William V Tamborlane

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (403)3175.67 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Endocrine Practice
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    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes Care
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Treatment of severe hypoglycemia with loss of consciousness or seizure outside of the hospital setting is presently limited to intramuscular glucagon requiring reconstitution immediately prior to injection, a process prone to error or omission. A needle-free intranasal glucagon preparation was compared with intramuscular glucagon for treatment of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Research design and methods: At eight clinical centers, a randomized crossover noninferiority trial was conducted involving 75 adults with type 1 diabetes (mean age, 33 ± 12 years; median diabetes duration, 18 years) to compare intranasal (3 mg) versus intramuscular (1 mg) glucagon for treatment of hypoglycemia induced by intravenous insulin. Success was defined as an increase in plasma glucose to ≥70 mg/dL or ≥20 mg/dL from the glucose nadir within 30 min after receiving glucagon. Results: Mean plasma glucose at time of glucagon administration was 48 ± 8 and 49 ± 8 mg/dL at the intranasal and intramuscular visits, respectively. Success criteria were met at all but one intranasal visit and at all intramuscular visits (98.7% vs. 100%; difference 1.3%, upper end of 1-sided 97.5% CI 4.0%). Mean time to success was 16 min for intranasal and 13 min for intramuscular (P < 0.001). Head/facial discomfort was reported during 25% of intranasal and 9% of intramuscular dosing visits; nausea (with or without vomiting) occurred with 35% and 38% of visits, respectively. Conclusions: Intranasal glucagon was highly effective in treating insulin-induced hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes. Although the trial was conducted in a controlled setting, the results are applicable to real-world management of severe hypoglycemia, which occurs owing to excessive therapeutic insulin relative to the impaired or absent endogenous glucagon response.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Previous studies assessing the effect of metformin on glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes have produced inconclusive results.Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of metformin as an adjunct to insulin in treating overweight adolescents with type 1 diabetes.Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter (26 pediatric endocrinology clinics), double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial involving 140 adolescents aged 12.1 to 19.6 years (mean [SD] 15.3 [1.7] years) with mean type 1 diabetes duration 7.0 (3.3) years, mean body mass index (BMI) 94th (4) percentile, mean total daily insulin 1.1 (0.2) U/kg, and mean HbA1c 8.8% (0.7%).Interventions Randomization to receive metformin (n = 71) (≤2000 mg/d) or placebo (n = 69).Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 26 weeks adjusted for baseline HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included change in blinded continuous glucose monitor indices, total daily insulin, BMI, waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, and lipids.Results Between October 2013 and February 2014, 140 participants were enrolled. Baseline HbA1c was 8.8% in each group. At 13-week follow-up, reduction in HbA1c was greater with metformin (−0.2%) than placebo (0.1%; mean difference, −0.3% [95% CI, −0.6% to 0.0%]; P = .02). However, this differential effect was not sustained at 26-week follow up when mean change in HbA1c from baseline was 0.2% in each group (mean difference, 0% [95% CI, −0.3% to 0.3%]; P = .92). At 26-week follow-up, total daily insulin per kg of body weight was reduced by at least 25% from baseline among 23% (16) of participants in the metformin group vs 1% (1) of participants in the placebo group (mean difference, 21% [95% CI, 11% to 32%]; P = .003), and 24% (17) of participants in the metformin group and 7% (5) of participants in the placebo group had a reduction in BMI z score of 10% or greater from baseline to 26 weeks (mean difference, 17% [95% CI, 5% to 29%]; P = .01). Gastrointestinal adverse events were reported by more participants in the metformin group than in the placebo group (mean difference, 36% [95% CI, 19% to 51%]; P < .001).Conclusions and Relevance Among overweight adolescents with type 1 diabetes, the addition of metformin to insulin did not improve glycemic control after 6 months. Of multiple secondary end points, findings favored metformin only for insulin dose and measures of adiposity; conversely, use of metformin resulted in an increased risk for gastrointestinal adverse events. These results do not support prescribing metformin to overweight adolescents with type 1 diabetes to improve glycemic control.Trial Registration clinicaltrials.org Identifier: NCT01881828
