- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Severe asthma is characterized by airway inflammatory responses associated with aberrant metabolism of arachidonic acid. Lipoxins (LX) are arachidonate-derived pro-resolving mediators that are decreased in severe asthma, yet mechanisms for defective LX biosynthesis and a means to increase LXs in severe asthma remain to be established. Objective: To determine if oxidative stress and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) activity are linked to decreased LX biosynthesis in severe asthma. Methods: Aliquots of blood, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were obtained from asthma subjects for mediator determination. Select samples were exposed to t-butyl-hydroperoxide or sEH inhibitor (sEHI) prior to activation. Peripheral blood leukocyte-platelet aggregates were monitored by flow cytometry, and bronchial contraction was determined with cytokine-treated human lung sections. Measurements and Main Results: 8-isoprostane levels in sputum supernatants were inversely related to LXA4 in severe asthma (r=-0.55, p=0.03) and t-butyl-hydroperoxide decreased LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 biosynthesis by peripheral blood leukocytes. LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 levels were inversely related to sEH activity in sputum supernatants and sEHIs significantly increased 14,15-EET and 15-epi-LXA4 generation by severe asthma whole blood and BALF cells. The abundance of peripheral blood leukocyte-platelet aggregates was related to asthma severity. In a concentration-dependent manner, LXs significantly inhibited platelet-activating factor induced increases in leukocyte-platelet aggregates (70.8% inhibition (LXA4 100nM), 78.3% inhibition (15-epi-LXA4 100 nM)) and 15-epi-LXA4 markedly inhibited TNF-alpha-induced increases in bronchial contraction. Conclusions: Lipoxin levels were decreased by oxidative stress and sEH activity. Inhibitors of sEH increased LXs that mediated anti-phlogistic actions, suggesting a new therapeutic approach for severe asthma. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT00595114.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tiotropium has activity as an asthma controller. However, predictors of a positive response to tiotropium have not been described. We sought to describe individual and differential responses of asthmatic patients to salmeterol and tiotropium when added to an inhaled corticosteroid, as well as predictors of a positive clinical response. Data from the double-blind, 3-way, crossover National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Asthma Clinical Research Network's Tiotropium Bromide as an Alternative to Increased Inhaled Glucocorticoid in Patients Inadequately Controlled on a Lower Dose of Inhaled Corticosteroid (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00565266) trial were analyzed for individual and differential treatment responses to salmeterol and tiotropium and predictors of a positive response to the end points FEV1, morning peak expiratory flow (PEF), and asthma control days (ACDs). Although approximately equal numbers of patients showed a differential response to salmeterol and tiotropium in terms of morning PEF (n = 90 and 78, respectively) and ACDs (n = 49 and 53, respectively), more showed a differential response to tiotropium for FEV1 (n = 104) than salmeterol (n = 62). An acute response to a short-acting bronchodilator, especially albuterol, predicted a positive clinical response to tiotropium for FEV1 (odds ratio, 4.08; 95% CI, 2.00-8.31; P < .001) and morning PEF (odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.12-4.01; P = 0.021), as did a decreased FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1 response increased 0.39% of baseline for every 1% decrease in FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio). Higher cholinergic tone was also a predictor, whereas ethnicity, sex, atopy, IgE level, sputum eosinophil count, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, asthma duration, and body mass index were not. Although these results require confirmation, predictors of a positive clinical response to tiotropium include a positive response to albuterol and airway obstruction, factors that could help identify appropriate patients for this therapy.
