David S Sanders

The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (228)1616.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) refers to patients with primarily gastrointestinal symptoms without enteropathy that symptomatically benefit from gluten-free diet (GFD). Little is known about its pathophysiology, propensity to neurological manifestations, and if these differ from patients with coeliac disease (CD). We investigated the clinical and immunological characteristics of patients presenting with neurological manifestations with CD and those with NCGS. Methods: We compared clinical, neurophysiological, and imaging data of patients with CD and NCGS presenting with neurological dysfunction assessed and followed up regularly over a period of 20 years. Results: Out of 700 patients, 562 were included. Exclusion criteria included no bowel biopsy to confirm CD, no HLA type available, and failure to adhere to GFD. All patients presented with neurological dysfunction and had circulating anti-gliadin antibodies. Out of 562 patients, 228 (41%) had evidence of enteropathy (Group 1, CD) and 334 (59%) did not (Group 2, NCGS). The most common neurological manifestations were cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and encephalopathy. There was a greater proportion of patients with encephalopathy in Group 1 and with a greater proportion of neuropathy in Group 2. The severity of ataxia did not differ between the two groups. Patients in Group 1 had more severe neuropathy. All patients from both groups responded to gluten-free diet. Anti-tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies were found in 91% of patients in Group 1 and in 29% of patients in Group 2. Comparison between those patients in Group 2 with HLA-DQ2/DQ8 and those without as well as those with positive TG2 compared with those with negative TG2 antibodies identified no differences within these subgroups. Serological positivity for TG6 antibodies was similar in the two groups (67 and 60%). Conclusions: The neurological manifestations of CD and NCGS are similar and equally responsive to a GFD suggestive of common pathophysiological mechanisms.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 2 February 2016; doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.434.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Background & aims: The clinical effects of gluten-sensitive enteropathy with villous atrophy limited to the duodenal bulb (D1) have not been delineated in adults with celiac disease. We investigated the sensitivity of D1 biopsy analysis in detection of celiac disease, the number and sites of biopsies required to detect ultra-short celiac disease (USCD, villous atrophy limited to D1), and the clinical phenotype of USCD. Methods: We performed a prospective study of 1378 patients (mean age, 50.3 years; 62% female) who underwent endoscopy at a tertiary medical center in the United Kingdom from 2008 through 2014; routine duodenal biopsies were collected from D1 and D2. Quadrantic D1 biopsies were collected from 171 consecutive patients with a high suspicion of celiac disease (mean age 46.5 years; 64% female). Clinical data from patients diagnosed with USCD, based on biopsy analysis, were compared with those from patients with conventional celiac disease (villous atrophy beyond D1) and individuals without celiac disease (controls). Numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and immune phenotypes were compared between D1 vs D2 in patients with celiac disease. Results: Of the 1378 patients assessed, 268 (19.4%) were diagnosed with celiac disease; 9.7% of these patients had villous atrophy confined to D1 (USCD, P<.0001). Collection of a single additional biopsy from any D1 site increased the sensitivity of celiac disease detection by 9.3%-10.8% (P<.0001). Patients with USCD were younger (P=0.03), had lower titers of tissue transglutaminase antibody (P=.001), and less frequently presented with diarrhea (P=0.001) than patients with conventional celiac disease. Higher proportions of patients with conventional celiac disease had ferritin deficiency (P=.007) or folate deficiency (P=0.003) than of patients with USCD or controls. Patients with celiac disease had median 50 IELs/100 enterocytes in D1 and a median 48 IELs/100 enterocytes (P=.7) in D2. The phenotype of IELs from patients with D1 celiac disease was indistinguishable from those of patients with D2 celiac disease. Conclusions: Collection of a single additional biopsy from any site in the D1 intestine increases the sensitivity of detection for celiac disease. Patients with USCD may have early-stage or limited celiac disease, with a mild clinical phenotype and infrequent nutritional deficiencies.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Gastroenterology
  • Imran Aziz · Krit Dwivedi · David S. Sanders