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Compare children/adolescents with and without at least one parent with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: 12,980 participants <18 years old at enrollment in the T1D Exchange Registry were included. Statistical comparisons between those with and without parental T1D were conducted using univariate generalized linear mixed model. Results: 1056 (8.2%) registrants had ≥1 parent with T1D. Those with parental T1D were slightly younger (6.3 vs. 6.9 yr, p < 0.001) and less likely to have diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis (24% vs. 41%, p < 0.001). There were no differences between groups in HbA1c, use of continuous glucose monitoring or insulin pump therapy, or development of severe hypoglycemia or DKA. There were no differences comparing those with a mother versus those with a father with T1D. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with parental T1D tend to be diagnosed earlier. Diabetes management, glycemic control, and acute complications are similar in those with vs. without parental T1D.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Diabetes
  • Kimberly N Walter · Julie A Wagner · Eda Cengiz · William V Tamborlane · Nancy M Petry

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Addiction
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Preservation of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus is critical. Interventions to improve glycemic control through early intensive treatment of diabetes reduce rates of severe retinopathy and preserve visual acuity.Objective To assess the effects of prior intensive insulin treatment and risk factors on patient-reported visual function in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort.Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort study of 1184 participants with type 1 diabetes from the DCCT/EDIC study (randomized clinical trial followed by an observational follow-up study) who completed the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) during EDIC years 17 through 20 (September 1, 2009, through April 30, 2014) in 28 institutions across the United States and Canada.Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the composite NEI-VFQ-25 score. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity (measured by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol), retinopathy level (determined by masked grading of stereoscopic color fundus photographs), and NEI-VFQ-25 subscale scores. The composite NEI-VFQ-25 scale and its subscales were scored 0 to 100, corresponding to poor to excellent function, respectively.Results The overall average NEI-VFQ-25 score for 1184 DCCT/EDIC participants (mean [SD] age, 52.3 [6.9] years; 48% female) with a 30-year duration of diabetes was high (all participants: median, 91.7; interquartile range [IQR], 89.7-96.9; intensive treatment [n = 605]: median, 94.7; IQR, 91.0-97.2; conventional treatment [n = 579]: median, 94.0; IQR, 88.4-96.1; P = .006 for intensive vs conventional). After adjustment for sex, age, hemoglobin A1c level, and retinopathy level at DCCT baseline, the former intensive treatment group had a significant, albeit modest, improvement in overall NEI-VFQ-25 score compared with the former conventional diabetes treatment group (median difference, −1.0; 95% CI, −1.7 to −0.3; P = .006). This beneficial treatment effect was fully attributed to the prior glycemic control in DCCT (explained treatment effect: 100%). Those with visual acuity worse than 20/100 reported the largest decline in visual function (median difference, −21.0; 95% CI, −40.5 to −1.6; P = .03).Conclusions and Relevance In the DCCT/EDIC cohort, patient-reported visual function remains high in both treatment groups, comparable to previous reports of overall health-related quality of life. Intensive diabetes therapy modestly improved NEI-VFQ-25 score 30 years after the start of the DCCT, the benefit underestimated owing to more nonparticipants from the conventional treatment group. Visual acuity had the greatest effect on patient-reported visual function from among all risk factors.Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00360815 and NCT00360893
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Jama Ophthalmology
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    Eda Cengiz · Bruce Bode · Michelle Van Name · William V Tamborlane
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in insulin formulations have been important for diabetes management and achieving optimal glycemic control. Rapid-acting insulin analogs provide a faster time-action profile than regular insulin and are approved for use in pumps. However, the need remains for therapy to deliver a more physiologic insulin profile. New insulin formulations and delivery methods are in development, with the aim of accelerating insulin absorption to accomplish ultra-fast-acting insulin time-action profiles. Furthermore, the integration of continuous glucose monitoring with insulin pump therapy enables on-going adjustment of insulin delivery to optimize glycemic control throughout the day and night. These technological and pharmacological advances are likely to facilitate the development of closed-loop pump systems (i.e., artificial pancreas), and improve glycemic control and quality of life for patients with diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Expert Review of Medical Devices