Dataset: Chen AJRCCM 2009 180 533 ODS
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No consensus exists for adjusting inhaled corticosteroid therapy in patients with asthma. Approaches include adjustment at outpatient visits guided by physician assessment of asthma control (symptoms, rescue therapy, pulmonary function), based on exhaled nitric oxide, or on a day-to-day basis guided by symptoms. To determine if adjustment of inhaled corticosteroid therapy based on exhaled nitric oxide or day-to-day symptoms is superior to guideline-informed, physician assessment-based adjustment in preventing treatment failure in adults with mild to moderate asthma. A randomized, parallel, 3-group, placebo-controlled, multiply-blinded trial of 342 adults with mild to moderate asthma controlled by low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy (n = 114 assigned to physician assessment-based adjustment [101 completed], n = 115 to biomarker-based [exhaled nitric oxide] adjustment [92 completed], and n = 113 to symptom-based adjustment [97 completed]), the Best Adjustment Strategy for Asthma in the Long Term (BASALT) trial was conducted by the Asthma Clinical Research Network at 10 academic medical centers in the United States for 9 months between June 2007 and July 2010. For physician assessment-based adjustment and biomarker-based (exhaled nitric oxide) adjustment, the dose of inhaled corticosteroids was adjusted every 6 weeks; for symptom-based adjustment, inhaled corticosteroids were taken with each albuterol rescue use. The primary outcome was time to treatment failure. There were no significant differences in time to treatment failure. The 9-month Kaplan-Meier failure rates were 22% (97.5% CI, 14%-33%; 24 events) for physician assessment-based adjustment, 20% (97.5% CI, 13%-30%; 21 events) for biomarker-based adjustment, and 15% (97.5% CI, 9%-25%; 16 events) for symptom-based adjustment. The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs biomarker-based adjustment was 1.2 (97.5% CI, 0.6-2.3). The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs symptom-based adjustment was 1.6 (97.5% CI, 0.8-3.3). Among adults with mild to moderate persistent asthma controlled with low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy, the use of either biomarker-based or symptom-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids was not superior to physician assessment-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids in time to treatment failure. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00495157.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cilia are specialized organelles that extend from the cell surface into the local environment. Cilia of the airway epithelia are motile to provide mucociliary clearance. On other cells, solitary cilia are specialized to detect chemical or mechanosensory signals. Sensory proteins in motile cilia have recently been identified that detect fluid flow, bitter taste and sex hormones. The relationship of these sensory functions in motile cilia to disease is now being revealed. An example are the polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 proteins that function as a flow sensor in kidney cilia and are mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). These polycystins are also expressed in motile cilia, potentially operating as sensors in the lung. Computed tomography studies from patients with ADPKD reveal evidence of bronchiectasis, suggesting polycystins are important in lung function. The motile cilia expression of this protein complex, as well as sensory channel TRPV4, bitter taste and sex hormones receptors, indicate that the cilia is wired to interpret environmental cues. Defective signaling of sensory proteins may result in a ciliopathy that includes lung disease.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PCR studies have demonstrated evidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae in the lower airways of patients with asthma. To test the hypothesis that clarithromycin would improve asthma control in individuals with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma that was not well controlled despite treatment with low-dose inhaled corticosteroids. Adults with an Asthma Control Questionnaire score ≥1.5 after a 4-week period of treatment with fluticasone propionate were entered into a PCR-stratified randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of 16 weeks of either clarithromycin or placebo, added to fluticasone, on asthma control in individuals with or without lower airway PCR evidence of M pneumoniae or C pneumoniae. A total of 92 participants were randomized. Twelve (13%) subjects demonstrated PCR evidence of M pneumoniae or C pneumoniae in endobronchial biopsies; 80 were PCR-negative for both organisms. In PCR-positive participants, clarithromycin yielded a 0.4 ± 0.4 unit improvement in the Asthma Control Questionnaire score, with a 0.1 ± 0.3 unit improvement in those allocated to placebo. This between-group difference of 0.3 ± 0.5 (P = .6) was neither clinically nor statistically significant. In PCR-negative participants, a nonsignificant between-group difference of 0.2 ± 0.2 units (P = .3) was observed. Clarithromycin did not improve lung function or airway inflammation but did improve airway hyperresponsiveness, increasing the methacholine PC(20) by 1.2 ± 0.5 doubling doses (P = .02) in the study population. Adding clarithromycin to fluticasone in adults with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma that was suboptimally controlled by low-dose inhaled corticosteroids alone did not further