[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrins play an essential role in hemostasis, thrombosis, and cell migration, and they transmit bidirectional signals. Transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains are hypothesized to associate in the resting integrins; whereas, ligand binding and intracellular activating signals induce transmembrane domain separation. However, how this conformational change affects integrin outside-in signaling and whether the α subunit cytoplasmic domain is important for this signaling remain elusive. Using Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells that stably expressed different integrin αIIbβ3 constructs, we discovered that an αIIb cytoplasmic domain truncation led to integrin activation but not defective outside-in signaling. In contrast, preventing transmembrane domain separation abolished both inside-out and outside-in signaling regardless of removing the αIIb cytoplasmic tail. Truncation of the αIIb cytoplasmic tail did not obviously affect adhesion-induced outside-in signaling. Our research revealed that transmembrane domain separation is a downstream conformational change after the cytoplasmic domain dissociation in inside-out activation and indispensable for ligand-induced outside-in signaling. The result implicates that the β TM helix rearrangement after dissociation is essential for integrin transmembrane signaling. Furthermore, we discovered that the PI3K/Akt pathway is not essential for cell spreading but spreading-induced Erk1/2 activation is PI3K dependent implicating requirement of the kinase for cell survival in outside-in signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of water-soluble non-ionic “clickable” polypeptides has been synthesized by organo-initiated ring-opening co-polymerization (ROP) of γ-propargyl L-glutamic acid N-carboxyanhydride (PLG NCA) and N-ε-2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]acetyl-L-lysine N-carboxyanhydride (EG2-LYS NCA). The pendant alkyne side groups can be modified with azido-containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic bioactive moieties, producing polypeptide conjugates with good water solubility. Circular dichroism (CD) reveals that both the parent polypeptides and the modified polypeptide conjugates maintain high levels of α-helical conformations in aqueous solutions. Preliminary cell study indicated the cell binding peptide GRGDS (Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) modified copolymers are able to induce integrin-mediated cell adhesion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Asp of the RGD motif of the ligand coordinates with the β I domain metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) divalent cation, emphasizing the importance of the MIDAS in ligand binding. There appears to be two distinct groups of integrins that differ in their ligand binding affinity and adhesion ability. These differences may be due to a specific residue associated with the MIDAS, particularly the β3 residue Ala(252) and corresponding Ala in the β1 integrin compared to the analogous Asp residue in the β2 and β7 integrins. Interestingly, mutations in the adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) of integrins α4β7 and αLβ2 increased the binding and adhesion abilities compared to the wild-type, while the same mutations in the α2β1, α5β1, αVβ3, and αIIbβ3 integrins demonstrated decreased ligand binding and adhesion. We introduced a mutation in the αIIbβ3 to convert this MIDAS associated Ala(252) to Asp. By combination of this mutant with mutations of one or two ADMIDAS residues, we studied the effects of this residue on ligand binding and adhesion. Then, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type and mutant αIIbβ3 integrin β I domains, and investigated the dynamics of metal ion binding sites in different integrin-RGD complexes. We found that the tendency of calculated binding free energies was in excellent agreement with the experimental results, suggesting that the variation in this MIDAS associated residue accounts for the differences in ligand binding and adhesion among different integrins, and it accounts for the conflicting results of ADMIDAS mutations within different integrins. This study sheds more light on the role of the MIDAS associated residue pertaining to ligand binding and adhesion and suggests that this residue may play a pivotal role in integrin-mediated cell rolling and firm adhesion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many questions about the significance of structural features of integrin α(V)β(3) with respect to its mechanism of activation remain. We have determined and re-refined crystal structures of the α(V)β(3) ectodomain linked to C-terminal coiled coils (α(V)β(3)-AB) and four transmembrane (TM) residues in each subunit (α(V)β(3)-1TM), respectively. The α(V) and β(3) subunits with four and eight extracellular domains, respectively, are bent at knees between the integrin headpiece and lower legs, and the headpiece has the closed, low-affinity conformation. The structures differ in the occupancy of three metal-binding sites in the βI domain. Occupancy appears to be related to the pH of crystallization, rather than to the physiologic regulation of ligand binding at the central, metal ion-dependent adhesion site. No electron density was observed for TM residues and much of the α(V) linker. α(V)β(3)-AB and α(V)β(3)-1TM demonstrate flexibility in the linker between their extracellular and TM domains, rather than the previously proposed rigid linkage. A previously postulated interface between the α(V) and β(3) subunits at their knees was also not supported, because it lacks high-quality density, required rebuilding in α(V)β(3)-1TM, and differed markedly between α(V)β(3)-1TM and α(V)β(3)-AB. Together with the variation in domain-domain orientation within their bent ectodomains between α(V)β(3)-AB and α(V)β(3)-1TM, these findings are compatible with the requirement for large structural changes, such as extension at the knees and headpiece opening, in conveying activation signals between the