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis: While the use of insulin pumps in paediatrics has expanded dramatically, there is still considerable variability among countries in the use of pump technology. The present study sought to describe differences in metabolic control and pump use in young people with type 1 diabetes using data collected in three multicentre registries. Methods: Data for the years 2011 and 2012 from 54,410 children and adolescents were collected from the Prospective Diabetes Follow-up Registry (DPV; n = 26,198), T1D Exchange (T1DX; n = 13,755) and the National Paediatric Diabetes Audit (NPDA; n = 14,457). The modality of insulin delivery, based on age, sex and ethnic minority status, and the impact of pump use on HbA1c levels were compared. Results: The overall mean HbA1c level was higher in the NPDA (8.9 ± 1.6% [74 ± 17.5 mmol/mol]) than in the DPV (8.0 ± 1.6% [64 ± 17.0 mmol/mol], p < 0.001) and T1DX (8.3 ± 1.4% [68 ± 15.4 mmol/mol], p < 0.001). Conversely, pump use was much lower in the NPDA (14%) than in the DPV (41%, p < 0.001) and T1DX (47%, p < 0.001). In a pooled analysis, pump use was associated with a lower mean HbA1c (pump: 8.0 ± 1.2% [64 ± 13.3 mmol/mol] vs injection: 8.5 ± 1.7% [69 ± 18.7 mmol/mol], p < 0.001). In all three registries, those with an ethnic minority status were less likely to be treated with a pump (p < 0.001) and boys were treated with a pump less often compared with girls (p < 0.001). Conclusions/interpretation: Despite similar clinical characteristics and proportion of minority participants, substantial differences in metabolic control exist across the three large transatlantic registries of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes, which appears to be due in part to the frequency of insulin pump therapy.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Diabetologia
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe vitamin D levels and prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency in a large, ethnically/racially diverse population of youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in comparison to national data and examine the associations between clinical/demographic factors and vitamin D levels. Methods: 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels were measured in 215 youth with T1D and 326 youth with T2D enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC). These levels were compared with those of youth of the same age without diabetes from the 2005-2006 NHANES Survey. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (<21 ng/mL) was present in 36% of PDC participants, and insufficiency (21-29 ng/mL) was present in an additional 34%. About 36% of age-matched youth in the NHANES Survey were vitamin D deficient and an additional 41% were insufficient. Deficiency or insufficiency varied by race/ethnicity, being highest in African-Americans (86%), intermediate in Hispanics (77%), and lowest in non-Hispanic whites (47%). Lower 25OHD levels were observed in African-American and Hispanic youth, during fall and winter, and at sites in the northern United States (all p-values < 0.001). Youth with T2D had significantly lower 25OHD levels than youth with T1D (p < 0.001), but this difference was largely eliminated after adjusting for race/ethnicity and socio-economic status. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is present in a substantial proportion of youth with diabetes, particularly minorities, but the prevalence appears similar to that in youth without diabetes. Further studies are needed to examine whether youth with diabetes would benefit from vitamin D supplementation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Pediatric Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Early-onset type 1 diabetes may affect the developing brain during a critical window of rapid brain maturation. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 141 children with diabetes (ages 4-10 years at study entry) and 69 age-matched controls at two time points spaced 18 months apart. For the children with diabetes, HbA1c was 7.9±0.9% (63±9.8 mmol/mol)(mean±SD) at both time points. Relative to controls, children with diabetes had significantly less growth of cortical gray matter volume and cortical surface area, and significantly less growth of white matter volume throughout the cortex and cerebellum. For the diabetic population, the change across longitudinal time points of the blood glucose level at the time of scan was negatively correlated with the change in gray and white matter volumes, suggesting that fluctuating glucose levels in children with diabetes may be associated with corresponding fluctuations in brain volume. In addition, measures of hyperglycemia and glycemic variation were significantly negatively correlated with development of surface curvature. These results demonstrate that early-onset type 1 diabetes has widespread effects on the growth of gray and white matter for children whose blood glucose levels are well within the current treatment guidelines for management of diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the frequency of depressive symptoms and the diagnosis and management of depression in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T1D and T2D registries. Research design and methods: The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) 2 Self-Report (Short) version was completed by 261 T1D and 339 T2D youth aged 10-17 years. Results: Symptoms of depression were identified in 13% of T1D and 22% of T2D (P = 0.007) participants; of these, only 4% of T1D and 9% of T2D youth were treated by a therapist within the prior 12 months. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower family income (P = 0.006) and obesity (P = 0.002) in T1D but not T2D youth. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are more frequent than diagnosed depression in youth with T1D or T2D. These results underscore the need for regular depression screening and appropriate referral for youth with diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes care