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Gluten-free diets (GFDs) have seen a disproportional rise in use and popularity relative to the prevalence of established gluten-related disorders such as coeliac disease or immunoglobulin E wheat allergy. This entity has been termed noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). This review aims to provide a current perspective on the emerging evidence for and against NCGS, along with the associated need for a GFD. Recent findings: NCGS and the benefits of a GFD are reported amongst patients with irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and nonintestinal disorders such as neuropsychiatric diseases and fibromyalgia. However, no reliable biomarkers currently exist to diagnose NCGS and hence confirmatory testing can only be performed using double-blind placebo-controlled gluten-based challenges. Unfortunately, such tests are not available in routine clinical practice. Furthermore, recent novel studies have highlighted the role of other gluten-based components in contributing to the symptoms of self-reported NCGS. These include fermentable oligo, di, mono-saccharides and polyols, amylase trypsin inhibitors, and wheat germ agglutinins. Therefore, NCGS is now seen as a spectrum encompassing several biological responses and terms such as 'noncoeliac wheat sensitivity' have been suggested as a wider label to define the condition. Summary: Despite the rising use of a GFD further studies are required to clearly establish the extent and exclusivity of gluten in NCGS.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) have been linked to autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD). We examined if individuals with both T1D and CD were at a higher risk of ATD than those with only T1D. Research design and methods: This study was a nationwide population-based cohort study. We defined T1D as having an inpatient or a hospital-based outpatient diagnosis of T1D at age ≤30 years in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1964 and 2009. Data on CD were obtained through small intestinal biopsy reports showing villous atrophy (Marsh histopathology grade III) between 1969 and 2008 at any of the 28 pathology departments in Sweden. ATD included hyperthyreosis and hypothyreosis, defined according to the National Patient Register. We identified 947 individuals with T1D and biopsy-verified CD. These were matched to 4,584 control subjects with T1D but no CD diagnosis. Cox regression then estimated the risk of ATD. Results: Among T1D, CD was a risk factor for later ATD. During follow-up, 90 T1D+CD patients developed ATD (expected n = 54). Adjusting for sex, age, and calendar period, this corresponded to a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.67 (95% CI 1.32-2.11; P < 0.001). This excess risk was highest in those who had CD for 10 years or more (HR 2.22 [95% CI 1.49-3.23]). Risk increases were seen in both males and females. CD was a risk factor for both hypothyreosis (HR 1.66 [95% CI 1.30-2.12]) and hyperthyreosis (HR 1.72 [95% CI 0.95-3.11]). Conclusions: Among patients with T1D, CD is a risk factor for the later development of ATD.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Bile-acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a recognized cause of chronic diarrhoea; however, its detection remains suboptimal. Currently, there is a paucity of follow-up studies evaluating BAD. This work evaluates the natural history of BAD by examining individuals diagnosed with BAD [7 days of Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) retention<10%] and determining the use of and response to bile-acid sequestrants (BAS). Materials and methods: Of the 515 patients, 40% (207/515) who underwent an SeHCAT test at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals (2001-2012) for chronic diarrhoea had BAD. Of the 207 (51%) patients, 107 were diagnosed between 2001 and 2009. In accordance with the guidelines, all of these patients were commenced on BAS. In March 2013, these individuals were reassessed either in the clinic or over the telephone as part of a local service evaluation project. Comparisons were made of both pretreatment and post-treatment variables using a Wilcoxon rank test. Results: Of the 107 patients, 54% (58/107) were followed up, with a median time since diagnosis of 6 years. Among them, 38% were still using BAS at follow-up, with 28% using alternative antidiarrhoeals. The median stool frequency decreased from seven stools per day to three (P=0.0008) in those using BAS. The 34% of patients not receiving treatment had no change in their daily bowel frequency. The main reason for discontinuing treatment was poor tolerability of the BAS (colestyramine/colestipol). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that BAD is a chronic condition that best improves with BAS. Consideration should be given to therapeutic options that have a better tolerability profile.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: A gluten-containing diet alters bowel barrier function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D), particularly those who are positive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele DQ2/8. We studied the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in patients with IBS-D who have not previously considered the effects of gluten in their diet and were unaware of their HLA-DQ2/8 genotype.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (NVUGIH).
