[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CCL2 chemokine mediates monocyte egress from bone marrow and recruitment into inflamed tissues through interaction with the CCR2 chemokine receptor, and its expression is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines. Analysis of the gene expression profile in GM-CSF- and M-CSF-polarized macrophages revealed that a high CCL2 expression characterizes macrophages generated under the influence of M-CSF, whereas CCR2 is expressed only by GM-CSF-polarized macrophages. Analysis of the factors responsible for this differential expression identified activin A as a critical factor controlling the expression of the CCL2/CCR2 pair in macrophages, as activin A increased CCR2 expression but inhibited the acquisition of CCL2 expression by M-CSF-polarized macrophages. CCL2 and CCR2 were found to determine the extent of macrophage polarization because CCL2 enhances the LPS-induced production of IL-10, whereas CCL2 blockade leads to enhanced expression of M1 polarization-associated genes and cytokines, and diminished expression of M2-associated markers in human macrophages. Along the same line, Ccr2-deficient bone marrow-derived murine macrophages displayed an M1-skewed polarization profile at the transcriptomic level and exhibited a significantly higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) in response to LPS. Therefore, the CCL2-CCR2 axis regulates macrophage polarization by influencing the expression of functionally relevant and polarization-associated genes and downmodulating proinflammatory cytokine production.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA)26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besides its role as a neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) regulates inflammation and tissue repair via a set of receptors (5HT(1-7)) whose pattern of expression varies among cell lineages. Considering the importance of macrophage polarization plasticity for inflammatory responses and tissue repair, we evaluated whether 5HT modulates human macrophage polarization. 5HT inhibited the LPS-induced release of proinflammatory cytokines without affecting IL-10 production, upregulated the expression of M2 polarization-associated genes (SERPINB2, THBS1, STAB1, COL23A1), and reduced the expression of M1-associated genes (INHBA, CCR2, MMP12, SERPINE1, CD1B, ALDH1A2). Whereas only 5HT(7) mediated the inhibitory action of 5HT on the release of proinflammatory cytokines, both 5HT(2B) and 5HT(7) receptors mediated the pro-M2 skewing effect of 5HT. In fact, blockade of both receptors during in vitro monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation preferentially modulated the acquisition of M2 polarization markers. 5HT(2B) was found to be preferentially expressed by anti-inflammatory M2(M-CSF) macrophages and was detected in vivo in liver Kupffer cells and in tumor-associated macrophages. Therefore, 5HT modulates macrophage polarization and contributes to the maintenance of an anti-inflammatory state via 5HT(2B) and 5HT(7), whose identification as functionally relevant markers for anti-inflammatory/homeostatic human M2 macrophages suggests their potential therapeutic value in inflammatory pathologies.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modulation of macrophage polarization underlies the onset and resolution of inflammatory processes, with polarization-specific molecules being actively sought as potential diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Based on their cytokine profile upon exposure to pathogenic stimuli, human monocyte-derived macrophages generated in the presence of GM-CSF or M-CSF are considered as proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, respectively. We report in this study that the prolyl hydroxylase PHD3-encoding EGLN3 gene is specifically expressed by in vitro-generated proinflammatory M1(GM-CSF) human macrophages at the mRNA and protein level. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of PHD3 in CD163(+) lung macrophages under basal homeostatic conditions, whereas PHD3(+) macrophages were abundantly found in tissues undergoing inflammatory responses (e.g., Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) and in tumors. In the case of melanoma, PHD3 expression marked a subset of tumor-associated macrophages that exhibit a weak (e.g., CD163) or absent (e.g., FOLR2) expression of typical M2-polarization markers. EGLN3 gene expression in proinflammatory M1(GM-CSF) macrophages was found to be activin A dependent and could be prevented in the presence of an anti-activin A-blocking Ab or inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase receptors. Moreover, EGLN3 gene expression was upregulated in response to hypoxia only in M2(M-CSF) macrophages, and the hypoxia-mediated upregulation of EGLN3 expression was significantly impaired by activin A neutralization. These results indicate that EGLN3 gene expression in macrophages is dependent on activin A both under basal and hypoxic conditions and that the expression of the EGLN3-encoded PHD3 prolyl hydroxylase identifies proinflammatory macrophages in vivo and in vitro.