improve asthma control. Although there was an improvement in airway hyperresponsiveness with clarithromycin, this benefit was not accompanied by improvements in other secondary outcomes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) therapy improves symptoms in patients whose asthma is poorly controlled by an inhaled glucocorticoid alone. Alternative treatments for adults with uncontrolled asthma are needed. In a three-way, double-blind, triple-dummy crossover trial involving 210 patients with asthma, we evaluated the addition of tiotropium bromide (a long-acting anticholinergic agent approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but not asthma) to an inhaled glucocorticoid, as compared with a doubling of the dose of the inhaled glucocorticoid (primary superiority comparison) or the addition of the LABA salmeterol (secondary noninferiority comparison). The use of tiotropium resulted in a superior primary outcome, as compared with a doubling of the dose of an inhaled glucocorticoid, as assessed by measuring the morning peak expiratory flow (PEF), with a mean difference of 25.8 liters per minute (P<0.001) and superiority in most secondary outcomes, including evening PEF, with a difference of 35.3 liters per minute (P<0.001); the proportion of asthma-control days, with a difference of 0.079 (P=0.01); the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) before bronchodilation, with a difference of 0.10 liters (P=0.004); and daily symptom scores, with a difference of -0.11 points (P<0.001). The addition of tiotropium was also noninferior to the addition of salmeterol for all assessed outcomes and increased the prebronchodilator FEV1 more than did salmeterol, with a difference of 0.11 liters (P=0.003). When added to an inhaled glucocorticoid, tiotropium improved symptoms and lung function in patients with inadequately controlled asthma. Its effects appeared to be equivalent to those with the addition of salmeterol. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00565266.).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A specific diagnosis of a lower respiratory viral infection is often difficult despite frequent clinical suspicion. This low diagnostic yield may be improved by use of sensitive detection methods and biomarkers. The prevalence, clinical predictors and inflammatory mediator profile of respiratory viral infection in serious acute respiratory illness were investigated. Sequential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from all patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness over 12 months (n=283) were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR assay and for newly discovered respiratory viruses (bocavirus, WU and KI polyomaviruses) by single-target PCR. BAL samples also underwent conventional testing (direct immunoflorescence and viral culture) for respiratory virus at the clinician's discretion. 27 inflammatory mediators were measured in a subset of the patients (n=64) using a multiplex immunoassay. 39 respiratory viruses were detected in 37 (13.1% of total) patients by molecular testing, including rhinovirus (n=13), influenza virus (n=8), respiratory syncytial virus (n=6), human metapneumovirus (n=3), coronavirus NL63 (n=2), parainfluenza virus (n=2), adenovirus (n=1) and newly discovered viruses (n=4). Molecular methods were 3.8-fold more sensitive than conventional methods. Clinical characteristics alone were insufficient to separate patients with and without respiratory virus. The presence of respiratory virus was associated with increased levels of interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) (p<0.001) and eotaxin-1 (p=0.017) in BAL. Respiratory viruses can be found in patients with serious acute respiratory illness by use of PCR assays more frequently than previously appreciated. IP-10 may be a useful biomarker for respiratory viral infection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization in young infants. It is associated with the development of childhood asthma and contributes to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Currently no therapies effectively attenuate inflammation during the acute viral infection, or prevent the risk of post-viral asthma. We hypothesized that early treatment of a paramyxoviral bronchiolitis with azithromycin would attenuate acute and chronic airway inflammation. Mice were inoculated with parainfluenza type 1, Sendai Virus (SeV), and treated daily with PBS or azithromycin for 7 days post-inoculation. On day 8 and 21 we assessed airway inflammation in lung tissue, and quantified immune cells and inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Compared to treatment with PBS, azithromycin significantly attenuated post-viral weight loss. During the peak of acute inflammation (day 8), azithromycin decreased total leukocyte accumulation in the lung tissue and BAL, with the largest fold-reduction in BAL neutrophils. This decreased inflammation was independent of changes in viral load. Azithromycin significantly attenuated the concentration of BAL inflammatory mediators and enhanced resolution of chronic airway inflammation evident by decreased BAL inflammatory mediators on day 21. In this mouse model of paramyxoviral bronchiolitis, azithromycin attenuated acute and chronic airway inflammation. These findings demonstrate anti-inflammatory effects of azithromycin that are not related to anti-viral activity. Our findings support the rationale for future prospective randomized clinical trials that will evaluate the effects of macrolides on acute viral bronchiolitis and their long-term consequences.