[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy, which is usually diagnosed by histopathological examination of the excised tumor. In inoperable cases, aldosterone-producing ACC diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining of the metastatic tumor for Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 11β has not previously been reported and even in that case staining for adrenocortical-specific adrenal 4 binding protein/steroidogenic factor1 (Ad4BP/SF1) and steroidogenic enzymes has not been reported.
We report the case of a 67-year-old Japanese woman with aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. Laboratory findings showed severe hypopotassemia. Endocrinological examination revealed an increased plasma aldosterone concentration and suppressed plasma renin activity. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) was elevated. Diurnal variation in serum cortisol was lost and administration of 1 mg and 8 mg dexamethasone did not suppress serum cortisol levels. From the 24-h urine collection sample, urine aldosterone and urine cortisol levels were greatly increased. Therefore, autonomous excess production was observed for the three adrenal cortex hormones. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a right adrenal tumor and a huge liver tumor. Adrenocortical carcinoma with metastatic liver cancer was strongly suggested, however surgery could not be considered due to stage IV disease: the liver tumor was too large and cardiac ultrasonography indicated that her cardiac function was poor. Therefore, a liver biopsy was taken to properly determine the diagnosis. Immunohistochemical stains for Ad4BP/SF1 and steroidogenic enzymes were positive. Ad4BP/SF-1 was originally identified as a steroidogenic, tissue-specific transcription factor implicated in the expression of the steroidogenic CYP gene encoding cytochrome P450s. Hence we could diagnose the patient as having adrenocortical carcinoma with metastatic liver cancer.
This rare case had severe hypopotassemia accompanied with not only increased cortisol and DHEA-S but also aldosterone. We reached the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma with metastatic liver cancer based on positive immunohistochemical staining of Ad4BP/SF1 in the liver biopsy specimen. We have reported the first case of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma diagnosed solely by immunohistochemical staining for adrenocortical-specific Ad4BP/SF1 and steroidogenic enzymes in a metastatic liver tumor.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Endocrine Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A 58-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for Cushingoid features and diagnosed as adrenal Cushing’s syndrome due to a right adrenocortical mass (60 × 55 mm). The mass was composed of three different tumors; the first one was homogeneously lipid-poor neoplasm measuring 20 × 13 mm located at the most dorsal region, the second one was heterogeneous and lipid-rich tumor containing multiple foci of calcification measuring 50 × 32 mm located at the central region, and the last one was heterogeneous harboring dilated and tortuous vessels and lipid-poor one measuring 35 × 18 mm at the most ventral region of the adrenal gland. A right adrenalectomy was subsequently performed by open surgery. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses revealed that all three tumors were adrenocortical adenomas; the first one represents a pigmented adrenocortical adenoma, the second one adrenocortical adenoma associated with degeneration, and the third one adrenocortical adenoma harboring extensive degeneration. Immunohistochemical analysis of the steroidogenic enzymes also revealed that all of the tumors had the capacity of synthesizing cortisol. This is a very rare case of Cushing’s syndrome caused by multiple adrenocortical adenomas including a pigmented adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of steroidogenic enzymes contributed to understanding of steroidogenesis in each of these three different adrenocortical adenomas in this case.
No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Endocrine Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose of review:
The review is targeted at describing the advances in our understanding of androgen actions in the breast over the last 18 months. Androgens are current 'hot topics' in breast cancer because of their potential as therapeutics in situations where we currently do not have good clinical options. This is true for both ERα negative and ERα positive cancers.
The review has focused on examining associations between androgen receptor and patient prognosis and outcomes in different breast cancer subtypes. A logical extension of this is covering the timely topic of the use of androgen-directed therapy in these patients. The principle settings in which this is being considered is in ERα positive cancer with therapeutic resistance to ER-directed therapies and in ERα negative breast cancer that lack current standard targeted therapies. Finally interactions between mutations, and the potential role of androgen in the normal hierarchy of mammary cell differentiation and the relationship of this to cancer, are considered.
Androgens are firmly established as important factors across multiple breast cancer subtypes. The future challenge for basic researchers and important development for clinicians is going to be translating this understanding into effective therapeutics for the benefit of breast cancer patients.