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Endoscopy

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Celiac disease (CD) may influence metabolic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D). This work examines whether CD in T1D influences hospital admissions due to coma, ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. Methods: In population-based cohort study, individuals with CD were identified using biopsy data (1969-2008) from Sweden's 28 pathology departments. T1D was defined as a recorded diagnosis of T1D at age ≤30 years in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1964 and 2009. In total, 906 individuals had both T1D and CD and were matched for sex, age and calendar period with 4303 reference individuals. Through stratified Cox regression analysis, we modeled CD as a time-dependent covariate and estimated the risk of future coma, ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia, defined by relevant international classification of disease codes among T1D patients with and without CD. Results: During follow-up, patients with both T1D and CD had 49 hospital admissions with diabetic coma, 91 episodes of ketoacidosis and 25 hypoglycemic events. Among patients with T1D, CD did not influence the risk of coma (adjusted HR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.72-1.32), ketoacidosis (adjusted HR 1.08; 95 % CI 0.86-1.34), or hypoglycemia (adjusted HR 1.34; 95 % CI 0.87-2.05). The absolute risk of coma was 621/100,000 person-years in T1D and CD (637 in controls). Corresponding figures for ketoacidosis were 1175/100,000 person-years in T1D and CD (1092 in controls) and for hypoglycemia 316/100,000 person-years (236 in controls). HRs for metabolic emergencies in T1D were similar in the first 5 years after T1D diagnosis as thereafter. Conclusions: Having a diagnosis of CD is unlikely to influence the risk of coma, ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia in T1D patients.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Acta Diabetologica
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Coeliac disease (CD) is a lifelong condition requiring strict adherence to a gluten-free (GF) diet and good availability of GF foods is critical to this. Patients with CD from lower socioeconomic groups are recognised to have higher treatment burden and higher food costs may impact this. Therefore, we aimed to assess the availability and cost of GF food in supermarkets and via the internet. DESIGN: Supermarkets and internet shops delivering to homes in a single city (UK) were analysed between February and March 2014. Stores were identified with comprehensive internet searches. Ten commonly purchased items were analysed for cost and compared with standard non-GF alternatives. Direct measurement of the number of GF foods available was compared between stores which were categorised according to previously published work. SETTING: Supermarkets covering the whole of Sheffield, UK. RESULTS: None of the budget supermarkets surveyed stocked any GF foods. Quality and regular supermarkets stocked the greatest range, each stocking a median of 22 (IQR 39) items (p<0.0001). All GF foods were at least four times more expensive than non-GF alternatives (p<0.0001). GF products are prevalent online, but 5/10 of the surveyed products were significantly more expensive than equivalents in supermarkets. CONCLUSIONS: There is good availability of GF food in regular and quality supermarkets as well as online, but it remains significantly more expensive. Budget supermarkets which tend to be frequented by patients from lower socioeconomic classes stocked no GF foods. This poor availability and added cost is likely to impact on adherence in deprived groups.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Postgraduate Medical Journal
  • Federica Branchi · Imran Aziz · Dario Conte · David S Sanders
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    ABSTRACT: Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) has gained attention as an emerging clinical entity. Data regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of NCGS are scattered in view of the diagnostic uncertainty surrounding the disorder. We aim to provide a current perspective of NCGS and its associated controversies. NCGS consists of a spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, yet in the absence of coeliac disease or wheat allergy. To date, no specific biomarker exists for NCGS, thereby leaving the diagnosis to be confirmed by dietary elimination followed by double-blind placebo-controlled gluten-based rechallenges. Unfortunately, this technique is cumbersome, not readily-available in routine clinical practise, and can still leave the diagnosis of NCGS open to debate as to whether the effects demonstrated can be specifically attributed to the gluten-protein per se or rather coexisting nongluten components, such as fermentable carbohydrates and amylase-trypsin inhibitors. Physicians are increasingly being posed with the dilemma of patients presenting with self-reported NCGS. However, this appears to be the tip of the iceberg and future studies are in need of delineating which gluten-based component is responsible for each individual patient's complaint.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
  • Imran Aziz · Marios Hadjivassiliou · David S Sanders