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that azithromycin improves lung function in lung transplant recipients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). However, these studies did not include a non-treated BOS control cohort or perform survival analysis. This study was undertaken to estimate the effect of azithromycin treatment on survival in lung transplant recipients with BOS. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive lung transplant recipients who developed BOS between 1999 and 2007. An association between azithromycin treatment and death was assessed using univariate and multivariate time-dependent Cox regression analysis. Of the 178 recipients who developed BOS in our study, 78 did so after 2003 and were treated with azithromycin. The azithromycin-treated and untreated cohorts had similar baseline characteristics. Univariate analysis demonstrated that azithromycin treatment was associated with a survival advantage and this beneficial treatment effect was more pronounced when treatment was initiated during BOS Stage 1. Multivariate analysis demonstrated azithromycin treatment during BOS Stage 1 (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.23, p = 0.01) and absolute forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) at the time of BOS Stage 1 (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.52, p = 0.003) were both associated with a decreased risk of death. In lung transplant recipients with BOS Stage 1, azithromycin treatment initiated before BOS Stage 2 was independently associated with a significant reduction in the risk of death. This finding supports the need for a randomized, controlled trial to confirm the impact of azithromycin on survival in lung transplant recipients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA splicing is an increasingly recognized regulator of immunity. Here, we demonstrate that after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (mRNA) il12rb1 is spliced by dendritic cells (DCs) to form an alternative (mRNA) il12rb1Deltatm that encodes the protein IL-12Rbeta1DeltaTM. Compared with IL-12Rbeta1, IL-12Rbeta1DeltaTM contains an altered C-terminal sequence and lacks a transmembrane domain. Expression of IL-12Rbeta1DeltaTM occurs in CD11c(+) cells in the lungs during M. tuberculosis infection. Selective reconstitution of il12rb1(-/-) DCs with (mRNA) il12rb1 and/or (mRNA) il12rb1Deltatm demonstrates that IL-12Rbeta1DeltaTM augments IL-12Rbeta1-dependent DC migration and activation of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells. It cannot mediate these activities independently of IL12Rbeta1. We hypothesize that M. tuberculosis-exposed DCs express IL-12Rbeta1DeltaTM to enhance IL-12Rbeta1-dependent migration and promote M. tuberculosis-specific T cell activation. IL-12Rbeta1DeltaTM thus represents a novel positive-regulator of IL12Rbeta1-dependent DC function and of the immune response to M. tuberculosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) organisms may be linked to its capacity to invade respiratory epithelium. An antibiotic exclusion assay was used to study B. dolosa AU4459 and B. cenocepacia J2315 invasion into wild-type (WT) and CFTR-deficient respiratory epithelial cells. Inhibitors were used to evaluate Bcc invasion dependency on host microtubule (mt) and microfilament (mf) systems. B. dolosa entered WT-CFTR cells with 5-fold greater efficiency than CFTR deficient cells (25% vs 5%, respectively). Invasion dropped to <0.5% after either mf or mt inhibition. B. cenocepacia entered WT (0.05%) and CFTR-deficient cells (0.07%) with similarly low efficiencies, which significantly decreased with either mf or mt inhibition (0.008% and 0.002%, respectively). B. dolosa and B. cenocepacia enter respiratory epithelial cells in a mf and mt dependent fashion. Mutated CFTR leads to less internalization of B. dolosa, but not B. cenocepacia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some studies suggest that patients with asthma who are homozygous for arginine at the 16th amino acid position of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (B16 Arg/Arg) benefit less from treatment with longacting beta2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids than do those homozygous for glycine (B16 Gly/Gly). We investigated whether there is a genotype-specific response to treatment with a longacting beta2 agonist in combination with inhaled corticosteroid. In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with moderate asthma were enrolled in pairs matched for forced expiratory volume in 1 s and ethnic origin, according to whether they had the B16 Arg/Arg (n=42) or B16 Gly/Gly (n=45) genotype. Individuals in a matched pair were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive inhaled longacting beta2 agonist (salmeterol 50 microg twice a day) or placebo given in a double-blind, crossover design for two 18-week periods. Open-label inhaled corticosteroid (hydrofluoroalkane beclometasone 240 microg twice a day) was given to all participants during the treatment periods. The primary endpoint was morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00200967. After 18 weeks of treatment, mean morning PEF in Arg/Arg participants was 21.4 L/min (95% CI 11.8-31.1) higher when participants were assigned to receive salmeterol than when assigned to receive placebo (p<0.0001). In Gly/Gly participants, morning PEF was 21.5 L/min (11.0-32.1) higher when participants were assigned to receive salmeterol than when assigned to receive placebo (p<0.0001). The improvement in PEF did not differ between genotypes (difference [Arg/Arg-Gly/Gly] -0.1, -14.4 to 14.2; p=0.99). In Gly/Gly participants, methacholine PC20 (20% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s; a prespecified secondary outcome) was 2.4 times higher when participants were assigned to salmeterol than when assigned to placebo (p<0.0001). Responsiveness to methacholine did not differ between salmeterol and placebo in Arg/Arg participants (p=0.87). The 2.5 times higher genotype-specific difference in responsiveness to methacholine was significant (1.32 doubling dose difference between genotypes, 0.43-2.21, p=0.0038). Seven Arg/Arg participants (placebo, n=5; salmeterol, n=2) and six Gly/Gly participants (placebo, n=3; salmeterol, n=3) had an asthma exacerbation. Five serious adverse events were reported, one each during the pre-match and run-in phases on open-label inhaled corticosteroid, two during double-blind treatment with salmeterol/inhaled corticosteroid, and one during double-blind treatment with placebo/inhaled corticosteroid. None of the serious events was asthma-related or related to study drugs or procedures. In asthma patients with B16 Arg/Arg and B16 Gly/Gly genotypes, combination treatment with salmeterol and inhaled corticosteroid improved airway function when compared with inhaled corticosteroid therapy alone. These findings suggest that patients should continue to be treated with longacting beta2 agonists plus moderate-dose inhaled corticosteroids irrespective of B16 genotype. Further investigation is needed to establish the importance of the genotype-specific difference in responsiveness to methacholine. National Institutes of Health.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define the factors that modulate regulatory T (Treg) cells in the tumor setting, we cocultured various tumor cells with either purified Treg cells, or with unfractionated splenocytes. We found that Treg expansion occurred only with unfractionated splenocytes, suggesting that accessory cells and/or factors produced by them play an essential role in tumor-induced Treg expansion. We performed gene expression profiling on tumor-associated Treg cells to identify candidate signaling molecules and studied their effects on tumor-induced Treg expansion. We inadvertently discovered that interleukin (IL)-12 treatment blocked Treg expansion in an IL-12 receptor-dependent fashion. Additional studies showed that IL-12 acts by stimulating IFN-gamma mediated inhibition of Treg cell proliferation, which may partially account for the antitumor effects of IL-12. Furthermore, IL-12 treatment was found to decrease IL-2 production, which may lead to IFN-gamma-independent inhibition of Treg cells, as IL-2 is required for their survival and expansion. Mechanistic studies revealed that IFN-gamma signaling directly causes cell cycle arrest in Treg cells. This study shows that an IL-12-IFN-gamma axis can suppress tumor-induced Treg proliferation. This mechanism may counteract the ability of Treg cells to promote tumor growth in vivo.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymer chemistry offers the possibility of synthesizing multifunctional nanoparticles which incorporate moieties that enhance diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of cargo delivery to the lung. However, since rules for predicting particle behavior following modification are not well-defined, it is essential that probes for tracking fate in vivo are also included. Accordingly, we designed polyacrylamide-based hydrogel particles of differing sizes, functionalized with a nona-arginine cell-penetrating peptide (Arg(9)), and labeled with imaging components to assess lung retention and cellular uptake after intratracheal administration. Radiolabeled microparticles (1-5 microm diameter) and nanoparticles (20-40 nm diameter) without and with Arg(9) showed diffuse airspace distribution by positron emission tomography imaging. Biodistribution studies revealed that particle clearance and extrapulmonary distribution was, in part, size dependent. Microparticles were rapidly cleared by mucociliary routes but, unexpectedly, also through the circulation. In contrast, nanoparticles had prolonged lung retention enhanced by Arg(9) and were significantly restricted to the lung. For all particle types, uptake was predominant in alveolar macrophages and, to a lesser extent, lung epithelial cells. In general, particles did not induce local inflammatory responses, with the exception of microparticles bearing Arg(9). Whereas microparticles may be advantageous for short-term applications, nanosized particles constitute an efficient high-retention and non-inflammatory vehicle for the delivery of diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutics to lung airspaces and alveolar macrophages that can be enhanced by Arg(9). Importantly, our results show that minor particle modifications may significantly impact in vivo behavior within the complex environments of the lung, underscoring the need for animal modeling.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of T helper type 1 (Th1) cell immunity in host resistance to the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis is well established. However, the relative roles of interleukin (IL)-12-Th1 and IL-23-Th17 cell responses in immunity to F. tularensis have not been studied. The IL-23-Th17 cell pathway is critical for protective immunity against extracellular bacterial infections. In contrast, the IL-23-Th17 cell pathway is dispensable for protection against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacteria. Here we show that the IL-23-Th17 pathway regulates the IL-12-Th1 cell pathway and was required for protective immunity against F.tularensis live vaccine strain. We show that IL-17A, but not IL-17F or IL-22, induced IL-12 production in dendritic cells and mediated Th1 responses. Furthermore, we show that IL-17A also induced IL-12 and interferon-gamma production in macrophages and mediated bacterial killing. Together, these findings illustrate a biological function for IL-17A in regulating IL-12-Th1 cell immunity and host responses to an intracellular pathogen.