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: M-CSF favors the generation of folate receptor β-positive (FRβ⁺), IL-10-producing, immunosuppressive, M2-polarized macrophages [M2 (M-CSF)], whereas GM-CSF promotes a proinflammatory, M1-polarized phenotype [M1 (GM-CSF)]. In the present study, we found that activin A was preferentially released by M1 (GM-CSF) macrophages, impaired the acquisition of FRβ and other M2 (M-CSF)-specific markers, down-modulated the LPS-induced release of IL-10, and mediated the tumor cell growth-inhibitory activity of M1 (GM-CSF) macrophages, in which Smad2/3 is constitutively phosphorylated. The contribution of activin A to M1 (GM-CSF) macrophage polarization was evidenced by the capacity of a blocking anti-activin A antibody to reduce M1 (GM-CSF) polarization markers expression while enhancing FRβ and other M2 (M-CSF) markers mRNA levels. Moreover, an inhibitor of activin receptor-like kinase 4/5/7 (ALK4/5/7 or SB431542) promoted M2 (M-CSF) marker expression but limited the acquisition of M1 (GM-CSF) polarization markers, suggesting a role for Smad2/3 activation in macrophage polarization. In agreement with these results, expression of activin A and M2 (M-CSF)-specific markers was oppositely regulated by tumor ascites. Therefore, activin A contributes to the proinflammatory macrophage polarization triggered by GM-CSF and limits the acquisition of the anti-inflammatory phenotype in a Smad2-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that activin A-initiated Smad signaling skews macrophage polarization toward the acquisition of a proinflammatory phenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN; CD209) is a human pathogen-attachment C-type lectin with no obvious murine ortholog and for which ligation leads to enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine release and altered proinflammatory cytokine production. Although induced by IL-4 in monocytes and considered as a DC marker, DC-SIGN expression on human APCs under homeostatic conditions is so far unexplained. We report in this study that M-CSF enhances DC-SIGN expression on in vitro derived anti-inflammatory macrophages and that M-CSF mediates the induction of DC-SIGN by fibroblast- and tumor cell-conditioned media. The M-CSF-inducible DC-SIGN expression along monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is dependent on JNK and STAT3 activation, potentiated by STAT3-activating cytokines (IL-6, IL-10), and abrogated by the M1-polarizing cytokine GM-CSF. In pathological settings, DC-SIGN expression is detected in tumor tissues and on ex vivo-isolated CD14(+) CD163(+) IL-10-producing tumor-associated macrophages. Importantly, DC-SIGN Abs reduced the release of IL-10 from macrophages exposed to Lewis(x)-expressing SKBR3 tumor cells. These results indicate that DC-SIGN is expressed on both wound-healing (IL-4-dependent) and regulatory (M-CSF-dependent) alternative (M2) macrophages and that DC-SIGN expression on tumor-associated macrophages might help tumor progression by contributing to the maintenance of an immunosuppressive environment.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have isolated three lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus suebicus CUPV221, Pediococcus parvulus CUPV1 and P. parvulus CUPV22) that produced high levels of 2-substituted (1,3)-beta-D-glucans which increased the viscosity of the growth media. The (1,3)-beta-D-glucan consisted of two main molecular species, with masses of approximately 10(7) and 10(4) Da, whose proportions varied among the strains. The three strains survived exposure to saliva and simulated gastric conditions at pH 5, with P. parvulus CUPV22 surviving at pH 3.1, and L. suebicus CUPV221 surviving at pH 1.8. All strains were resistant to pancreatin and bile salts. P. parvulus CUPV22 exhibited the highest adhesion (10.5%) to Caco-2 cells, which decreased to 1.2% after washing the cells. Finally, P. parvulus CUPV22 and L. suebicus CUPV221 induced the production of inflammation-related cytokines by polarized macrophages, and interestingly, L. suebicus stimulated the production of cytokine IL-10. These results indicate that the three strains have potential utility for the production of functional foods.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Bioresource Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The shift between pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) states of macrophage polarization allows the resolution of inflammatory processes as well as the maintenance of a basal anti-inflammatory environment in tissues continuously exposed to harmless antigens (e.g., lung and gut). To identify markers for the anti-inflammatory state of macrophages, expression profiling was performed on human macrophages polarized by either GM-CSF or M-CSF, which lead to the generation of TNF-alpha and IL-12p40-producing pro-inflammatory macrophages [M1 (GM-CSF)] or IL-10-producing anti-inflammatory macrophages [M2 (M-CSF)] upon exposure to LPS, respectively. A different iron metabolism gene signature was detected in both macrophage types, with the heme regulatory molecules CD163 and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) being preferentially expressed by M2 (M-CSF) macrophages. M1-polarizing cytokines (GM-CSF, IFNgamma) inhibited, while IL-4 enhanced, the M-CSF-driven HO-1 expression. In agreement with this in vitro data, HO-1 expression in metastatic melanoma was primarily detected in CD163(+) tumor-associated macrophages, which are known to exhibit an M2-skewed polarization phenotype. In contrast to the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), the administration of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), a potent inducer of HO-1 resulted in increased LPS-triggered IL-10 release from M2 (M-CSF) macrophages. The data suggests that HO-1 is important for the anti-inflammatory activities of M-CSF-polarized M2 macrophages. Moreover, since M2 (M-CSF) macrophages also express higher levels of the CD163 scavenger receptor, the CD163/HO-1/IL-10 axis appears to contribute to the generation of an immunosuppressive environment within the tumor stroma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) is crucial for the establishment of immunologic self-tolerance and the prevention of autoimmunity. Still, the origin of nTregs and the mechanisms governing their differentiation within the thymus are poorly understood, particularly in humans. It was recently shown that conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in human thymus were capable of inducing nTreg differentiation. However, the function of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), the other major subset of thymic DCs, remains unknown. Here we report that pDCs resident in the human thymus, when activated with CD40 ligand (CD40L) plus interleukin-3, efficiently promoted the generation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) nTregs from autologous thymocytes. The progenitors of these nTregs were selectively found within CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes that had accomplished positive selection, as judged by their CD69(hi)TCR(hi) phenotype. Supporting the involvement of the CD40-CD40L pathway in pDC-induced nTreg generation, we show that positively selected CD4(+)CD8(+) progenitors specifically transcribed CD40L in vivo and up-regulated CD40L expression on T-cell receptor engagement, thereby promoting the activation of pDCs. Finally, evidence is provided that nTregs primed by pDCs displayed reciprocal interleukin-10/transforming growth factor-beta cytokine expression profiles compared with nTregs primed by cDCs. This functional diversity further supports a nonredundant tolerogenic role for thymic pDCs in the human thymus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage activation comprises a continuum of functional states critically determined by cytokine microenvironment. Activated macrophages have been functionally grouped according to their response to pro-Th1/proinflammatory stimuli [lipopolysaccharide, IFNgamma, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); M1] or pro-Th2/anti-inflammatory stimuli [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, M-CSF; M2]. We report that folate receptor beta (FRbeta), encoded by the FOLR2 gene, is a marker for macrophages generated in the presence of M-CSF (M2), but not GM-CSF (M1), and whose expression correlates with increased folate uptake ability. The acquisition of folate uptake ability by macrophages is promoted by M-CSF, maintained by IL-4, prevented by GM-CSF, and reduced by IFNgamma, indicating a link between FRbeta expression and M2 polarization. In agreement with in vitro data, FRbeta expression is detected in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), which exhibit an M2-like functional profile and exert potent immunosuppressive functions within the tumor environment. FRbeta is expressed, and mediates folate uptake, by CD163(+) CD68(+) CD14(+) IL-10-producing TAM, and its expression is induced by tumor-derived ascitic fluid and conditioned medium from fibroblasts and tumor cell lines in an M-CSF-dependent manner. These results establish FRbeta as a marker for M2 regulatory macrophage polarization and indicate that folate conjugates of therapeutic drugs are a potential immunotherapy tool to target TAM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin) is a myeloid pathogen-attachment factor C-type lectin which recognizes mannose- and fucose-containing oligosaccharide ligands on clinically relevant pathogens. Intracellular signaling initiated upon ligand engagement of DC-SIGN interferes with TLR-initiated signals, and modulates the T cell activating and polarizing ability of antigen-presenting cells. The C-terminal carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of DC-SIGN is preceded by a neck domain composed of eight 23-residue repeats which mediate molecule multimerization, and whose polymorphism correlates with altered susceptibility to SARS and HIV infection. Naturally occurring isoforms and chimaeric molecules, in combination with established recognition properties, were used to define seven structural and functional epitopes on DC-SIGN. Three epitopes mapped to the CRD, one of which is multimerization-dependent and only exposed on DC-SIGN monomers. Epitopes within the neck domain were conformation-independent and unaltered upon molecule multimerization, but were differentially affected by neck domain truncations. Although neck-specific antibodies exhibited lower function-blocking ability, they were more efficient at inducing molecule internalization. Moreover, crosslinking of the different epitopes resulted in distinct levels of microclustering on the cell surface. The identification of independent epitopes on the DC-SIGN molecule might facilitate the design of reagents that modulate the T cell activating and polarizing ability of DC-SIGN-expressing cells without preventing its antigen- and pathogen-recognition capacities.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Molecular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exopolysaccharides have prebiotic potential and contribute to the rheology and texture of fermented foods. Here we have analyzed
the in vitro bioavailability and immunomodulatory properties of the 2-substituted (1,3)-β-d-glucan-producing bacterium Pediococcus parvulus 2.6. It resists gastrointestinal stress, adheres to Caco-2 cells, and induces the production of inflammation-related cytokines
by polarized macrophages.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The myeloid C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209) recognizes oligosaccharide ligands on clinically relevant pathogens (HIV, Mycobacterium, and Aspergillus). Alternative splicing and genomic polymorphism generate DC-SIGN mRNA variants, which have been detected at sites of pathogen entrance and transmission. We present evidence that DC-SIGN neck variants are expressed on dendritic and myeloid cells at the RNA and protein levels. Structural analysis revealed that multimerization of DC-SIGN within a cellular context depends on the lectin domain and the number and arrangement of the repeats within the neck region, whose glycosylation negatively affects oligomer formation. Naturally occurring DC-SIGN neck variants differ in multimerization competence in the cell membrane, exhibit altered sugar binding ability, and retain pathogen-interacting capacity, implying that pathogen-induced cluster formation predominates over the basal multimerization capability. Analysis of DC-SIGN neck polymorphisms indicated that the number of allelic variants is higher than previously thought and that multimerization of the prototypic molecule is modulated in the presence of allelic variants with a different neck structure. Our results demonstrate that the presence of allelic variants or a high level of expression of neck domain splicing isoforms might influence the presence and stability of DC-SIGN multimers on the cell surface, thus providing a molecular explanation for the correlation between DC-SIGN polymorphisms and altered susceptibility to HIV-1 and other pathogens.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AM3 (Inmunoferon) is an orally effective immunomodulator that influences the regulatory and effector functions of the immune
system whose molecular mechanisms of action are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the polysaccharide moiety of AM3 (IF-S)
might affect immune responses by modulating the lectin-dependent pathogen recognition abilities of human dendritic cells.
IF-S inhibited binding of viral, fungal, and parasite pathogens by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in a dose-dependent
manner. IF-S specifically impaired the pathogen recognition capabilities of DC-SIGN, as it reduced the attachment of Candida, Aspergillus, and Leishmania to DC-SIGN transfectants. IF-S also inhibited the interaction of DC-SIGN with both its cellular counterreceptor (intercellular
adhesion molecule 3) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 protein and blocked the DC-SIGN-dependent capture
of HIV virions and the HIV trans-infection capability of DC-SIGN transfectants. IF-S promoted DC-SIGN internalization in DCs without affecting mannose receptor
expression, and 1D saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated that IF-S directly interacts with DC-SIGN on the
cell surface. Therefore, the polysaccharide moiety of AM3 directly influences pathogen recognition by dendritic cells by interacting
with DC-SIGN. Our results indicate that DC-SIGN is the target for an immunomodulator and imply that the adjuvant and immunomodulatory
actions of AM3 are mediated, at least in part, by alteration of the DC-SIGN functional activities.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence suggest that host genetic factors controlling the immune response influence infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recently, DC-SIGN has been shown to be the major M. tuberculosis receptor on dendritic cells (DCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of DC-SIGN functional polymorphisms -336G/A SNP in the promoter region and insertion/deletion in the "neck" region on the predisposition to tuberculosis. We performed an association study in 110 HIV-negative tuberculosis patients and 299 matched controls. In addition, a total of 155 healthy controls were screened for the tuberculin skin test (TST). DC-SIGN -336 SNP detection was performed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction technology, using the TaqMan 5' allele. The insertion/deletion in the "neck" region was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Although an increased frequency of the G allele in tuberculosis patients (23%), as compared with controls (19%), was observed, differences were not statistically significant (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 0.89-1.94, P = 0.14). On the other hand, DC-SIGN repeat polymorphism in the "neck" region had a very low frequency in the analyzed population. We conclude that the studied polymorphisms are not relevant risk factors for developing tuberculosis in Northwestern Colombian individuals.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Human Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD36 is a member of the scavenger receptor type B family implicated in the binding of lipoproteins, phosphatidylserine, thrombospondin-1, and the uptake of long-chain fatty acids. On mononuclear phagocytes, recognition of apoptotic cells by CD36 contributes to peripheral tolerance and prevention of autoimmunity by impairing dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Besides, CD36 acts as a coreceptor with TLR2/6 for sensing microbial diacylglycerides, and its deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infections. The RUNX3 transcription factor participates in reprogramming DC transcription after pathogen recognition, and its defective expression leads to abnormally accelerated DC maturation. We present evidence that CD36 expression is negatively regulated by the RUNX3 transcription factor during myeloid cell differentiation and activation. In molecular terms, RUNX3 impairs the activity of the proximal regulatory region of the CD36 gene in myeloid cells through in vitro recognition of two functional RUNX-binding elements. Moreover, RUNX3 occupies the CD36 gene proximal regulatory region in vivo, and its overexpression in myeloid cells results in drastically diminished CD36 expression. The down-regulation of CD36 expression by RUNX3 implies that this transcription factor could impair harmful autoimmune responses by contributing to the loss of pathogen- and apoptotic cell-recognition capabilities by mature DCs.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation of pathogen-specific immune responses is dependent on the signaling capabilities of pathogen-recognition receptors. DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin that mediates capture and internalization of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens by myeloid dendritic cells. DC-SIGN-interacting pathogens are thought to modulate dendritic cell maturation by interfering with intracellular signaling from Toll-like receptor molecules. We report that engagement of DC-SIGN by specific antibodies does not promote dendritic cell maturation but induces ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation without concomitant p38MAPK activation. DC-SIGN ligation also triggers PLCgamma phosphorylation and transient increases in intracellular calcium in dendritic cells. In agreement with its signaling capabilities, a fraction of DC-SIGN molecules partitions within lipid raft-enriched membrane fractions both in DC-SIGN-transfected and dendritic cells. Moreover, DC-SIGN in dendritic cells coprecipitates with the tyrosine kinases Lyn and Syk. The relevance of the DC-SIGN-initiated signals was demonstrated in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, as DC-SIGN cross-linking synergizes with TNF-alpha for IL-10 release and enhances the production of LPS-induced IL-10. These results demonstrate that DC-SIGN-triggered intracellular signals modulate dendritic cell maturation. Since pathogens stimulate Th2 responses via preferential activation of ERK1/2, these results provide a molecular explanation for the ability of DC-SIGN-interacting pathogens to preferentially evoke Th2-type immune responses.