No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The great majority of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is estrogen-dependent luminal A type carcinoma but the details of estrogen actions and its intratumoral metabolism have not been well studied compared to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We first immunolocalized estrogen-related enzymes including estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), estrogen sulfatase (STS), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) 1/2, and aromatase. We then evaluated the tissue concentrations of estrogens in ILC and IDC and subsequently estrogen-responsive gene profiles in these tumors in order to explore the possible differences and/or similarity of intratumoral estrogen environment of these two breast cancer subtypes. The status of STS and 17βHSD1 was significantly lower in ILCs than IDCs (p = 0.022 and p < 0.0001), but that of EST and 17βHSD2 vice versa (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0106). In ILCs, tissue concentrations of estrone and estradiol were lower than those in IDCs (p = 0.0709 and 0.069). In addition, the great majority of estrogen response genes tended to be lower in ILCs. Among those genes above, FOXP1 was significantly higher in ILCs than in IDCs (p = 0.002). FOXP1 expression was reported to be significantly higher in relapse-free IDC patients treated with tamoxifen. Therefore, tamoxifen may be considered an option of endocrine therapy for luminal A type ILC patients. This is the first study to demonstrate the detailed and comprehensive status of intratumoral production and metabolism of estrogens and the status of estrogen response genes in luminal A-like ILC with comparison to those in luminal A-like IDCs.
No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Tumors harboring osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) at extraosseous site are extremely rare. These rare tumors have been detected most frequently in the pancreas and few pulmonary tumors harboring OGCs have been previously reported. In addition, the genetic profiles of these tumors have remained virtually unknown. Therefore, we report a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma harboring OGCs in which k-ras mutation and immunohistochemical study of proteins associated with OGCs were examined. The case was a 70-year-old man, who demonstrated a pulmonary mass associated with unusual radiological features. Histopathologically, three different cell types, mucinous adenocarcinoma cell, OGC and mononuclear cell were detected. OGCs were immunohistochemically negative for epithelial markers and positive for histiocytic markers but mononuclear cells were immunopositive for epithelial markers. In addition, both mononuclear and adenocarcinoma cells had the same k-ras mutation profiles and mononuclear cells were immunohistochemically positive for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), one of the factors associated with OGC differentiation. Therefore, mononuclear cells were considered to be derived from neoplastic epithelium and OGCs could represent non-neoplastic cells. In addition, M-CSF locally produced could promote the differentiation of OGCs.
No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Pathology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, highly malignant neoplasm harboring marked histologic heterogeneity. The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) is one of the most effective diagnostic and prognostic markers in ACC. However, its assessment has by no means been standardized. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the Ki-67 LI in 18 ACC cases both by seven pathologists using microscopes (MA; manual analysis) and with digital image analysis (DIA) and also compared the Ki-67 LI obtained by selecting “hot spots” and formulating the “average” reading of the whole tumor specimen. In addition, we performed statistical analysis of the association between Ki-67 LI and the clinical and pathologic features of individual cases. The DIA was significantly correlated with MA in hot spots but not in the average fields. The Ki-67 LI in hot spots was significantly and consistently higher than that in average areas by both MA and DIA, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity. The Ki-67 LI was significantly correlated with the Weiss criteria (eosinophilic cytoplasm, nuclear atypia, atypical mitoses, and sinusoidal invasion) by any mode of evaluation. The clinical outcome was significantly better in the patients with a Ki-67 < 10% than in those with a Ki-67 > 10% by MA in hot spots. The Ki-67 LI in hot spots measured by MA best reflected the clinical and pathologic features of ACC. Employment of DIA to obtain the Ki-67 LI in ACC requires further improvement, including correction of its overestimation of the value by counting non-tumorous cells and nuclear segmentation in areas of high cell density.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A 64-year-old Japanese man with mild reticular shadows in both lungs developed a lung tumor causing ectopic Cushing's syndrome. He was prescribed an adrenal inhibitor, which controlled his hypercortisolemia. However, he developed acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and died within weeks. Previous studies have suggested a dosage reduction of corticosteroids for IPF as a triggering event for acute exacerbation. The present case suggests that IPF coexisting with Cushing's syndrome may have been exacerbated after the correction of hypercortisolemia. Therefore, close monitoring of cortisol levels along with the clinical course of IPF is required in similar cases that require the correction of hypercortisolemia.