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    ABSTRACT: The past 5 years have seen an increase in the use of a gluten-free diet outside a diagnosis of coeliac disease or IgE-mediated wheat allergy. This trend has led to the identification of a new clinical entity termed noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). In this Review, we discuss the evidence for NCGS as demonstrated by the results of double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary rechallenge studies. Furthermore, the characteristic phenotype of individuals with NCGS is described as well as the symptom manifestations commonly reported after gluten exposure, which include intestinal symptoms consistent with IBS, and extraintestinal symptoms such as neurological dysfunction, psychological disturbances, fibromyalgia and skin rash. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that NCGS can be associated with organic gastrointestinal pathologies, such as IBD, in which its presence might be a reflection of severe or stricturing disease. However, NCGS is not without its controversies and uncertainties, in particular pertaining to whether it is gluten or nongluten components of the grain evoking symptoms; evidence suggests that fermentable carbohydrates, amylase trypsin inhibitors and wheat-germ agglutinin can also be responsible culprits. Finally, we discuss the novel techniques that might help diagnose NCGS in the future.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Nature Reviews Gastroenterology &#38 Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Coeliac disease (CD) has been linked to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Previous studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of reflux in patients with CD. However data on the risk for CD in patients presenting with reflux are conflicting. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of CD in patients with GORD and to elucidate the mechanisms for reflux symptoms in newly diagnosed CD patients. Group A: patients who had undergone routine duodenal biopsy were prospectively recruited between 2004 and 2014. Diagnostic yield was compared with that of a screening cohort. Group B: 32 patients with newly diagnosed CD who had undergone oesophageal manometry and 24-h pH studies were prospectively recruited. Group A: 3368 patients (58.7% female, mean age 53.4 years) underwent routine duodenal biopsy. Of these patients, 850 (25.2%) presented with GORD. The prevalence of CD among GORD patients was 1.3% (0.7-2.4%), which was not significantly higher than that in the general population (P=0.53). Within the context of routine duodenal biopsy at endoscopy (when corrected for concurrent symptoms, age and sex), reflux was found to be negatively associated with CD [adjusted odds ratio 0.12 (0.07-0.23), P<0.0001]. In group B, 34% of patients complained of reflux. On manometry, 9% had a hypotensive lower oesophageal sphincter and 40.6% had oesophageal motor abnormalities, with 25% significantly hypocontractile. On pH studies, 33% demonstrated reflux episodes. The prevalence of undiagnosed CD among GORD patients is similar to that in the general population, and routine duodenal biopsy cannot be recommended. A significant number of patients with newly diagnosed CD were found to have reflux and/or oesophageal dysmotility on pH/manometry studies; this may explain the high prevalence of reflux symptoms in CD.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Medical Education
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Coeliac disease (CD) remains underdiagnosed. Many patients with CD have undergone a previous endoscopy where the opportunity to make a diagnosis was missed. Clinicians may rely on endoscopic markers of CD to guide biopsy but they lack sensitivity. A routine duodenal biopsy approach may solve this problem but it is expensive. Methods to improve the detection of CD at endoscopy to guide biopsy would seem advantageous. I-Scan, a digital enhancement technique, has shown promising results. However, only one, single centre study has been performed. This was an uncontrolled, unblinded trial in high prevalence population (35% CD). We aimed to assess the utility of I-Scan in a lower prevalence population in a randomised controlled trial Method Patients from 2 UK hospitals (Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield and St. Mary’s Hospital, London) were randomised into 2 groups: Group 1 standard HD white light endoscopy (WLE) and Group 2 WLE plus I-Scan. Patients were compared to a standard non-HD WLE control group, Group 3. All patients received at least 4 duodenal biopsies. Coeliac serology was performed concurrently. The presence of endoscopic markers of CD, scalloping, mosaic pattern, nodularity, loss of duodenal folds or increased vascularity was noted and compared to VA on histology as the gold standard Results 700 patients (63% female, mean age 51.7) were recruited (201 into Group 1, 199 in Group 2 and 300 into Group 3). In total 130 (18.5%) new diagnoses of CD were made (19 in Group 1, 22 in Group 2 and 89 in Group 3). In new CD cases, endoscopic markers of CD were seen in 80.5% in the HD groups compared to 41.6% in Group 3 (p < 0.0001). In Group 2, I-Scan appeared to enhance changes in 18% of new CD cases. However there was no significant difference in sensitivity between Group 1 (89.5%) and Group 2 (72.7%) (p = 0.2). Full sensitivity and specificity analysis is shown in Table 1. The severity of VA was analysed for missed cases. There was no significant difference in the distribution of VA severity across the 3 groups (p = 0.6). The use of HD/I-Scan did not prevent total VA being missed Conclusion HD endoscopy significantly increases the detection of the endoscopic markers of CD (p < 0.0001). However although I-scan appears to enhance the changes of villous atrophy it does not significantly increase the detection of markers (p = 0.2) Disclosure of interest None Declared.