extracellular ligand-binding site and the cytoplasm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three divalent cation binding sites in the integrin β I domain have been shown to regulate ligand binding and adhesion. However, the degree of ligand binding and adhesion varies among integrins. The αLβ2 and α4β7 integrins show an increase in ligand binding affinity and adhesion when one of their ADMIDAS (adjacent to MIDAS, or the metal ion-dependent adhesion site) residues is mutated. By contrast, the α2β1, α5β1, and αIIbβ3 integrins show a decrease in binding affinity and adhesion when their ADMIDAS is mutated. Our study here indicated that integrin αVβ3 had lower affinity when the ADMIDAS was mutated. By comparing the primary sequences of these integrin subunits, we propose that one residue associated with the MIDAS (β3 Ala(252)) may account for these differences. In the β1 integrin subunit, the corresponding residue is also Ala, whereas in both β2 and β7 integrin subunits, it is Asp. We mutated the β3 residue Ala(252) to Asp and combined this mutant with mutations of one or two ADMIDAS residues. The mutant A252D showed reduced ligand binding affinity and adhesion. The ligand binding affinity and adhesion were increased when this A252D mutant was paired with mutations of one ADMIDAS residue. But when paired with mutations of two ADMIDAS residues the mutant nearly abolished ligand-binding ability, which was restored by the activating glycosylation mutation. Our study suggests that the variation of this residue contributes to the different ligand binding affinities and adhesion abilities among different integrin families.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that play important roles in many biological processes including hemostasis, immune responses, development, and cancer. Their adhesiveness is dynamically regulated through a process termed inside-out signaling. In addition, ligand binding transduces outside-in signals from the extracellular domain to the cytoplasm. Advances in the past several years have shed light on structural basis for integrin regulation and signaling, especially how the large-scale reorientations of the ectodomain are related to the inter-domain and intra-domain shape shifting that changes ligand-binding affinity. Experiments have also shown how the conformational changes of the ectodomain are linked to changes in the α- and β-subunit transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrin bidirectional signaling is mediated by conformational change. It has been shown that the separation of the α- and β-subunit transmembrane/cytoplasmic tails and the lower legs is required for transmitting integrin bidirectional signals across the plasma membrane. In this study, we address whether the separation of the αβ knee is critical for integrin activation and outside-in signaling. By introducing three disulfide bonds to restrict dissociation of the α-subunit thigh domain and β-subunit I-EGF2 domain, we found that two of them could completely abolish integrin inside-out activation, whereas the other could not. This disulfide-bonded mutant, in the context of the activation mutation of the cytoplasmic domain, had intermediate affinity for ligands and was able to mediate cell adhesion. Our data suggest that there exists rearrangement at the interface between the thigh domain and the I-EGF2 domain during integrin inside-out activation. None of the disulfide-bonded mutants could mediate cell spreading upon adhering to immobilized ligands, suggesting that dissociation of the integrin two knees is required for integrin outside-in signaling. Disrupting the interface by introducing a glycan chain into either subunit is sufficient for high affinity ligand binding and cell spreading.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of αIIbβ3 to bind ligands and undergo outside-in signaling is regulated by three divalent cation binding sites in the β I domain. Specifically, the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) and the synergistic metal binding site (SyMBS) are thought to be required for ligand binding due to their synergy between Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) is an important ligand binding regulatory site that also acts as a critical link between the β I and hybrid domains for signaling. Mutations in this site have provided conflicting results for ligand binding and adhesion in different integrins. We have mutated the β3 SyMBS and ADMIDAS. The SyMBS mutant abolished ligand binding and outside-in signaling, but when an activating glycosylation mutation in the αIIb Calf 2 domain was introduced, the ligand binding affinity and signaling were restored. Thus, the SyMBS is important but not absolutely required for integrin bidirectional signaling. The ADMIDAS mutants showed reduced ligand binding affinity and abolished outside-in signaling, and the activating glycosylation mutation could fully restore integrin signaling of the ADMIDAS mutant. We propose that the ADMIDAS ion stabilizes the low-affinity state when the integrin headpiece is in the closed conformation, whereas it stabilizes the high-affinity state when the headpiece is in the open conformation with the swung-out hybrid domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrin conformational changes mediate integrin activation and signaling triggered by intracellular molecules or extracellular ligands. Even though it is known that αβ transmembrane domain separation is required for integrin signaling, it is still not clear how this signal is transmitted from the transmembrane domain through two long extracellular legs to the ligand-binding headpiece. This study addresses whether the separation of the membrane-proximal extracellular αβ legs is critical for integrin activation and outside-in signaling. Using a disulfide bond to restrict dissociation of the α-subunit Calf-2 domain and β-subunit I-EGF4 domain, we were able to abolish integrin inside-out activation and outside-in signaling. In contrast, disrupting the interface by introducing a glycosylation site into either subunit activated integrins for ligand binding through a global conformational change. Our results suggest that the interface of the Calf-2 domain and the I-EGF4 domain is critical for integrin bidirectional signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrin transmembrane (TM) and/or cytoplasmic domains play a critical role in integrin bidirectional signaling. Although it has been shown that TM and/or cytoplasmic α and β domains associate in the resting state and separation of these domains is required for both inside-out and outside-in signaling, the role of TM homomeric association remains elusive. Formation of TM homo-oligomers was observed in micelles and bacterial membranes previously, and it has been proposed that homomeric association is important for integrin activation and clustering. This study addresses whether integrin TM domains form homo-oligomers in mammalian cell membranes using cysteine scanning mutagenesis. Our results show that TM homomeric interaction does not occur before or after soluble ligand binding or during inside-out activation. In addition, even though the cysteine mutants and the heterodimeric disulfide-bounded mutant could form clusters after adhering to immobilized ligand, the integrin TM domains do not form homo-oligomers, suggesting that integrin TM homomeric association is not critical for integrin clustering or outside-in signaling. Therefore, integrin TM homo-oligomerization is not required for integrin activation, ligand binding, or signaling.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrins are cell adhesion receptors that transmit bidirectional signals across plasma membrane and are crucial for many biological functions. Recent structural studies of integrin transmembrane (TM) and cytoplasmic domains have shed light on their conformational changes during integrin activation. A structure of the resting state was solved based on Rosetta computational modeling and experimental data using intact integrins on mammalian cell surface. In this structure, the alpha(IIb) GXXXG motif and their beta(3) counterparts of the TM domains associate with ridge-in-groove packing, and the alpha(IIb) GFFKR motif and the beta(3) Lys-716 in the cytoplasmic segments play a critical role in the alpha/beta association. Comparing this structure with the NMR structures of the monomeric alpha(IIb) and beta(3) (represented as active conformations), the alpha subunit helix remains similar after dissociation whereas beta subunit helix is tilted by embedding additional 5-6 residues into the lipid bilayer. These conformational changes are critical for integrin activation and signaling across the plasma membrane. We thus propose a new model of integrin TM activation in which the recent NMR structure of the alpha(IIb)beta(3) TM/cytoplasmic complex represents an intermediate or transient state, and the electrostatic interaction in the cytoplasmic region is important for priming the initial alpha/beta association, but not absolutely necessary for the resting state.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structures of intact receptors with single-pass transmembrane domains are essential to understand how extracellular and cytoplasmic domains regulate association and signaling through transmembrane domains. A chemical and computational method to determine structures of the membrane regions of such receptors on the cell surface is developed here and validated with glycophorin A. An integrin heterodimer structure reveals association over most of the lengths of the alpha and beta transmembrane domains and shows that the principles governing association of hetero and homo transmembrane dimers differ. A turn at the Gly of the juxtamembrane GFFKR motif caps the alpha TM helix and brings the two Phe of GFFKR into the alpha/beta interface. A juxtamembrane Lys residue in beta also has an important role in the interface. The structure shows how transmembrane association/dissociation regulates integrin signaling. A joint ectodomain and membrane structure shows that substantial flexibility between the extracellular and TM domains is compatible with TM signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete ectodomain of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) reveals a bent, closed, low-affinity conformation, the beta knee, and a mechanism for linking cytoskeleton attachment to high affinity for ligand. Ca and Mg ions in the recognition site, including the synergistic metal ion binding site (SyMBS), are loaded prior to ligand binding. Electrophilicity of the ligand-binding Mg ion is increased in the open conformation. The beta(3) knee passes between the beta(3)-PSI and alpha(IIb)-knob to bury the lower beta leg in a cleft, from which it is released for extension. Different integrin molecules in crystals and EM reveal breathing that appears on pathway to extension. Tensile force applied to the extended ligand-receptor complex stabilizes the closed, low-affinity conformation. By contrast, an additional lateral force applied to the beta subunit to mimic attachment to moving actin filaments stabilizes the open, high-affinity conformation. This mechanism propagates allostery over long distances and couples cytoskeleton attachment of integrins to their high-affinity state.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrins are important cell surface receptors that transmit bidirectional signals across the membrane. It has been shown that a conformational change of the integrin beta-subunit headpiece (i.e. the beta I domain and the hybrid domain) plays a critical role in regulating integrin ligand binding affinity and function. Previous studies have used coarse methods (a glycan wedge, mutations in transmembrane contacts) to force the beta-subunit into either the open or closed conformation. Here, we demonstrate a detailed understanding of this conformational change by applying computational design techniques to select five amino acid side chains that play an important role in the energetic balance between the open and closed conformations of alphaIIbbeta3. Eight single-point mutants were designed at these sites, of which five bound ligands much better than wild type. Further, these mutants were found to be in a more extended conformation than wild type, suggesting that the conformational change at the ligand binding headpiece was propagated to the legs of the integrin. This detailed understanding of the conformational change will assist in the development of allosteric drugs that either stabilize or destabilize specific integrin conformations without occluding the ligand-binding site.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neurovascular unit is an emerging concept that emphasizes homeostatic interactions between endothelium and cerebral parenchyma. Here, we show that cerebral endothelium are not just inert tubes for delivering blood, but they also secrete trophic factors that can be directly neuroprotective. Conditioned media from cerebral endothelial cells broadly protects neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation, oxidative damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and amyloid neurotoxicity. This phenomenon is largely mediated by endothelial-produced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) because filtering endothelial-conditioned media with TrkB-Fc eliminates the neuroprotective effect. Endothelial production of BDNF is sustained by beta-1 integrin and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling. Noncytotoxic levels of oxidative stress disrupts ILK signaling and reduces endothelial levels of neuroprotective BDNF. These data suggest that cerebral endothelium provides a critical source of homeostatic support for neurons. Targeting these signals of matrix and trophic coupling between endothelium and neurons may provide new therapeutic opportunities for stroke and other CNS disorders.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adhesion to extracellular ligands through integrins regulates cell shape, migration, growth, and survival. How integrins transmit signals in the outside-to-in direction remains unknown. Whereas in resting integrins the alpha and beta subunit transmembrane domains are associated, ligand binding promotes dissociation and separation of these domains. Here we address whether such separation is required for outside-in signaling. By introduction of an intersubunit disulfide bond, we generated mutant integrin alphaIIbbeta3 with blocked transmembrane separation that binds ligand, mediates adhesion, adopts an extended conformation after ligand binding, and forms antibody-induced macroclusters on the cell surface similarly to wild type. However, the mutant integrin exhibits a profound defect in adhesion-induced outside-in signaling as measured by cell spreading, actin stress-fiber and focal adhesion formation, and focal adhesion kinase activation. This defect was rescued by reduction of the disulfide bond. Our results demonstrate that the separation of transmembrane domains is required for integrin outside-in signal transduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite extensive evidence that integrin conformational changes between bent and extended conformations regulate affinity
for ligands, an alternative hypothesis has been proposed in which a “deadbolt” can regulate affinity for ligand in the absence
of extension. Here, we tested both the deadbolt and the extension models. According to the deadbolt model, a hairpin loop
in the β3 tail domain could act as a deadbolt to restrain the displacement of the β3 I domain β6-α7 loop and maintain integrin
in the low affinity state. We found that mutating or deleting the β3 tail domain loop has no effect on ligand binding by either
αIIbβ 3 or αVβ3 integrins. In contrast, we found that mutations that lock integrins in the bent conformation with disulfide
bonds resist inside-out activation induced by cytoplasmic domain mutation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that extension is
required for accessibility to fibronectin but not smaller fragments. The data demonstrate that integrin extension is required
for ligand binding during integrin inside-out signaling and that the deadbolt does not regulate integrin activation.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. They play critical roles for the immune system in leukocyte trafficking and migration, immunological synapse formation, costimulation, and phagocytosis. Integrin adhesiveness can be dynamically regulated through a process termed inside-out signaling. In addition, ligand binding transduces signals from the extracellular domain to the cytoplasm in the classical outside-in direction. Recent structural, biochemical, and biophysical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of integrin bidirectional signaling across the plasma membrane. Large-scale reorientations of the ectodomain of up to 200 A couple to conformational change in ligand-binding sites and are linked to changes in alpha and beta subunit transmembrane domain association. In this review, we focus on integrin structure as it relates to affinity modulation, ligand binding, outside-in signaling, and cell surface distribution dynamics.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Annual Review of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that play critical roles in development, wound healing, hemostasis, immunity and cancer. Advances in the past two years have shed light on the structural basis for integrin regulation and signaling, especially on how global conformational changes between bent and extended conformations relate to the inter-domain and intra-domain shape shifting that regulates affinity for ligand. The downward movements of the C-terminal helices of the alpha I and beta I domains and the swing-out of the hybrid domain play pivotal roles in integrin conformational signaling. Experiments have also shown that integrins transmit bidirectional signals across the plasma membrane by coupling extracellular conformational change with an unclasping and separation of the alpha and beta transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains.
Preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Current Opinion in Cell Biology