[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZOSTAVAX™, Merck & Co., Inc.) was approved by the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2009. However, the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine has not been assessed in Korean population. This is multi-center, open-label, single-arm study performed with 180 healthy Korean adults ≥50 yr of age. The geometric mean titer (GMT) and geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) of varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies were measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) at 4 weeks post-vaccination. Subjects were followed for exposure to varicella or herpes zoster (HZ), the development of any varicella/varicella-like or HZ/HZ-like rashes, and any other clinical adverse experiences (AEs) for 42 days post-vaccination. For the 166 subjects included in the per-protocol population, the GMT at Day 1 was 66.9. At 4 weeks post-vaccination, the GMT for this population was 185.4, with a GMFR of 2.8 (95% CI, 2.5-3.1). Of the 180 subjects vaccinated, 62.8% experienced ≥1 AE, with 53.3% of subjects reporting injection-site AEs. The most frequently reported injection-site AEs were erythema (45.0%) with the majority being mild in intensity. Overall, 44 (24.4%) subjects experienced ≥1 systemic AE, 10 (5.5%) subjects experienced a systemic vaccine-related AE, and 3 (1.7%) subjects experienced ≥1 serious AE not related to vaccine. No subjects reported a VZV-like rash. There was no subject of death and no subject discontinued due to an adverse event. A single dose of zoster vaccine induced VZV-specific gpELISA antibody response and was generally well-tolerated in healthy Korean adults ≥50 yr of age (registry at www.clinicaltrial.gov No. NCT01556451).
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Korean Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in Korea in 2003, the proportion of non-vaccine serotypes has increased. Among non-vaccine serotypes, serotype 11A is highly prevalent in Korea. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11A isolates in a Korean tertiary-care hospital, during 2004-2013. A total of 1,579 non-duplicate clinical S. pneumoniae isolates, collected from 2004 to 2013, were included in this study. Serotype was determined by the capsular Quellung method, and in vitro susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing was performed to determine the genotypes of the S. pneumoniae isolates. We identified 90 serotype 11A isolates (5.7%). During this period, the proportion of serotype 11A has increased from 3.2% up to 13.2% (in 2012). Among the serotype 11A isolates, two main clonal complexes (CCs), CC166 and CC99, were identified. The increase of serotype 11A was mainly due to the increase of CC166 isolates, which have high antimicrobial resistance rates. In addition, we identified that 14 isolates, belonging to ST8279, ST9875, and ST3598 of CC166, were non-susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested in this study. We identified the increase of S. pneumoniae serotype 11A in Korea, which mainly due to the expansion of a resistant clonal group, CC166.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current knowledge of community-associated (CA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in hospitalized patients is incomplete. Genotypic characteristics of 637 nasal MRSA isolates from newly admitted patients in South Korea were investigated. Sequence type (ST) 72 accounted for 52.1%, 46.3%, and 52.8% of the isolates during the periods of 2007‒2008, 2009‒2010, and 2013‒2014, respectively. Instead of classic MRSA clones responsible for healthcare-associated infections, including ST5 and ST239, MRSA with community genotype ST72 was the predominant strain in newly admitted patients regardless of age and home province of the patients. Active strategies are needed to prevent healthcare-associated infection by CA-MRSA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The galactomannan (GM) test is a useful method for early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Recently, multiple myeloma has newly been suggested to be related to false-positive results of GM. We performed a case-control study to validate this finding.
Electronic medical records were reviewed for patients admitted March through June 2014. Patients with false-positive GM results were selected as cases and those with negatives as controls. To verify the results of the four-month analysis, additional analysis was performed in multiple myeloma patients over a three-year period.
There were 30 false-positive and 316 negative cases during the four-month period. Among the factors evaluated, multiple myeloma was the only significant factor in the adjusted analysis (OR = 3.59, CI 1.28-10.04). In the three-year analysis of 145 multiple myeloma patients, 25.5% showed false-positive results, which was 3 times higher than overall. GM false-positivity was not related to serum monoclonal protein level or type of immunoglobulin. GM optical density indexes (ODIs) in all false positives were lower than 3.0.
Multiple myeloma was a major cause of GM false-positivity in adult cancer patients. GM was false-positive in 25.5% of multiple myeloma patients with GM ODIs lower than 3.0.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow hemophagocytosis is a frequently observed but not mandatory finding for the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). However, the impact of bone marrow hemophagocytosis on the diagnosis of HLH is still not clear in adult patients. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed adult patients with bone marrow hemophagocytosis between 2000 and 2014 to determine its clinical significance. Among 264 patients with bone marrow hemophagocytosis, malignant disorders were the predominant underlying cause (n = 170, 64 %), especially T/NK-cell (n = 88) and B-cell (n = 45) lymphomas compared to infectious disease (48/264, 18 %). The data for HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria was available in 182 patients, and only 29 % (77/264) of patients with ≥ five positive criteria could be diagnosed with HLH. Among the criteria for the diagnosis of HLH, increased serum ferritin (89 %) was more common than hypofibrinogenemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and bicytopenia (<40 %). The median overall survival was worse in patients with malignancy (9.0 months, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 5.6-12.5) than in those with non-malignant disorders (71.8 months, 95 % CI 56.5-87.1, P < 0.001). In patients with malignancy, the overall survival of patients fulfilling the HLH-2004 criteria was significantly worse than patients who did not (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our results suggest that bone marrow hemophagocytosis might be an important finding in the diagnosis of HLH in adult patients. Considering the high incidence of malignancy as a predisposing disorder for HLH, immediate evaluation should be performed in adult patients with bone marrow hemophagocytosis.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Annals of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the molecular epidemiology and microbiological characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) isolates that cause bacteremia in Korean hospitals, focusing especially on ST131. Our data suggest that ST131 isolates possessed more virulence traits and showed more multidrug resistance patterns than non-ST131 isolates. Among CTX-M-15 producers, the frequency of serum resistance was significantly higher in ST131 than in non-ST131. As in other parts of the world, the ESBL-EC ST131 clone has emerged and disseminated in both community and hospital settings in Korea, including in blood isolates in patients with bacteremia.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in liver transplant recipients are common and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir are the standard treatment for CMV infection. The present study investigates the efficacy of oral valganciclovir in CMV infection as a preemptive treatment after liver transplantation.
Between 2012 and 2013, 161 patients underwent liver transplantation at Samsung Medical Center. All patients received tacrolimus, steroids, and mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with CMV infection were administered oral valganciclovir (VGCV) 900mg/day daily or intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) 5mg/kg twice daily as preemptive treatment. Stable liver transplant recipients received VGCV.
Eighty-three patients (51.6%) received antiviral therapy as a preemptive treatment because of CMV infection. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and the proportions of Child-Pugh class C, hepatorenal syndrome, and deceased donor liver transplantation in the CMV infection group were higher than in the no CMV infection group. Sixty-one patients received GCV and 22 patients received VGCV. The MELD scores in the GCV group were higher than in the VGCV group, but there were no statistical differences in the pretransplant variables between the two groups. AST, ALT, and total bilirubin levels in the GCV group were higher than in the VGCV group when CMV infection occurred. The incidences of recurrent CMV infection in the GCV and VGCV groups were 14.8% and 4.5%, respectively (P=0.277).
Oral valganciclovir is feasible as a preemptive treatment for CMV infection in liver transplant recipients with stable graft function.