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Coeliac disease (CD) is a lifelong condition requiring strict adherence to a gluten-free (GF) diet and good availability of GF foods is critical to this. Patients with CD from lower socioeconomic groups are recognised to have higher treatment burden and higher food costs may impact this. Therefore, we aimed to assess the availability and cost of GF food in supermarkets and via the internet. Supermarkets and internet shops delivering to homes in a single city (UK) were analysed between February and March 2014. Stores were identified with comprehensive internet searches. Ten commonly purchased items were analysed for cost and compared with standard non-GF alternatives. Direct measurement of the number of GF foods available was compared between stores which were categorised according to previously published work. Supermarkets covering the whole of Sheffield, UK. None of the budget supermarkets surveyed stocked any GF foods. Quality and regular supermarkets stocked the greatest range, each stocking a median of 22 (IQR 39) items (p<0.0001). All GF foods were at least four times more expensive than non-GF alternatives (p<0.0001). GF products are prevalent online, but 5/10 of the surveyed products were significantly more expensive than equivalents in supermarkets. There is good availability of GF food in regular and quality supermarkets as well as online, but it remains significantly more expensive. Budget supermarkets which tend to be frequented by patients from lower socioeconomic classes stocked no GF foods. This poor availability and added cost is likely to impact on adherence in deprived groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). The Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). It addresses the roles of small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends small-bowel video capsule endoscopy as the first-line investigation in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 2 In patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, ESGE recommends performing small-bowel capsule endoscopy as soon as possible after the bleeding episode, optimally within 14 days, in order to maximize the diagnostic yield (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3 ESGE does not recommend the routine performance of second-look endoscopy prior to small-bowel capsule endoscopy; however whether to perform second-look endoscopy before capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding or iron-deficiency anaemia should be decided on a case-by-case basis (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 In patients with positive findings at small-bowel capsule endoscopy, ESGE recommends device-assisted enteroscopy to confirm and possibly treat lesions identified by capsule endoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends ileocolonoscopy as the first endoscopic examination for investigating patients with suspected Crohn's disease (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). In patients with suspected Crohn's disease and negative ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as the initial diagnostic modality for investigating the small bowel, in the absence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence).ESGE does not recommend routine small-bowel imaging or the use of the PillCam patency capsule prior to capsule endoscopy in these patients (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). In the presence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis, ESGE recommends that dedicated small bowel cross-sectional imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance enterography/enteroclysis or computed tomography enterography/enteroclysis should be used first (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 6 In patients with established Crohn's disease, based on ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends dedicated cross-sectional imaging for small-bowel evaluation since this has the potential to assess extent and location of any Crohn's disease lesions, to identify strictures, and to assess for extraluminal disease (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). In patients with unremarkable or nondiagnostic findings from such cross-sectional imaging of the small bowel, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as a subsequent investigation, if deemed to influence patient management (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). When capsule endoscopy is indicated, ESGE recommends use of the PillCam patency capsule to confirm functional patency of the small bowel (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 7 ESGE strongly recommends against the use of small-bowel capsule endoscopy for suspected coeliac disease but suggests that capsule endoscopy could be used in patients unwilling or unable to undergo conventional endoscopy (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Endoscopy

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Gastroenterology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Gastroenterology

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,616.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004-2015
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Academic Urology Unit
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003-2015
    • Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Medical Physics
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Neurology
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2002-2014
    • Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust
      Reading, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • The British Society for Gastroenterology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Dalhousie University
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada