S). Testing included: (1) a sit-to-stand test, (2) recovery from a fall where the crewmember began in the prone position on the ground and then stood for 3 min while cardiovascular stability was determined and postural ataxia data were acquired, and (3) a tandem heel-to-toe walk to determine changes in the central locomotor program. Video, cardiovascular parameters (heart rate and blood pressure), data from body-worn inertial sensors and severity of postflight motion sickness was available for analysis. In summary, the level of functional deficit, as subjects are added to the pool, is expected to be most profound during the acquisition of gravity loads immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention in response to emergency operations will be greatest. Clearly measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiological data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and the degree of variability among crewmembers. Overall, these early functional and related physiological measurements will allow estimation of nonlinear sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery trends to an accuracy that has not been previously captured in over 50 years of space flight.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Feb 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Abdomen-high, lower body graded compression garments (GCGs) may represent the next-generation of orthostatic intolerance protection with applications for exploration missions and commercial space flight. To evaluate the efficacy of the GCG to prevent orthostatic intolerance after a 14-day 6° head-down tilt bed rest (BR) and to determine whether wearing thigh-high compression garments impairs recovery from BR. Sixteen (12 M, 4 F) subjects participated in a 15-min 80° head-up tilt test 5 day before BR (BR-5), on the last morning of BR (BR+0), and on day 1 (BR+1) and 3 after BR (BR+3). No subjects wore the GCG on BR-5, and all subjects wore the GCG during testing on BR+0. Control subjects (n = 8) wore the GCG only through testing on BR+0. Treatment subjects (n = 8) wore the GCG on BR+0 and thigh-high garments on BR+1 and BR+2. No subjects were presyncopal during tilt on BR+0 while wearing the GCG. Despite lower plasma volume index (BR-5: 1.52 ± 0.06, BR+0: 1.32 ± 0.05 l/m(2)), the tilt-induced increase in heart rate (ΔHR, 17 ± 2 bpm) and decrease in stroke volume (ΔSV, -28 ± 3 ml) on BR+0 were less than on BR-5 (24 ± 2 bpm, -43 ± 4 ml). On BR+1 ΔHR in the control group (33 ± 4 bpm) was higher than in the treatment group (23 ± 2 bpm) but there were no group differences on BR+3. Wearing the GCG prevented the orthostatic intolerance that is normally present after BR. Thigh-high garments provided protection after BR, and wearing these garments did not impair recovery.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Arbeitsphysiologie
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    ABSTRACT: Microgravity-induced physiologic changes could impair a crewmember's performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test aims to correlate these physiologic alterations with changes in performance during mission-critical tasks. In this study, we evaluated spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during 11 functional tasks in 7 Shuttle astronauts before spaceflight, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Mean heart rate was examined during each task and autonomic activity was approximated by heart rate variability during the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, a 2-min prone rest followed by a 3-min stand. Heart rate was increased on landing day during all of the tasks, and remained elevated 6 days after landing during 6 of the 11 tasks. Parasympathetic modulation was diminished and sympathovagal balance was increased on landing day. Additionally, during the stand test 6 days after landing, parasympathetic modulation remained suppressed and heart rate remained elevated compared to preflight levels. Heart rate and autonomic activity were not different from preflight levels 30 days after landing. We detected changes in heart rate and autonomic activity during a 3-min stand and a variety of functional tasks, where cardiovascular deconditioning was still evident 6 days after returning from short-duration spaceflight. The delayed recovery times for heart rate and parasympathetic modulation indicate the necessity of assessing functional performance after long-duration spaceflight to ensure crew health and safety.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Acta Astronautica
  • Caine TL · Martin DS · Matz T · Lee SMC · Stenger MB · Platts SH

    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal for Vascular Ultrasound
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    ABSTRACT: Space Shuttle astronauts wore an inflatable antigravity suit during reentry and landing, and astronauts and cosmonauts wear an elastic-compression garment (with lacing) during Soyuz re-entry and landings and in the first few days of recovery. However, neither garment is an ideal countermeasure to spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance. Our laboratory has been investigating an elastic graded compression garment (GCG) that applies graduated pressures from the feet to the abdomen for use following International Space Station missions and possibly during exploration missions. Before and after Shuttle missions, 14 astronauts participated in a 3.5-min stand test. The stand test was conducted without garments preflight. On landing day, 7 astronauts wore the GCG while 7 astronauts did not (controls). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured in all astronauts during prone rest and standing. Stroke volume and cardiac output were measured only in GCG subjects. No astronauts in either group became presyncopal during the stand test preflight or postflight. The change in heart rate from prone to standing was lower in the GCG subjects on landing day than in the control subjects. Within the GCG subjects only, the increase in total peripheral resistance from prone to standing was higher after spaceflight. The GCG prevented tachycardia and increased total peripheral resistance with standing after spaceflight. The GCG shows promise as a countermeasure against post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance, can be easily donned, and is relatively comfortable to wear, but has not been validated after long-duration spaceflight.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Space Shuttle astronauts wore an inflatable antigravity suit during reentry and landing, and astronauts and cosmonauts wear an elastic-compression garment (with lacing) during Soyuz re-entry and landings and in the first few days of recovery. However, neither garment is an ideal countermeasure to spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance. Our laboratory has been investigating an elastic graded compression garment (GCG) that applies graduated pressures from the feet to the abdomen for use following International Space Station missions and possibly during exploration missions. Methods: Before and after Shuttle missions, 14 astronauts participated in a 3.5-min stand test. The stand test was conducted without garments preflight. On landing day, 7 astronauts wore the GCG while 7 astronauts did not (controls). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured in all astronauts during prone rest and standing. Stroke volume and cardiac output were measured only in GCG subjects. Results: No astronauts in either group became presyncopal during the stand test preflight or postflight. The change in heart rate from prone to standing was lower in the GCG subjects on landing day than in the control subjects. Within the GCG subjects only, the increase in total peripheral resistance from prone to standing was higher after spaceflight. Conclusions: The GCG prevented tachycardia and increased total peripheral resistance with standing after spaceflight. The GCG shows promise as a countermeasure against post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance, can be easily donned, and is relatively comfortable to wear, but has not been validated after long-duration spaceflight.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2013
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    Dataset: Gender

    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2013
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    Dataset: Gender

    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance has been studied for decades. Although ~22% of the astronaut corps are women, most mechanistic studies use mostly male subjects, despite known gender differences in autonomic control and postflight orthostatic intolerance. We studied adrenergic, baroreflex, and autonomic indices during continuous infusions of vasoactive drugs in men and women during a 60-day head-down bed rest. Volunteers were tested before bed rest (20 men, 10 women) and around days 30 (20 men, 10 women) and 60 (16 men, 8 women) of bed rest. Three increasing doses of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were infused for 10 minutes following an infusion of normal saline. A 20-minute rest period separated the PE and SNP infusions. Autonomic activity was approximated by spectral indices of heart rate and blood pressure variability, and baroreflex sensitivity was measured by the spontaneous baroreflex slope. Parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity decreased with bed rest, with women experiencing a larger decrease in baroreflex sensitivity by day 30 than men. The sympathetic dominance of men and parasympathetic dominance of women in blood pressure control were preserved throughout bed rest. During PE infusions, women experienced saturation of the R-R interval high frequency (RR HF) whereas men did not, revealing a gender difference in the parabolic relationship between RR HF, a measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and R-R interval. These gender differences in blood pressure control during simulated microgravity reveal the need to study gender differences in long-duration spaceflight to ensure the health and safety of the entire astronaut corps.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Successful acquisition of high-quality ultrasound images for medical diagnoses and scientific research entails several years of intensive training. This time commitment, combined with training requirements for space flight operations, precludes astronauts from proficiently conducting ultrasound examinations without assistance. Therefore, experts in the Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular Laboratory developed a technique called Remote Guidance in which astronauts who possess limited ultrasound training before they launch perform ultrasound examinations in space while receiving real-time feedback about ultrasound probe positioning, scanning technique, study protocol, and image quality through two-way, real-time communication with sonographers on the ground. For instances when time and distance make two-way communication impractical, such as during a mission to Mars or an asteroid, we have developed a form of “just-in-time training” called Virtual Guidance that allows astronauts to autonomously obtain diagnostic ultrasound images by viewing ultrasound tutorials using audio-video glasses while simultaneously performing ultrasound scans. We recently conducted two trials in which we demonstrated the ability of untrained scanners to complete carotid artery and ophthalmic examinations using Virtual Guidance as their only form of instruction. Virtual Guidance can be an important training tool to ensure high-quality ultrasound imaging for scientific and medical applications during future space exploration missions and also could be valuable on Earth in remote areas or applications when a trained sonographer is not readily accessible.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: With missions planned to travel greater distances from Earth at ranges that make real-time two-way communication impractical, astronauts will be required to perform autonomous medical diagnostic procedures during future exploration missions. Virtual guidance is a form of just-in-time training developed to allow novice ultrasound operators to acquire diagnostically-adequate images of clinically relevant anatomical structures using a prerecorded audio/visual tutorial viewed in real-time. Individuals without previous experience in ultrasound were recruited to perform carotid artery (N = 10) and ophthalmic (N = 9) ultrasound examinations using virtual guidance as their only training tool. In the carotid group, each untrained operator acquired two-dimensional, pulsed and color Doppler of the carotid artery. In the ophthalmic group, operators acquired representative images of the anterior chamber of the eye, retina, optic nerve, and nerve sheath. Ultrasound image quality was evaluated by independent imaging experts. Of the studies, 8 of the 10 carotid and 17 of 18 of the ophthalmic images (2 images collected per study) were judged to be diagnostically adequate. The quality of all but one of the ophthalmic images ranged from adequate to excellent. Diagnostically-adequate carotid and ophthalmic ultrasound examinations can be obtained by previously untrained operators with assistance from only an audio/video tutorial viewed in real time while scanning. This form of just-in-time training, which can be applied to other examinations, represents an opportunity to acquire important information for NASA flight surgeons and researchers when trained medical personnel are not available or when remote guidance is impractical.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Astronauts have worn an inflatable antigravity suit (AGS) during Space Shuttle re-entry and landing to protect against hypotension and syncope, but ambulation with an inflated AGS requires significant effort and may prevent successful completion of an unaided emergency egress from the vehicle. NASA is considering the use of alternative garments to provide protection against post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. The purpose of this study was to compare the metabolic cost of walking in NASA's current AGS with that of walking in a commercially available elastic compression garment (thigh-high stockings), a candidate garment for use after exploration missions. There were 10 volunteers (5 men, 5 women) who walked on a treadmill at 5.6 km x h(-1) for 5 min, a simulation of unaided egress previously used in our laboratory, in 3 different conditions presented in random order: wearing exercise clothes, wearing elastic compression garments, and wearing the AGS. Oxygen consumption (Vo2), carbon dioxide production (Vco2), and ventilation (V(E)) were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test. Vo2 while wearing the AGS was 12% greater than when wearing the elastic compression garments and 15% greater than while wearing exercise clothes. There were no differences between the elastic compression garments and exercise clothes only conditions. Vco2 and VE also were greater while walking in the AGS than walking in the elastic compression garments or exercise clothes. Wearing elastic compression garments as a countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may not impair unaided egress from a space vehicle.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We studied 15 men (8 treatment, 7 control) before and after 21 days of 6º head-down tilt to determine whether daily, 1-h exposures to 1.0 G(z) (at the heart) artificial gravity (AG) would prevent bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. Testing included echocardiographic analysis of cardiac function, plasma volume (PV), aerobic power (VO(2)pk) and cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to 80º head-up tilt (HUT). Data collected during HUT were ECG, stroke volume (SV), blood pressure (BP) and blood for catecholamines and vasoactive hormones. Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance, and spectral power of BP and HR were calculated. Bed rest decreased PV, supine and HUT SV, and indices of cardiac function in both groups. Although PV was decreased in control and AG after bed rest, AG attenuated the decrease in orthostatic tolerance [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: -11.8 ± 2.0, AG: -6.0 ± 2.8 min (p = 0.012)] and VO(2)pk [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: -0.39 ± 0.11, AG: -0.17 ± 0.06 L/min (p = 0.041)]. AG prevented increases in pre-tilt levels of plasma renin activity [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: 1.53 ± 0.23, AG: -0.07 ± 0.34 ng/mL/h (p = 0.001)] and angiotensin II [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: 3.00 ± 1.04, AG: -0.63 ± 0.81 pg/mL (p = 0.009)] and increased HUT aldosterone [post-bed rest; control: 107 ± 30 pg/mL, AG: 229 ± 68 pg/mL (p = 0.045)] and norepinephrine [post-bed rest; control: 453 ± 107, AG: 732 ± 131 pg/mL (p = 0.003)]. We conclude that AG can mitigate some aspects of bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning, including orthostatic intolerance and aerobic power. Mechanisms of improvement were not cardiac-mediated, but likely through improved sympathetic responsiveness to orthostatic stress.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Arbeitsphysiologie

Publication Stats

445 Citations
130.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2014
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Mississippi
      Mississippi, United States
  • 2004-2006
    • Universities Space Research Association
      • Division of Space Life Sciences
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2003-2004
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States