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    Kathleen H Ang · William V Tamborlane · Stuart A Weinzimer
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the widespread availability of insulin pumps, continuous glucose sensors, and insulin analogs with rapid-acting pharmacokinetic profiles, most people with type 1 diabetes fail to meet recommended glycemic targets, rates of severe hypoglycemia remain unacceptably high, and the burden of care on patients and loved ones exacts an enormous psychosocial toll. The combination of continuous glucose monitoring with insulin delivery into an integrated automated system promises to improve diabetes control while at the same time reduce the burden of care. A wide variety of automated insulin delivery systems, ranging in scope from simple pump suspension to reduce hypoglycemia, to complex multiple hormone systems under separate regulation and delivery, have been studied in both controlled inpatient settings and more free-ranging outpatient environments. Preliminary findings have been positive, with most studies demonstrating reduction in overall glucose levels, increased time-in-target range, and reductions in exposure to hypoglycemia. As these systems move closer to commercialization, the focus of ongoing efforts will need to address the continuing challenges of sensor accuracy and reliability, connectivity issues, and human factors considerations.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
  • Nancy M Petry · Eda Cengiz · Julie Wager · Kate Weyman · Eileen Tichy · William V Tamborlane
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of monetary reinforcement to increase the frequency of self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG). Ten adolescents with poorly controlled diabetes enrolled in a 12-week program in which they earned monetary reinforcers based on SMBG frequency ($0.10 per test, with bonuses for ≥4 tests per day, and $251.40 maximum). SMBG increased from 1.8 ± 1.0 to 4.9 ± 1.0 tests per day (P < 0.001) with 90% completing four or more tests per day. Mean A1C fell from 9.3 ± 0.9% to 8.4 ± 1.5% (P = 0.05). Adolescents and parents reported high satisfaction with procedures. Reinforcing adolescents for SMBG may increase testing and improve A1C. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) influence the longitudinal risk for diabetes-related complications. Few studies have examined HbA1c trends across time in children, adolescents, and young adults with T1D. This study examines changes in glycemic control across the specific transition periods of pre-adolescence-to-adolescence and adolescence-to-young adulthood, and the demographic and clinical factors associated with these changes. Available HbA1c lab results for up to 10 yr were collected from medical records at 67 T1D Exchange clinics. Two retrospective cohorts were evaluated: the pre-adolescent-to-adolescent cohort consisting of 85 016 HbA1c measurements from 6574 participants collected when the participants were 8-18 yr old and the adolescent-to-young adult cohort, 2200 participants who were 16-26 yr old at the time of 17 279 HbA1c measurements. HbA1c in the 8-18 cohort increased over time after age 10 yr until ages 16-17; followed by a plateau. HbA1c levels in the 16-26 cohort remained steady from 16-18, and then gradually declined. For both cohorts, race/ethnicity, income, health insurance, and pump use were all significant in explaining individual variations in age-centered HbA1c (p < 0.001). For the 8-18 cohort, insulin pump use, age of onset, and health insurance were significant in predicting individual HbA1c trajectory. Glycemic control among patients 8-18 yr old worsens over time, through age 16. Elevated HbA1c levels observed in 18 yr-olds begin a steady improvement into early adulthood. Focused interventions to prevent deterioration in glucose control in pre-adolescence, adolescence, and early adulthood are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Pediatric Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the current extent of the obesity problem in 2 large pediatric clinical registries in the US and Europe and to examine the hypotheses that increased body mass index (BMI) z-scores (BMIz) are associated with greater hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and increased frequency of severe hypoglycemia in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). International (World Health Organization) and national (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) BMI references were used to calculate BMIz in participants (age 2-<18 years and ≥1 year duration of T1D) enrolled in the T1D Exchange (n = 11 435) and the Diabetes Prospective Follow-up (n = 21 501). Associations between BMIz and HbA1c and severe hypoglycemia were assessed. Participants in both registries had median BMI values that were greater than international and their respective national reference values. BMIz was significantly greater in the T1D Exchange vs the Diabetes Prospective Follow-up (P < .001). After stratification by age-group, no differences in BMI between registries existed for children 2-5 years, but differences were confirmed for 6- to 9-, 10- to 13-, and 14- to 17-year age groups (all P < .001). Greater BMIz were significantly related to greater HbA1c levels and more frequent occurrence of severe hypoglycemia across the registries, although these associations may not be clinically relevant. Excessive weight is a common problem in children with T1D in Germany and Austria and, especially, in the US. Our data suggest that obesity contributes to the challenges in achieving optimal glycemic control in children and adolescents with T1D. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes and elevated BMI in the USA is poorly defined. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children with type 1 diabetes who are overweight or obese have increased frequencies of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and micro-/macroalbuminuria compared to their healthy weight peers. We studied 11,348 children 2 to <18 years of age enrolled in T1D Exchange between September 2010 and August 2012 with type 1 diabetes for ≥1 year and BMI ≥ 5th age-/sex-adjusted percentile (mean age 12 years, 49 % female, 78 % non-Hispanic White). Overweight and obesity were defined based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Diagnoses of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and micro-/macroalbuminuria were obtained from medical records. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess factors associated with weight status. Of the 11,348 participants, 22 % were overweight and 14 % obese. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were diagnosed in 1.0 % and 3.8 % of participants, respectively; micro-/macroalbuminuria was diagnosed in 3.8 % of participants with available data (n = 7,401). The odds of either hypertension or dyslipidemia were higher in obese than healthy weight participants [OR 3.5, 99 % confidence interval (CI) 2.0-6.1 and 2.2, 99 % CI 1.6-3.1, respectively]. Obese participants tended to be diagnosed with micro-/macroalbuminuria less often than healthy weight participants (OR 0.6, 99 % CI 0.4-1.0). Obese children with type 1 diabetes have a higher prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia than healthy weight children with type 1 diabetes. The possible association of obesity with lower micro-/macroalbuminuria rates warrants further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Acta Diabetologica
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    William T Cefalu · William V Tamborlane · Jay S Skyler

    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the overall state of metabolic control and current use of advanced diabetes technologies in the U.S., we report recent data collected on individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the T1D Exchange clinic registry. Data from 16,061 participants updated between 1 September 2013 and 1 December 2014 were compared with registry enrollment data collected from 1 September 2010 to 1 August 2012. Mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was assessed by year of age from <4 to >75 years. The overall average HbA1c was 8.2% (66 mmol/mol) at enrollment and 8.4% (68 mmol/mol) at the most recent update. During childhood, mean HbA1c decreased from 8.3% (67 mmol/mol) in 2-4-year-olds to 8.1% (65 mmol/mol) at 7 years of age, followed by an increase to 9.2% (77 mmol/mol) in 19-year-olds. Subsequently, mean HbA1c values decline gradually until ∼30 years of age, plateauing at 7.5-7.8% (58-62 mmol/mol) beyond age 30 until a modest drop in HbA1c below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol) in those 65 years of age. Severe hypoglycemia (SH) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remain all too common complications of treatment, especially in older (SH) and younger patients (DKA). Insulin pump use increased slightly from enrollment (58-62%), and use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) did not change (7%). Although the T1D Exchange registry findings are not population based and could be biased, it is clear that there remains considerable room for improving outcomes of treatment of type 1 diabetes across all age-groups. Barriers to more effective use of current treatments need to be addressed and new therapies are needed to achieve optimal metabolic control in people with type 1 diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Diabetes care

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015

Publication Stats

21k Citations
3,175.67 Total Impact Points


  • 1978-2015
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • • Endocrinology and Diabetes Program
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2005-2013
    • Jaeb Center for Health Research
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 2012
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of New Haven
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • George Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1998
    • King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ar Riyāḑ, Ar Riyāḑ, Saudi Arabia
  • 1997
    • King Faisal Specialist Hospital Jeddah
      Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • 1992
    • Wesleyan University
      • Department of Psychology
      मिडलटाउन, Connecticut, United States