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, then treatment involves only nonspecific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar after disparate infections with similar mortalities. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Animal laboratory in a university medical center. Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple time points. The host response was dependent on the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses were independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of five distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 and interleukin-10 with progression of infection, whereas elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor sr2 and macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hrs. Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of sepsis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few noninvasive biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation are currently available that can assess the lung-specific response to antiinflammatory treatments. Positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a promising new method that can be used to quantify pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation. To evaluate the ability of FDG-PET to measure the pulmonary antiinflammatory effects of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) and recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) in a human model of experimentally-induced lung inflammation. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive placebo, lovastatin, or rhAPC before intrabronchial segmental endotoxin challenge. FDG-PET imaging was performed before and after endotoxin instillation. The rate of [(18)F]FDG uptake was calculated as the influx constant K(i) by Patlak graphical analysis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to determine leukocyte concentrations for correlation with the PET imaging results. There was a statistically significant decrease in K(i) in the lovastatin-treated group that was not seen in the placebo-treated group, suggesting attenuation of inflammation by lovastatin treatment despite a small decrease in BAL total leukocyte and neutrophil counts that was not statistically significant. No significant decrease in K(i) was observed in the rhAPC-treated group, correlating with a lack of change in BAL parameters and indicating no significant antiinflammatory effect with rhAPC. Conclusions: FDG-PET imaging is a sensitive method for quantifying the lung-specific response to antiinflammatory therapies and may serve as an attractive platform for assessing the efficacy of novel antiinflammatory therapies at early phases in the drug development process. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00741013).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Definitive conclusions regarding the antiinflammatory effects of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of asthma are difficult to formulate since their beneficial effects may be related to their antimicrobial action. We hypothesized that azithromycin possesses distinct antiinflammatory properties and tested this assumption in a noninfectious mouse model of allergic asthma. To induce allergic airway inflammation, 7-week-old BALB/cJ mice underwent intraperitoneal ovalbumin sensitization on days 0 and 7 followed by an intranasal challenge on day 14. Mice were treated with azithromycin or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution on days 13 through 16. On day 17, airway inflammation was assessed by quantifying leukocytes in the airway, expression of multiple inflammatory mediators in the BAL fluid, and mucous cell metaplasia. In a separate set of experiments, azithromycin or PBS solution treatment were initiated after the ovalbumin challenge. Each experiment was repeated 3 times (a total of 9 to 11 mice in each group). Compared to treatment with PBS solution, azithromycin attenuated the ovalbumin-dependent airway inflammation. We observed a decrease in total leukocytes in the lung tissue and BAL fluid. In addition, azithromycin attenuated the expression of cytokines (eg, interleukin [IL]-13 and IL-5) and chemokines (eg, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4) in the BAL fluid and abrogated the extent of mucous cell metaplasia. Similar antiinflammatory effects were observed when azithromycin treatment was initiated after the ovalbumin challenge. In this noninfectious mouse model of allergic asthma, azithromycin attenuated allergic airway inflammation. These findings demonstrate an antiinflammatory effect of azithromycin and suggest azithromycin may have beneficial effects in treating noninfectious airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma.
Washington University in St. Louis
Saint Louis, MO, United States
- • Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care
- • Department of Cell Biology and Physiology
University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
- Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology
Duke UniversityDurham, North Carolina, United States