No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumors of the thyroid gland are generally considered to derive from parafollicular endocrine cells (C cells) and are generally referred to as medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). Calcitonin secretion is almost always detected in MTC and a prerequisite for both clinical and pathological diagnosis. Thyroid neuroendocrine tumors without any apparent calcitonin secretion reflect a diagnostic dilemma because non-calcitonin-producing MTCs have virtually not been characterized. Here, we report a case of primary thyroid neuroendocrine tumors lacking calcitonin secretion or expression. The tumor cells expressed cytokeratins, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin, all of which were consistent with epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation. Thyroid transcription factor-1 paired box gene 8, and carcinoembryonic antigen were also immunohistochemically detected, consistent with its thyroid origin. However, the tumor was negative for calcitonin both by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, hence, not meeting the definition of MTC. Despite the loss of calcitonin expression, immunoreactivity for the calcitonin-gene-related peptide was detected in the tumor. Somatic gene mutations of RET, H-RAS, K-RAS, or BRAF were not detected in this case. A limited number of calcitonin non-producing thyroid neuroendocrine tumors are available in the scientific literature available in English, and its etiology and clinical manifestations remain largely unknown. Our case, along with the rare, previously reported cases, suggests that calcitonin non-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the thyroid gland are most likely derived from C cells, but should be differentiated from ordinary MTCs.
No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Endocrine Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) is a multifunctional protein containing several functional domains, and associated with wide variety of biological process such as food intake and energy homeostasis. Recently, NUCB2 has been implicated in not only normal human tissues but also some kinds of human malignancies. However, its clinical and/or biological significance has largely remained unknown in endometrial carcinomas. We therefore immunolocalized NUCB2 protein in 87 endometrial carcinoma tissues and examined its clinical significance. NUCB2 immunoreactivity was detected in 19 out of 87 (22%) of endometrial carcinoma cases examined, and positively correlated with Ki67 labeling index, while there was no significant correlation between NUCB2 and stage, histological grade, and progesterone receptor status. Furthermore, NUCB2 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with increased risk of recurrence and worse clinical outcome regardless of stage or histological grade. Subsequent multivariate analyses did reveal that NUCB2 immunoreactivity was an independent prognostic factor for both disease-free survival and endometrial cancer specific survival. In vitro experiments demonstrated that knockdown of NUCB2 using specific siRNA for NUCB2 significantly impaired cell proliferation and migration of the endometrial carcinoma cell lines, Ishikawa and Sawano cells, and that nesfatin-1 treatment significantly promoted cell proliferation and migration in Ishikawa cells. These findings possibly suggested that NUCB2 and/or nesfatin-1 had pivotal roles in the progression of endometrial carcinomas. Immunohistochemical NUCB2 status may therefore serve as a potent biomarker for endometrial carcinomas.
No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The renal resistive index (RI) calculated by Doppler ultrasonography has been reported to be correlated with renal structural changes and outcomes in patients with essential hypertension or renal disease. However, little is known about this index in primary aldosteronism. In this prospective study, we examined the utility of this index to predict blood pressure (BP) outcome after adrenalectomy in patients with primary aldosteronism. We studied 94 patients with histopathologically proven aldosteronoma who underwent surgery. Parameters on renal function, including renal flow indices, were examined and followed up for 12 months postoperatively. The renal RI of the main, hilum, and interlobar arteries was significantly higher in patients with aldosteronoma compared with 100 control patients. BP, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin excretion significantly decreased after adrenalectomy. The resistive indices of all compartment arteries were significantly reduced 1 month after adrenalectomy and remained stable for 12 months. Patients whose interlobar RI was in the highest tertile at baseline had higher systolic BP after adrenalectomy than those whose RI was in the lowest tertile. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the RI of the interlobar and hilum arteries could be an independent predictive marker for intractable hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, increased BP, taking ≥3 antihypertensive agents, or increased number of agents) even after adrenalectomy. Therefore, in patients with aldosteronoma, the renal RI indicates partially reversible renal hemodynamics and renal structural damages that would influence postoperative BP outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus (BSCCE) is a relatively rare variant of oesophageal malignancy. There are no established treatment strategies for pulmonary metastases of BSCCE.
Presentation of case:
A 72-year-old man underwent oesophagectomy and subsequently received a pathological diagnosis of stage IIIA (T3N1M0) BSCCE according to Union for International Cancer Control. One year and 5 months later, he underwent partial resection of the right lung because of metastasis of the BSCCE. One year and 6 months after the pulmonary resection, recurrence in the right lung was observed. The patient was treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy using cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and the lesion completely disappeared. The patient is doing well without recurrence 5 years after chemoradiotherapy.
In our case, the recurrent lesion in the right lung was observed after the pulmonary resection. It is difficult to determine whether the recurrent lesion is solitary or multiple and whether it is a local or pleural metastasis. Therefore, surgical indication must be decided carefully. Systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy is useful to treat BSCCE metastasis, however, appropriate, but which agents and their regimens are appropriate is not clear. Concurrent chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy for pulmonary BSCCE metastases may provide curative therapy and should be considered.
This report describes a case of recurrent pulmonary metastasis after pulmonary resection of BSCCE metastasis, successfully treated by concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Further studies are required to establish the indications and efficacy of these therapeutic approaches.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas (IDC and ILC) are the two most common histological types of breast cancer, and have been considered to develop from terminal duct lobular unit but their molecular, pathological, and clinical features are markedly different between them. These differences could be due to different mechanisms of carcinogenesis and tumor microenvironment, especially cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) but little has been explored in this aspect. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the status of angiogenesis, maturation of intratumoral microvessels, and proliferation of CAFs using immunohistochemistry and PCR array analysis to explore the differences of tumor microenvironment between ILC and IDC. We studied grade- and age-matched, luminal-like ILC and IDC. We immunolocalized CD34 and αSMA for an evaluation of CAFs and CD31, Vasohibin-1, a specific marker of proliferative endothelial cells and nestin, a marker of pericytes for studying the status of proliferation and maturation of intratumoral microvessel. We also performed PCR array analysis to evaluate angiogenic factors in tumor stromal components. The number of CAFs, microvessel density, and vasohibin-1/CD31 positive ratio were all significantly higher in ILC than IDC but nestin immunoreactivity in intratumoral microvessel was significantly lower in ILC. These results did indicate that proliferation of CAFs and endothelial cells was more pronounced in ILC than IDC but newly formed microvessels were less mature than those in IDC. PCR array analysis also revealed that IGF-1 expression was higher in ILC than IDC. This is the first study to demonstrate the differences of tumor microenvironment including CAFs and proliferation and maturation of intratumoral vessels between ILC and IDC.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Groundbreaking progress has been recently made in elucidating the signaling pathways that are altered in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), an endocrine malignancy that still has an unfavorable prognosis, and in understanding its genomic structure. These advances need now to be translated to create cellular and animal models more relevant to human disease in order to develop new and more effective diagnostic procedures and targeted therapies against this deadly malignancy.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Hormones and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with an aggressive clinical course due to the lack of therapeutic targets. Therefore, identifying reliable prognostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for patients with TNBC is required. Proline, glutamic acid, leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) is a novel steroidal receptor co-regulator, functioning as an oncogene and its expression is maintained in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancers. PELP1 has been proposed as a prognostic biomarker in hormone-related cancers, including luminal-type breast cancers, but its significance in TNBC has not been studied.
PELP1 immunoreactivity was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 129 patients with TNBC. Results were correlated with clinicopathological variables including patient’s age, tumor size, lymph node stage, tumor grade, clinical stage, histological type, Ki-67 LI, as well as clinical outcome of the patients, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
PELP1 was localized predominantly in the nuclei of carcinoma cells in TNBC. With the exception of a positive correlation between PELP1 protein expression and lymph node stage (p = 0.027), no significant associations between PELP1 protein expression and other clinicopathological variables, including DFS and OS, were found. However, when PELP1 and Ki-67 LI were grouped together, we found that patients in the PELP1/Ki-67 double high group (n = 48) demonstrated significantly reduced DFS (p = 0.005, log rank test) and OS (p = 0.002, log rank test) than others (n = 81). Multivariable analysis supported PELP1/Ki-67 double high expression as an independent prognostic factor in patients with TNBC, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.020 for recurrence (95 % CL, 1.022–3.990; p = 0.043) and of 2.380 for death (95 % CL, 1.138–4.978; p = 0.021).
We found that evaluating both PELP1 and Ki-67 expression in TNBC could enhance the prognostic sensitivity of the two biomarkers. Therefore, we propose that PELP1/Ki-67 double high expression in tumors is an independent prognostic factor for predicting a poor outcome for patients with TNBC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous clinicopathological entity constituting approximately 15-20% of all breast cancer (BC) patients. It shows high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. At this juncture, because of the lack of specific targeted therapies available and the development in patients of resistance to some therapeutic agents, clinical and translational settings have gained importance over the past decades. Areas covered: The development of novel, safe and effective alternatives for the treatment of TNBC are in high demand. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the state of the art of TNBC, its current therapies and potential therapeutic targets. In particular, focus is put on recent advances regarding the identification of emerging biomarkers as prognostic and/or predictive markers, including surrogate markers for molecular tumor subtyping and identifying potential responders to new therapies. Expert opinion: Effective development of informative markers could constitute an important armamentarium tool for identifying appropriate therapies to challenge the aggressiveness of TNBC.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Object:
This comparative study clarified the clinical characteristics and in vitro steroidogenic activities of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harboring ATPase or CACNA1D gene mutations.
Design and patients:
Genetic testing was performed on 159 unilateral APAs. Somatic ATPase and CACNA1D gene mutations were analyzed in 42 APA tissues without KCNJ5 gene mutations.
ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D mutations were detected in 1, 4, and 4 patients, respectively. Compared with patients without KCNJ5, ATPase, or CACNA1D mutations (wild type), ATPase mutations tended to have more severe hyperaldosteronism and smaller tumors; those with CACNA1D mutations had clinical characteristics and tumor sizes similar to those with wild-type genes. APAs with ATPase mutations were composed mainly of compact eosinophilic tumor cells, whereas CACNA1D mutations resulted in predominantly clear tumor cells. Aldosterone production in APA cells with ATP2B3 mutations were more responsive to (Bt)2cAMP, whereas those with CACNA1D mutations were more responsive to adrenocorticotropic hormone than the wild-type cells.
APAs with ATPase mutations demonstrated a potentially severe primary aldosteronism phenotype, whereas those with CACNA1D mutations displayed characteristics similar to wild-type APAs. The status of stimulated aldosterone production was also different according to the cell types, suggesting that the regulatory effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone on aldosterone synthesis could possibly vary according to the intracellular signaling involved in hormone production.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A 43-yr-old hypertensive male was admitted due to hypokalemia (1.8 mEq/L) and renal dysfunction (eGFR, 20.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). His plasma aldosterone was 901.0 ng/dL, plasma renin activity 5.7 ng/mL/hr, and aldosterone/renin activity ratio 158. Angiotensin II (AII) was 0.7 pg/mL, ACTH <1.0 pg/mL, and cortisol 21.6 μg/dL. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that aldosterone (104 times the control) as well as its precursors were significantly elevated in the patient's plasma. A left adrenal (4-cm-diameter) tumor with (131)I-Adosterol(®) uptake was found and removed. Four days later, plasma aldosterone and renin activity had dropped to 7.73 ng/dL and 1.6 ng/mL/hr, respectively. However, they rose to 24.0 ng/dL and 10.9 ng/mL/hr, respectively, by Day 102. Nevertheless, magnetic resonance angiography found no evidence of a renovascular lesion. The tumor was a benign adrenocortical adenoma composed predominantly of clear cells positive for 17α-hydroxylase, [hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerases], and aldosterone synthase. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of the tumor cells revealed that expression of the gene encoding aldosterone synthase was 85 times the control level. In addition, the tumor cells harbored G151R mutation of the inward rectifying potassium channel subfamily j, member 5 gene. The striking overexpression of aldosterone synthase by the tumor cells was considered the primary mechanism for the extravagant overproduction of aldosterone in this case. This overexpression may have resulted from integration of signals from AII and forced membrane depolarization due to the potassium channel mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is a surgically curable form of hypertension. Bilateral APA can also be surgically curable in theory but few successful cases can be found in the literature. It has been reported that even using successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) via bilateral adrenal central veins, it is extremely difficult to differentiate bilateral APA from bilateral idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) harbouring computed tomography (CT)-detectable bilateral adrenocortical nodules. We report a case of bilateral APA diagnosed by segmental AVS (S-AVS) and blood sampling via intra-adrenal first-degree tributary veins to localize the sites of intra-adrenal hormone production. A 36-year-old man with marked long-standing hypertension was referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of bilateral APA. He had typical clinical and laboratory profiles of marked hypertension, hypokalaemia, elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of 45.1 ng dl(-1) and aldosterone renin activity ratio of 90.2 (ng dl(-1) per ng ml(-1 )h(-1)), which was still high after 50 mg-captopril loading. CT revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumours of 10 and 12 mm in diameter on the right and left sides, respectively. S-AVS confirmed excess aldosterone secretion from a tumour segment vein and suppressed secretion from a non-tumour segment vein bilaterally, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral APA. The patient underwent simultaneous bilateral sparing adrenalectomy. Histopathological analysis of the resected adrenals together with decreased blood pressure and PAC of 5.2 ng dl(-1) confirmed the removal of bilateral APA. S-AVS was reliable to differentiate bilateral APA from IHA by direct evaluation of intra-adrenal hormone production.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 5 November 2015; doi:10.1038/jhh.2015.100.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of human hypertension